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STUDIES 



IN THE 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



Edinburgh ; Printed by Tltomas and Archibald Constable, 

FOH 
DAVID DOUGLAS. 

LONDON HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO. 

CAMBRIDGE MACMILLAN AND BOWES. 

GLASGOW . .... JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS. 



STUDIES 



IN THE 

TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY 

BEING A LIST OF 

NEARLY 4000 NAMES OF PLACES WITH REMARKS 
ON THEIR ORIGIN AND MEANING, AND 
AN INTRODUCTOR Y ESS A Y 

BY 

SIE HERBERT EUSTACE MAXWELL, BAKT. 

OF MONREITH 

M.P., F.S.A., F.S.A. SCOT., F.L.S., ETC. 




: Disce, docendus adhuc quce censet amiculus, ut si 
Ccecics iter monstrare relit." HORACE, Epist. i. 17. 3. 



EDINBURGH: DAVID DOUGLAS 

MDCCCLXXXVII. 



10 3Detitcateti 



TO THE 



COUNTESS OF GALLOWAY 



BY HER PERMISSION. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

PREFACE, . ix 

AUTHORITIES QUOTED, . . xi 

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS, . . ... xiv 

STUDIES IN THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY, . . 1 

THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY, . . .45 

ADDENDA ET EMENDENDA, . ... 313 
APPENDIX A. DESCRIPTION OF GALLOWAY, BY JOHN MACLELLAN, 323 

APPENDIX B. ERSE AND GAELIC WORDS ENTERING INTO PLACE- 
NAMES, . . .... 327 



PREFACE. 

THE collection of materials for the following pages 
was suggested some years ago by the perusal of an 
early edition of Dr. Joyce's Irish Names of Places. 
The identity apparent between many of the local 
names sifted and interpreted by that learned writer 
and those of Galloway, seemed to point to the possi- 
bility of some advance being achieved by the classifica- 
tion and comparison of all the names in that province. 
To any student who may in future approach the task 
more fully equipped with that knowledge of Celtic 
literature in which the present writer confesses him- 
self in limine sadly imperfect, it may at least be 
serviceable to find nearly four thousand names of 
places alphabetically arranged. The agitated course 
of politics during the twelve months commencing in 
August 1885 (involving three elections for the county 
of Wigtown), and almost incessant parliamentary and 
official work subsequently, have interfered considerably 



x PREFACE. 

with the attention due to the revisal of proofs, and I 
gratefully record my sense of the patience shown by 
Mr. David Douglas in conducting the work through 
the press. To Mr. Carrick Moore of Corswall, also, 
to whom I was permitted to submit the proofs, and 
to whom many valued suggestions are owed, I wish 
to offer my sincere thanks. 

MONBEITH, May 1th, 1887. 



AUTHORITIES QUOTED. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

.-1 </neiv, . 

A rmstrong, 



TITLES. 



A History of the Hereditary Sheriffs of Galloway, by Sir 

Andrew Agnew, Bart, M.P. Edinburgh, 1864. 
The History of Liddesdale, Eskdale, Ewesdale, Wauchope- 

dale, and the Debateable Land, by Robert Bruce Arm- 
strong. Part i. from the twelfth century to 1530. 4to, 

Edinburgh, MDCCCLXXXIII. 
Barnbarroch, . Correspondence of Sir Patrick Waus of Barnbarroch, Knight, 

1540-1597. Edited by Robert Vans Agnew, F.S.A. Scot. 

8vo, Edinburgh, 1882. 
Brev. Aberd., . Breviarium Aberdonense ; republished in facsimile for the 

Bannatyne Club. 2 vols. 4to, Edinburgh, 1852. 

Buchanan, . Travels in the Western Hebrides from 1782 to 1790. 
Cf.lt. Scot., . Celtic Scotland, a History of Ancient Alban, by William 

F. Skene, LL.D. 3 vols. 8vo, Edinburgh, 1876-80. 
Coll. A.G.A.A., Histoi-ical and Archaeological Collections of Ayrshire and 

Galloway. 
<'ormac, . . Sanas Cormaic (in " Three Irish Glossaries, " ed. W. S[tokes], 

London, 1862). 
Conn. Trim., . Cormac's Glossary, translated by J. O'Donovan, ed. W. 

Stokes. Calcutta, 1868. 
Cranf. MS., . A MS. History of the Macdoualls of Garthland (written circ. 

1750), by Mr. Craufurd, in the possession of Henry 

Macdouall of Garthland, Esq. 
Cunbighamt, . Cuninghame, topographised by Timothy Pont, A.M., 

1604-1608, with continuations and illustrative notices by 

the late James Dobie of Crummock, F.S.A. Scot., edited 

by his son, John Shedden Dobie. 4to, Glasgow, 1876. 
Ecclex. Antiq., Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Connor, and Dromore, 

consisting of a taxation of those dioceses, compiled in the 

year MCCCVI., with notes and illustrations by the Rev. 

William Reeves, M.B., M.R.I.A. 4to, Dublin, 1847. 
Kg. , . . Egerton MS. in British Museum. 

Pel., . . Felire des Oengus, the Calendar of Oengus. Dublin, 1880. 
Four Masters, . Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters. 

Edited by John O'Donovan, LL.D. 7 vols. 4to, 

Dublin, 1856. 
Jfy Fiachrach, The Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs of the Hy Fiachrach, 

Edited by John O'Donovan. 4to, Dublin, 1844. 



Xll 



AUTHORITIES QUOTED. 



ABBREVIATIONS. TITLES. 

Hy Many, . The Tribes and Customs of the Hy Many, commonly called 
O'Kelly's Country, with a Translation and Notes, by John 
O'Donovan. 4to, Dublin, 1843. 

/HJ. ad Cap., . Inquisitionum ad Capellam Domini Regis Retomatarum 
quae in publicis archivis Scotiae adhuc servantur 
Abbrevatio. In this reference are included various names 
extracted from the Rotuli Scotise and some other public 
records. 

Ir. GL, . . Irish Glosses, ed. Whitley Stokes. Dublin, 1860. 

Ir. Hist. & Arch. The Journal of the Irish Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland. Dublin. 

Jamieson, . Dictionary of the Scottish Language. New edition, Svo, 
Edinburgh, 1877. 

Joyce, . . The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places, by P. W. 
Joyce, LL.D., etc. 2 vols. Svo, oth edition, Dublin, 
1883. 

Kal. Scot. Saints, Kalendars of the Scottish Saints, with personal notices of 
those of Alba, Laudonia, and Strathclyde, by Alexander 
Penrose Forbes, D.C.L. 4to, Edinburgh, 1872. 

Lluyd, . . Archaeologia Britannica, giving some account additional to 
what has already been published of the Languages, 
Histories, and Customs of the original inhabitants of 
Great Britain, from collections and observations in travels 
through Wales, Cornwal, Bas-Bretagne, Ireland, and 
Scotland. By Edward Lluyd, M.A. of Jesus College, 
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Vol. i. 
Glossography. Folio, Oxford, 1707. The second volume 
was never published. 

LU, . . Leabhar na h-Uidri. Ed. Dublin, 1870. 

Lucas, . . Studies in Nidderdale, by Joseph Lucas. Svo, London, 
N.D. (1885). 

Macalpine, . A Pronouncing Gaelic Dictionary, to which is prefixed a 
concise but most comprehensive Gaelic Grammar, by 
Neil Macalpine. Edited by John Mackenzie, 1847. 
Eighth edition, Svo, Edinburgh, 1881. 

MacfarlaneJAS., Manuscript of 17th century in Advocates' Library, Edin- 
burgh, printed in Appendix to Symson's Galloway. 

MadeUan, . Gallovidiae Descriptio ; Joanne Maclellano Autore. Printed 
with Pont's Maps in Blaeu's Geography. 

M'Kerlie, . History of the Lands and their Owners in Galloway. 
5 vols. Svo, Edinburgh, 1870-79. 

Mactaggart, . Scottish Gallovidian Encyclopaedia, by John Mactaggart. 
Svo, London, 1824. 

MuircJieartach, The circuit of Ireland, by Muircheartach MacNeill, prince 
of Aileach. Edited, etc., by John O'Donovan. 4to, 
Dublin, 184 . 

O'Dar., . . O'Davoren's Glossary (in Stokes' "Three Irish Glossaries"). 



AUTHORITIES QUOTED. 



Kill 



ABBREVIATIONS. TITLES. 

Oi'Don. Topogr., The Topographical Poems of John O'Dubhagain and 
Giolla Na Naomh O'Huidrin. Edited, etc., by John 
O'Donovan, LL.D., M.R.I. A. 8vo, Dublin, 1862. 

O'Reilly, . . Edward O'Reilly's Irish-English Dictionary. A new edition. 
Dublin, 1864. 

P., . . . Timothy Font's Maps of Galloway, in Geographiae Blaviana 
rolumine sexto, quo Liber xii. xiii. , Europae continentur. 
Folio, Amsterdam, 1662 (the survey was executed about 
1604). 

Pict. Scot. Chron. , Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, and other 
Early Memorials of Scottish History. Edited by William 
F. Skene, LL.D. Edinburgh, 1867. 

Pitcairn, . . Criminal Trials in Scotland, from A.D. 14S8 to A.D. 1624, 
compiled from the Original Records and MSS., with 
Historical Notes and Illustrations. By Robert Pitcairn, 
4 vols., 1829-33 (Bannatyne Club). 

Proc. <S'oc. An. } Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
Scot. ) 4to, Edinburgh. 

Reeves, . . The Life of St. Columba, Founder of Hy ; written by 
Adamnan, ninth Abbot of that Monastery. Edited by 
William Reeves, D.D. 4to, Dublin, 1857. 

Rhys, . . Lectures on Welsh Philology, by John Rhys, M.A. 2d 
edition. 8vo, London, 1879. 

Shaic, . . History of the Province of Moray, by the Rev. Lachlan 
Shaw. 4to, Elgin, 1827. 

SHibald M.S., . Manuscript of 17th century in Advocates' Library, Edin- 
burgh, printed in Appendix to Symson's Galloway. 

Skeat, . . An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, by 
the Rev. Walter Skeat, etc. etc. 4to, Oxford, 1882. 

Symwn, . . A large Description of Galloway, by Andrew Symson, 

minister of Kirkinner, MDCLXXXIV., with an Appendix 

containing original papers from the Sibbald and Macfar- 

lane MSS. 8vo, Edinburgh, MDCCCXXIII. 

Whufac/i, . Irische Texte mit Worterbuch von Ernest Windisch. 

8vo, Leipzig, 1880. 
W. P. MS., . MS. Rentals of Whithorn Priory Lands, 1550-85. 



KEY TO ABBEEVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS. 

A.S. = Anglo-Saxon, or Old Northern English. 
B. = Breton, the Brythonic dialect spoken by the Celtic- 
population of Brittany. 

BR. sc. = Broad, or Lowland Scotch, especially the dialect of Gal- 
loway and Nithsdale. 
c. = Cornish, the Brythonic dialect formerly spoken by the 

natives of Cornwall. 
DAK. = Modern Danish. 
DU. = Modern Dutch. 

E. = Modern English. 

ERSE = The Goidhelic dialect now spoken in parts of Ireland. 

F. = Modern French. 

G. = Modern German. 

GAEL. = Gaelic, the Goidhelic dialect now spoken by the Scottish 

Highlanders. 
GK. = Classical Greek. 
GOTH. = Gothic. 

ICEL. = Icelandic, the Scandinavian speech of the natives of Ice- 
land, which represents most nearly, of all modern 
Scandinavian dialects, the Old Norse spoken by the 
Norse and Danish marauders of the eight and ninth 
centuries. 

L AT. = Classical Latin. 
LOVT LAT. = Low or Mediaeval Latin. 

LITH. = Lithuanian, a Slavonic branch of Aryan speech. 

M. = Manx, the Goidhelic dialect now spoken by the natives 

of the Isle of Man. 

M.E. = Middle English, from about A.D. 1200 to A.D. 1500. 
M.H.G. = Middle High German, or the speech of Mediaeval Ger- 
many proper, as distinguished from that of other dis- 
tricts of Teutonic speech. 

o. ERSE = The Goidhelic language of the earliest Welsh inscriptions 
previous to the sixth century, and of the earliest Irish 
MSS. and inscriptions. 

O.F. = 01d French (of Burguy, Cotgrave, or Roquefort). 
O.H.G. = 01d High German, or the language of Germany proper 
previous to the twelfth century. 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS. xv 

o.w. = Old Welsh, from the sixth century, when the difference 
between Brythonic and Goidhelic speech appears to 
have been first established in Britain, down to the 
Reformation. 
RTJSS. = Modern Russian. 

SKT. = Sanskrit. 
SWED. = Modern Swedish. 

w. = Modern Welsh, the Brythonic dialect of the Celtic popu- 
lation of Wales, from the fifteenth century. 

Cf. = ' compare.' 

q.v. = ' quod vide,' i.e. which see. 

's.c.' following the name of the parish sea-coast, i.e. that the 
place is on the coast, where the names are generally of 
a well- defined class. 
s.v. = ' sub verbo,' i.e. under the word. Thus [p. 92], " Skeat, 

8.v. Well (2)." 

(minus mark) = ' derived from.' Thus [p. 52, under Altaggart], " o. ERSE 
sacard - LAT. sacerdos" signifying that sacard is a 
direct loan from the Latin. 

+ (plus mark) = ' cognate with, related to, springing from a common root, 
but not derived from.' Thus [p. 52, under Altibrair, 
" Brathair, a brother, w. bratcd, c. bredar + A.S. brothor 
+ ICEL. brodir + GOTH, brothar + O.H.G. pruoder + RUSS. 
braf + LAT. frater + GK. <parjjp + SKT. bhrdtri - X /BHAR, 
to bear," signifying that the Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Ice- 
landic, Gothic, Old High German, Russian, Latin, 
Greek, and Sanskrit, though not derived one from 
the other, are related by common origin from the 
Aryan root BHAR. 

V=an Aryan root up to, but not beyond which, it is possible 
to trace a word. Thus [p. 79, under Barnolas], " LAT. 
sol, the sun - A/SWAR, to glow," signifying that sol and 
the cognate words in other languages are traceable to 
the Aryan root SWAR. 

Variant forms, from old charters and other sources, are printed in paren- 
theses immediately after the names of places in the Glossary. 

The parish or parishes in which a name occurs are mentioned in inverted 
commas after the variant forms. 

The derivation (real or supposed) follows in italics, accompanied, when 
necessary, by the approximate English pronunciation in brackets ; thus, 
" Achadh [aha], a field.' 



EERATA. 

PAGE 

42. Line 13, for "Lucopibia" read "Loucopibia" (the Latin equivalent of 
which is Lucopibia). 

103. Line 19, omit from " Cam" to "possibly," inclusive. 

114. Under " CHALLOCHMUNN "for " [tyallach] " read " [tullach]," and after 
"church" insert "Eileanmunde (i.e. St. Munde's Isle) a parish 
in Argyllshire ; also." 

117. " CLAUCHREM," and p. 118 "CLAUCHTREM," should come after 

" CLAUCHLOUDON," on p. 120. 

118. "CLAWBELLY" should come after "CLAUNCH," on p. 120. 
123. Under " CLOAK HiLL,"./or " Carsphairn " read " Colvend." 

130. Under " CRAIGEAZLE, " for "Inch" read "'Kells.' A hill of 1550 
feet." 

186. For "GALL Moss OF DIRNEAUK," read " GALL Moss OF DIRNEARK." 

227. Under " KNOCKNAW " delete from "or" to "kiln" inclusive, and 
" Auchenhay and." 

227. For " KNOCKNAMOOR " read " KNOCKNAMOON," and delete all after 
" Minigaff." 



STUDIES 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



" Names and technical terms are always a difficulty to translators, especially if 
tlie original language be very different in sound and genus from that of the trans- 
lation. There is, however, an additional difficulty in Irish. In the first place, we 
have to deal, not with one language, but with several ; for between the language of 
some Irish tracts and the present spoken language there is an interval of from one 
thousand to twelve hundred years, during which the Irish language has been con- 
stantly undergoing changes. In the second place, as there was no great classical 
period, the orthography has never been fixed, so that there is often considerable 
difference in the spelling of the same name in different manuscripts even of the same 
age." DR. SULLIVAN, Preface to Introduction to O'Curry's Irish Lectures, p. 13. 

IT may be doubted if any literary subject which could be 
selected is more charged with difficulty, more fertile in contro- 
versy, more darkened with reckless speculation than that with 
which the writer of the following pages has attempted to 
deal. 

The names of places, conferred by a people speaking a lan- 
guage which has been for centuries superseded by one of a 
totally different construction and grammar, and who have left 
behind them not a vestige of literature, present a problem from 
which the most ardent scholar might turn back in hopelessness 
of any approach being made to its solution. 

When it is considered how widely Celtic words, rendered 
phonetically into English letters, differ from their original 

A 



STUDIES IN THE 



orthography, how much their present form depends upon the 
pronunciation of certain dialects many centuries ago dialects 
which, both in consonant and vowel sound, and in syllabic 
stress, are known to have been progressively changing ; when 
it is remembered, in addition, that, like pebbles in a flowing 
stream, words used by successive generations are rounded and 
polished often out of all likeness to their original form, it will 
not be easy to underrate the difficulty which confronts the 
student in an attempt to deal with everyday speech and living 
words. 

But how vastly is that difficulty enhanced when the words 
to be dealt with are literally dead words ghosts and skeletons 
of ideas, originally suggested by physical features or incidents 
which have long since been altered, or of which all record has 
been forgotten ; or commemorative of personages whose last 
resting-places have been obliterated as completely as their 
deeds and virtues. 

Yet it is precisely in that last condition that the stimulus 
lies to attempt assistance in a solution of the problem. To 
peer back into the shadowy past, to fill in some of the details 
of the landscape, with the main outlines of which we are 
familiar, which surrounded the primitive inhabitants of our 
native land ; to identify the animals, the trees, and herbs, the 
minerals which occupied their attention and sustained their 
lives ; to trace the scenes of conflict, of merry-making, of pagan 
and Christian worship, is a motive as natural as any which 
causes history to be written. 

. Names cannot be invented for places. No mere combina- 
tion of sounds can be contrived to designate hill or dale, river 
or lake ; nor have they been named, as children now are by 
their parents, according to fancy, interest, or family custom ; 
but they received their appellations, as men and women did in 
former times, from some distinctive characteristic, from a 
definite event, or from the name of some individual who identi- 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 



fied himself with them. We may be sure that every place- 
name, however unintelligible to us, was originally as pregnant 
of meaning as such names as Albert Gate, Virginia, or Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Although many of the place-names of Galloway have been 
worn down beyond all recognition, yet there are others, in not 
a few of which the meaning is as clear as that of the inscription 
on a well-preserved coin ; while a third class consist of those 
which may be identified by their similarity to names in other 
Celtic districts, the original forms of which have been enshrined 
in early manuscripts. 

1. In dealing with those in the first 'class, the utmost that 
can be done with them is to record them in their present 
form, together with the earliest variations of spelling. Such 
names as Caitans, Crogo, Malzie, Cutcloy, Luce, Merrick, 
Rispain, Rotchell, Bladenoch, Tintum, Syllodioch, Caugh, 
and many others, may receive at some future day light 
in which their meanings may be read, but at present they 
must be classed as unintelligible; it is even impossible to 
declare in what speech they are framed. The Gaels were not 
the aboriginal inhabitants of the land of Alba. It may be 
assumed with something approaching certainty that they were 
preceded by a small-boned, long-skulled, dark-haired race, 
speaking a dialect of Iverian, a language which survives in the 
Basque Province, and which cannot as yet be assigned to any 
known family of speech. This people, we may believe, were 
not overcome, extirpated, or absorbed without a prolonged and 
intermittent struggle. The invaders would adopt and per- 
petuate some of the names which they found attached to rivers, 
hills, or woods, and hand them down to us intermingled with 
their own nomenclature. Cormac has preserved in his glossary 
two words which he says belonged to the speech of the Firbolg, 
or dark-haired race in Ireland, namely, fern, good ; and ond, a 
stone. But others may very well be supposed to survive in 



STUDIES IN THE 



the names of places. Skene remarks : " The Basque word for 
water is Ur, and analogy would lead us to recognise it in the 
rivers called Oure, Urr, Ure, Urie, Orrin, and Ore." l 
Pre-ceitic Professor Rhys has summed up all that is known of this 

inhabitants. 

pre-Celtic race in such clear and concise terms that I am 
tempted to quote liberally from his work : 

" It is by no means probable that the Celtic immigrants into 
these islands found them without inhabitants, or that they 
arrived in sufficient force to exterminate them. Consequently 
it may be supposed that in the course of ages the conquered 
races adopted the language of the invading race, but not with- 
out introducing some of their own idioms. The question, then, 
is, who these pre-Celtic islanders were, and whether the Celtic 
languages still have non- Aryan traits which may be ascribed 
to their influence. In answer to the first of these questions, it 
has been supposed that the people whom the Celts found here 
must have been of Iberian origin, and nearly akin with the 
ancient inhabitants of Aquitania and the Basques of modern 
times. In support of this may be mentioned the testimocy of 
Tacitus in his Agricola, where, in default of other sources of 
information, he bases his statements on the racial differences 
which betrayed themselves in the personal appearance of the 
British populations of his day. Among other things, he there 
fixes on the Silures as being Iberians. The whole chapter is 
worth reproducing, however cruel it may seem to disturb the 
dreams of those who take it for granted that when the Eomans 
got to know this island it was inhabited by one homogeneous 
and unmixed race, to which they continue to give the unmean- 
ing name of Ancient Britons : 

'"Who were the first inhabitants of Britain, whether indi- 
genous or immigrant, is a question involved in the obscurity 
usual among barbarians. Their temperament of body is 
various, whence deductions are formed of their various origin. 

1 Celtic Scotland, i. 216. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY, 



Thus the ruddy hair and large limbs of the Caledonians point 
out a German derivation ; the swarthy complexion and curled 
hair of the Silures, together with their situation opposite Spain, 
render it probable that a colony of the ancient Iberi possessed 
themselves of that territory. They who are nearest Gaul 
resemble the inhabitants of that country, whether from the 
duration of hereditary influence, or whether it be that when 
lands jut forward in opposite directions, climate gives the same 
condition of body to the inhabitants of both. On a general 
survey, however, it appears probable that the Gauls originally 
took possession of the neighbouring coast. The sacred rites 
and superstitions of those people are discernible among the 
Britons. The languages of the two nations do not greatly 
differ. The same audacity in provoking danger, and irresolu- 
tion in facing it when present, is observable in both. The 
Britons, however, display more ferocity, not being yet softened 
by a long peace ; for it appears from history that the Gauls 
were once renowned in war, till, losing their valour with their 
liberty, languor and indolence entered amongst them. The 
same change has also taken place among those of the Britons 
who have been long subdued; but the rest continue such as 
the Gauls formerly were.' (Bohn's translation of Tacitus.) 

" Accordingly, some of the non- Aryan traits of Welsh and 
Irish may be expected to admit of being explained by means 
of Basque. Unfortunately, however, that language is not found 
to assist us so readily as one could have wished, as it is only 
known in a comparatively late form." l 

The author then proceeds, on the supposition that the con- 
sonant p had no place in the alphabet of Goidhelic speech, 
to indicate certain districts where the occurrence of that 
consonant in place-names suggests that they were occupied by 
a pre-Celtic race, who have left this trace of their vocabulary. 

1 Lectures on Welsh Philology, by John Rhys, M.A., etc. etc., 2d Edition, 
London, 1879, pp. 178-180. 



STUDIES IN THE 



Among these he mentions Lucopibia, a town of the Novantae, 
supposed to have stood near Luce Bay in Wigtonshire. 

Without following this somewhat slender clue further, it 
would appear that in some of these unintelligible names are 
echoed the accents of a race of whom every other trace that 
may be recognised has long since passed away ; but we must 
remember the natural tendency in a people using names of 
which they know not the meaning to assimilate them to some 
word of a similar sound in their own language expressive of a 
distinct idea. Thus the Celtic successors of the primitive 
people must have acted under the same influence as the 
English speakers who followed them, and, adopting certain 
words and names from their predecessors, have recast them in 
their own tongue with a totally different significance. 

A few instances in modern times will suffice to explain this 
process, 
sptmous There is a small loch in Glasserton parish, on the shoulder of 

etymologies. 

Barhullion Fell, which bears the name of Lochanhour. Owing to 
comparatively recent drainage it is liable in summer to become 
completely dry, reappearing with the autumn rains. The first 
time I heard its name was in my boyhood. I was shooting 
round its shore when the keeper mentioned its name. He added : 
" It means loch-in-an-hour, for an hour's rain fills it." This 
may have come to be the idea associated with the name in the 
minds of the present generation, or it may, more probably, 
have been devised by the keeper on the spot ; at all events, it 
remained fixed in my own mind as the original meaning till I 
began to inquire deeper into these things. Then it became 
evident that the name was much older than the present 
depleted state of the lakelet ; that the real name is loclidn 
odhar [owr], the grey tarn, named probably from a huge mass 
of grey glaciated rock lying along the northern shore. 

Again, there is a hill in Inch parish called Auld Taggart. 
Mactaggart has become a common surname in Galloway, and 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



doubtless the country people now connect the name with an 
aged individual who bore it. But on the opposite side of the 
river Luce, within a few hundred yards of Auld Taggart, is a 
stream called Altaggart, that is, Allt-t-sagairt [altaggart], 1 the 
priest's glen or stream ; and the name has been transferred 
with modification to the hill opposite. 

A familiar instance is that of the Phoenix Park in Dublin, 
which owes its present form to a corruption offionn uisc, [finn 
isk], the clear water. "It was originally the name of the 
beautiful and perfectly transparent spring well near the Phoenix 
Pillar, situated just outside the wall of the vice-regal grounds 
behind the gate lodge, and which is the head of the stream 
that supplies the pond near the Zoological Gardens. To com- 
plete the illusion, the Earl of Chesterfield, in the year 1745, 
erected a pillar near the well, with the figure of a phoenix 
rising from its ashes on the top of it, and most Dublin people 
now believe that the Park received its name from this pillar. 
The change from fionn uisg' to phoenix is not peculiar to 
Dublin, for the river Finisk, which joins the Blackwater below 
Cappoquin, is called Phoenix by Smith in his history of 
Waterford." 2 

The name of the beautiful demesne of Shambelly, close to 
New Abbey, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, is sadly garbled 
from the original Celtic. Sean baile [shan bally] is a term 
applied to many places, with the signification " old homestead 
or building." In Shinvalley in Penninghame, Shanvolley in 
Kirkcowan, as well as Shanvalley and Shanavally in Ireland, 
is preserved the aspirated form sean bJiaile [shan vally]. 

This kind of attempt to impose a fictitious meaning upon 
names of places has been connived at by those who ought to 
know better. Charles Mackay, writing in Bentley's Miscellany 
for 1839, makes fun of the guessing school of etymology. 

1 The intrusive t eclipses and silences the s. 

2 Joyce's Irish Barnes of Places, vol. i. p. 42. 



STUDIES IN THE 



" Teddington," he says, " is a small place, chiefly remarkable 
for the first and last lock upon the Thames in aid of navigation. 
Etymologists found a very satisfactory explanation of the 
name of this village, and plumed themselves mightily on their 
cleverness. The tides flow up no farther than Teddington, 
and therefore, said they, the derivation of the word is obvious 
' Tide-ending-town, from whence by abbreviation and cor- 
ruption Tide-ing-ton Teddington.' 

" This was all very satisfactory, there was not a word to be 
said against it. 

" Unluckily, however, Mr. Lysons, one of your men of dates 
and figures, one of those people whose provoking exactitude so 
often upsets theories, discovered that the original name of the 
place was not Teddington, but Totyngton. After this the 
etymologists had nothing to say for themselves ' a plain tale 
put them down,' unless, like the French philosopher in similar 
circumstances, they consoled themselves with the reflection 
that it was very unbecoming in a fact to rise up in opposition 
to their theory." 

Nor is this all that tends to lead the inquirer off the true 
scent. A secondary process has set in since Broad Scots has 
ceased to be regarded as the language of educated persons. 
The Ordnance Surveyors in more than one instance seem to 
have attempted to make genteel and orthodox names which 
sounded in their ears like Broad Scotch, and therefore a 
vulgar patois. Here is an example. The Old Water is the 
name given in the Ordnance Survey Maps to a tributary of 
the Cluden in Irongray parish. This is the English render- 
ing of that which sounds like "Auld Water," but which is 
in truth a hybrid name for the stream, namely, Gaelic edit, 
a glen or stream, and English water. Allt itself is a word 
which has travelled very far from its original root-meaning. 
Connected originally with Latin altus (high), it signified a 
height or cliff, but the meaning slid thence to the vale or glen 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



between the heights, and finally into the stream within the 
vale. 1 

Another example is Gleniron in New Luce, where, however, 
the modern form, although the result of Anglicising what was 
supposed to be Broad Scots, has not concealed what may have 
been the original sense. The name appears in Font's map as 
Klonairn, which sufficiently closely represents the Irish cluain 
iairn, meadow of the iron. 

2. The second class is that into which names may be thrown, unaltered 

Celtic 

of the meaning of which there can be no reasonable doubt from names, 
the completeness with which the old Erse or medieval Gaelic 
has been preserved. Such are Barglass (barr glas), the green 
top ; Craigbernoch (creag T)6arnach\ the cloven crag ; Drum- 
muckloch (druim mudach), the swine's ridge, or ridge of the 
swine pasture ; Inchbane (innis bdn), the white isle, or river 
pasture ; Auchabrick (achadh breac\ the speckled or variegated 
field; Knockdawn (cnoc don), the brown hill; and countless others. 
Yet these names have been in daily use for generations by per- 
sons, not one in ten thousand of whom had the slightest appre- 
hension of their significance, nor cared to inquire into the origin 
of what they received as convenient, ready-made appellations. 

3. Finally, there is a large class which have to be very care- Altered 
fully dealt with, not without a prospect of discovering much, names. 
if not all, of their meaning. It consists of those names which 
have been rendered into English letters in phonetic imitation 

of the Erse or Gaelic originals, but widely differing in appear- 
ance from them, owing to the different value of letters in the 
two languages. It must be recollected that, short of an 
elaborate and laborious system of sound-signs or palseotype, 
such as that brought to so great perfection by Mr. Sweet, Mr. 
Ellis, and Mr. Melville Bell, which requires a degree of study 
and delicate attention that few ordinary readers have time to 
give, no alphabet suffices to indicate, except in a rough and 

1 See under " Aldergowan " in the Glossary. 



10 STUDIES IN THE 

ready way, the niceties of oral sound. The syllables in 
brackets, which follow the Erse words in the Glossary, forming 
the main part of this work, can be regarded only as a most 
imperfect mode of indicating the pronunciation of the original 
valuable, if at all, chiefly in showing the contracting and 
elisive effect of the aspirate and eclipse upon consonants. 
But even that degree of precision cannot be claimed for the 
present forms of most of the Celtic place-names in Galloway. 
Some of them retain the form in which they were originally 
cast by clerks engrossing deeds containing names in the Gaelic 
vernacular never before reduced to writing. Thus in Culquhirk 
(pronounced Culhwirk) is retained the Old Northern English 
quh, now represented by wli ; in Challoch the softened sound 
remains of t followed by a diphthong, the original word being 
tealach [tyallagh], a forge. This softening process is carried 
even further in the English ration, nation, portion, etc. 

In others the present spelling is a further corruption of the 
earliest written forms, due to subsequent change in the pro- 
nunciation, or by the growth of a fictitious meaning. A clear 
example of this change may be seen in the name Loch Hemp- 
ton in Mochrum parish, which has assumed such a familiar 
Anglo-Saxon countenance as would probably exclude it from a 
list of names of Celtic origin, were it not that Pont, writing 
about a quarter of a century after Gaelic is believed to have 
ceased to be spoken in Galloway, spells it Dyrhympen. Now, 
whatever the suffix -hympen may represent, dyr is the Old Celtic 
dobhar, dur, water, and bespeaks for Dyrhympen an origin 
anterior to the Anglo-Saxon occupation of the province. Were 
it not for this, how plausible, seeing that Hempton Loch is 
within a stone-throw of the old Castle of Mochrum, would have 
been the suggestion that it was the loch of the hame-town 
(Hampton) or homestead. 

Not to travel more than half a mile from this moorland lake, 
we may take the modern name of a similar piece of water, 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 1 1 

Loch "VYayoch, which, assuming it to be Erse, might very fairly 
represent loch bhcithach [vayagh], which is very likely the true 
etymology, the meaning being the loch of the birchwood. But 
Pont calls it Loch Chrauochy, which points to an alternative 
origin of a similar meaning, i.e. loch chraebhach [hravagh], lake 
of the wood, or of the trees. Lastly, not to multiply instances 
of a very numerous class, taking the name of another lake, 
Lochan of Vice, in the parish of Tungland, appears in Font's 
map in a form which, although it does not explain the meaning, 
at least shows that the present form is a corruption, for it 
is there written Loch Voyis, and in the Sibbald MS. of the 
seventeenth century it is rendered Loch Vuy. 

It is clear from what has been said, that, had we nothing to 
rely upon but forms in Latin or English manuscripts from the 
twelfth century onwards, valuable and suggestive as many of 
these are, we should at most have little more than rude repre- 
sentations of the sound of Celtic names rendered in English 
letters by scribes, who probably, in many cases, did not under- 
stand the Erse language, or, at all events, could not write it. 
Further, it has to be borne in mind, especially by south-country 
readers, that in these early transcripts of Celtic names, the value 
of the English letters is not that of these letters in Modern, 
but in Middle English, of which the pronunciation was pro- 
bably much the same as in Lothian Broad Scots. Ch and gh 
are guttural spirants as in Broad Scots loch, rough ; although 
at the beginning of names, such as Challoch or Chipper (repre- 
senting Erse tea and tid), and in the solitary instance of Curchie- 
hill, in the middle of a name, ch is sounded as in English 
church. Pont uses ch where in modern use a simple aspirate is 
sounded, as in Barhapple, but in doing so he was probably 
faithful to the pronunciation of his day, when the sound of the 
aspirated c of larr chapul, hill of the horses, had not been 
further softened. 

In Broad Scots, as in Old and Middle English, the r is trilled 



12 STUDIES IN THE 

even when followed by a consonant or coming at the end of a 
word. This is an assistance in arriving at the Celtic original, 
which would be lost if the r receives no more than its value in 
Modern English. Thus a boy educated at Eton would speak of 
Bahwinnock, Bahveunohan, Barrah, Caanfaw, Caansmaw, 
instead of the true pronunciation Ba?*winnock, Barvernoghan, 
Barraer, Cai?'nfore, Cairnsmore. Fortunately, at the time when 
these names were first written in English deeds, the r was 
fully trilled, and, even if the people of Galloway were now to 
adopt the silent r, it would not disappear from its important 
place in the names. 

There are also certain vowel-sounds, such as the broad a and 
the Scots u, without attention to which it is not possible to 
arrive at the original pronunciation. 
Absence of The copious Goidhelic literature of Erin or Ireland, of which 

vernacular 

tare'i^scotl manv originals and many transcripts have been preserved to 
our day, has but a meagre counterpart in the vernacular of 
Alba or Scotland. 

The Pictish Chronicle, which Mr. Skene assigns to the tenth 
century, was, in his opinion, compiled by the monks of Brechin. 

The marginal entries in The Book of Deer, dating from the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries, are in the vernacular Gaelic of 
Alba, while the text of the Gospels which form the book itself 
offers evidence from which " there seems nothing improbable 
in concluding that it may have been written by a native scribe 
of Alba in the ninth century." 1 

No other manuscripts have as yet been claimed as the work 
of Alban writers. The fires of the Reformation burned so 
fiercely and so long in Scotland as to have consumed to all 
appearance every other fragment of the literature which we 
may assume to have been stored in the numerous ecclesiastical 
houses of the north. 

1 The Book of Deer, p. xxiii. Edited for the Spalding Club by John 
Stuart, LL.D. 4to, Edinburgh, 1869. 



TOPO GRA PHY OF GALL O WA Y. 1 3 

It might seem, therefore, to be as hopeless to attempt to 
reduce Galloway names to their original form as if we supposed 
France to have been overrun by English, her literature 
destroyed, her language forgotten, and English adopted as the 
vernacular. French names, written down phonetically by 
English lawyers of the present day, whom we must suppose, 
to maintain the parallel, utterly ignorant of the French language, 
would then present pleasing problems to the etymologist. From 
Bawdoe, Eewong, Eeeshlew, Shattleroe Potyae, Shoveenie, to 
reconstruct Bordeaux, Rouen, Richelieu, Chatellerault, Poitiers, 
and Chauvigny, would be as difficult, and to some seem as 
ridiculous, as to expand Macherally into Machair AmhalgTiaidh, 
or reduce Shambelly to sean baile. 

But, propitiously to my present task, there are innumerable Many place- 
names in 
places in Ireland bearing the same names as places in Gallo- Ireland syn- 

* onymous 

way and other Goidhelic districts of Scotland. The primary 
forms of many of these Irish names have been preserved in the 
early annals, poems, and other manuscripts. They have been 
well sifted and identified by such masterly writers as Reeves, 
O'Donovan, Joyce, and others, were it not for whose labours it 
would have been wellnigh hopeless for the writer of these 
pages to attempt his undertaking. 

When, for example, Macherally in Kirkmaiden (locally pro- 
nounced Macherowly), is found to have its equivalent in 
Magherally, a parish in Ireland ; and when such an accomplished 
Celtic scholar as Dr. Reeves assigns as the interpretation of the 
latter place machair Amhalghaidh [Owlhay], Aulay's field, it is 
surely not assuming too much that the Wigtonshire name has 
the same meaning, especially when we find Macaulays still 
living in the immediate vicinity. Terally, in the same parish, 
may with equal safety be equated with Tirawley in Mayo, and 
construed tir Amhalghaidh, Aulay's land. But how vain would 
have been all endeavour, in the absence of the Irish parallels, 
to have restored the redundant consonants which are the 



14 STUDIES IN THE 

pride of ancient and the stumbling-block of modern glotto- 
logists. 

Proper names sometimes have assumed a Latinised form. 
Thus Devorgilla, grand- daughter of Uchtred, Lord of Galloway, 
and wife of John Baliol, the foundress of Baliol College and 
Sweetheart Abbey, bore a name which was written in Erse 
DerUhforgaill, in which the bh sounds as the Latin v. 
The ancient Dismissing as unattainable all record of the speech of the 

languages of 

Gaiioway. pre-Celtic inhabitants of Galloway, it may be well to recapitu- 
late briefly the conclusions which the researches of Rhys, 
Skene, Stokes, and other students tend to establish. 

" The Celtic languages still spoken are "Welsh, Breton, and 
Gaelic in Ireland, the Highlands of Scotland, and the Isle of 
Man. Among the dead ones are Old Cornish, Pictish, and 
Gaulish. Of these, Cornish, which ceased to be spoken only 
in the latter part of the last century, has left us a considerable 
amount of literature, while the Pictish words extant may be 
counted on one's fingers. The old Gauls have left behind them 
a number of monuments, from which, together with other 
sources, a fair number of their names, and a few other speci- 
mens of their vocabulary, have been collected enough, in fact, 
to assign them to their proper place in the Celtic family." 1 

So far as the British Isles are concerned, the Celtic tongue 
divides itself into two main families : the Goidhelic or Gaelic, 
embracing the dialects of Erse or Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and 
Manx ; the Brythonic or Welsh, those of Welsh, Cornish, and 
Breton, and, according to Professor Ehys, possibly Pictish. 
Until recently it has been argued that the Goidhelic speech 
represented that of the first invading force of Continental Celts 
who occupied Britain, ousting the aboriginal Iverian race, and 
who were themselves subsequently dispossessed of part of their 
territory, including the greater part of England, Wales, and 
what is now known as Scotland, as far north as Alclyde or 
1 Lectures on Welsh Philology, p. 15. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALL OWAY. 15 

Dumbarton. The second wave of invasion was supposed to 
consist of a Celtic people, speaking a different dialect, namely, 
the Brythonic, Cymric, or Welsh race, who were ranked as part 
of the Gaulish population of the Continent. But Professor 
Ehys 1 leans to the opinion that there is no such dividing line 
to be drawn. Far from disputing the existence of two distinct 
branches of Celtic speech in Britain, the Goidhelic and 
Brythonic, he inclines to the opinion that the classification of 
the entire Celtic family into Goidhelic and Gallo-British 
branches is erroneous, and supports the view which presents 
" two branches, whereof the one embraces the Celts of the 
Continent, and the other those of the islands." 

The close resemblance between Old Cornish and Breton 
speech he accounts for by the regurgitation which undoubtedly 
took place between the population of the south-west of 
England and the north-west of France, a process which has 
its parallel in the emigration of the Scots of northern Ireland 
to Alban (now Scotland) in the fifth century. 

For the practical purposes of the present inquiry we may be 
content with the certainty that two distinct branches of Celtic 
speech did exist in North Britain at the time when most of the 
place-names in Galloway were conferred. If the Picts of Gal- 
loway spoke the Pictish language, it appears, from the evi- 
dence of these names, to have belonged to the Goidhelic or 
Gaelic rather than to the Brythonic or "Welsh branch, which 
prevailed in the adjacent territory of Alclyde ; indeed, the 
close resemblance borne by our local names to those of Ulster 
almost compel the assumption that the Picts of Galloway and 
the Scots of Dalriada spoke a common tongue. To borrow a 
simile from geology, the fades of the fossils in either district 
is so similar as to cause them to be assigned to the same 
formation. The colophon to the Gospels in the Book of Deer 
" is identical," says Mr. Whitley Stokes, " with the oldest Irish 
glosses in Zeuss's Grammatica Celtica" 

1 Lectures on Welsh Philoloyy, p. 22. 



1 6 STUDIES IN THE 

It must be remembered, too, that Erse or Gaelic continued to 
be spoken in Galloway until the closing years of the sixteenth 
century. If there had been any organic difference between the 
Gaelic of Galloway and that of the Highlands, it could scarcely 
have failed to have been noticed by contemporary writers, but 
both are spoken of in common as Ersche. No doubt there are 
names in the Province whose present form would bear being 
assigned to a Brythonic origin, but with these I have not ven- 
tured to deal, any more than with those of even more obscure 
origin. It is left to writers better acquainted with the Welsh 
speech to trace that language in such words as Peneilly, Pin- 
minnoch, Penwhirn, Pinwherry, Cutreoch, Cutcloy, Manwhill, 
in which it is quite possible the Welsh pen, a head, coed, a wood, 
and maen, a stone, may be preserved. 

The contact of the Province of Galloway with the Brythonic 
district of Alclyde, and the alternate warfare and alliance be- 
tween the tribes inhabiting the two districts, would no doubt 
lead us to expect an admixture, to some extent, of Welsh names 
in the topography of Galloway. But having regard to the want 
of knowledge of the extinct Pictish speech, if indeed it was 
spoken by the Picts of Galloway, it is safer to refrain from 
speculation on names with a seemingly Welsh appearance. 

The bulk of the names appear referable to a Goidhelic origin. 
These may have been conferred at any period from the first 
occupation of Galloway by the Gaels down to the time when 
Gaelic ceased to be the vernacular of the province. To the 
first of these limits it is difficult to assign an approximate date. 
If, as Professor Ehys suggests, the Pictish dialect belonged to 
the Brythonic rather than to the Goidhelic branch, then we 
naturally turn to the conquest of Galloway by Alpin, the last 
king of Scottish Dalriada, 1 in the eighth century, and it might 
be supposed that his followers who settled there originated the 

1 Occisus est in Gallowathia postquam earn penitus destruxit et devastavit. 
Chronicle of the Picts and Scots. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. i ^ 

Goidhelic names. But Professor Ehys assigns approximately 
the divergence of Brythonic speech from Goidhelic to the sixth 
century, being supported in that view by the fact that the early 
Welsh inscriptions are so Goidhelic in form as to have been long 
and strenuously claimed by Irish archaeologists as evidence of the 
occupation of Wales by Irish Gaels. " It would be needless," 
he adds, " to dwell on the fact that it is by no means certain 
that the change of qv into p took place at the same time every- 
where on Brythonic ground from the Clyde to the Loire." 

If the Pictish inhabitants of the remote shores of Galloway 
were Brythonic Celts, they would rather lag behind than precede 
their kindred in Alclyde, Cumberland, and Wales, in yielding 
to the new pronunciation ; consequently, taking the sixth cen- 
tury as the central period of the formation of Welsh speech, 
little time would intervene before their province was overrun by 
Alpin's Gaels, and their speech discontinued. It seems reason- 
able, therefore, to suppose that Brythonic speech was never the 
vernacular of Galloway, that a dialect of Gaelic or Erse was 
spoken from the first advent of the Celts down to the time when 
it was superseded by Northern English. 

The latter limitation may safely be applied to the lowland 
districts at an earlier period than to the hills, when the ancient 
tongue would continue to be spoken in the glens long after it 
had ceased on the plains. Thus we find a much larger admix- 
ture of Teutonic names in such parishes as Sorbie, Kirkinner, 
Kirkbean, and Colvend, than in the hill and moorland tracts 
of Dairy, Carsphairn, Kirkcowan, and New Luce. 

But even these data leave great vagueness as to the antiquity Antiquity of 

place-names. 

of our Celtic names of places. To go no further back than the 
fourth century, when St. Ninian began the conversion of the 
Galwegian Picts, Gaelic names may have been conferred at any 
time between that and the sixteenth century, or a space of 1200 
years. Most names of hills, rivers, cliffs, and other permanent 
and striking landscape features may most probably be assigned 

B 



1 8 STUDIES IN THE 

to the earlier moiety of that period, while those of houses and 
fields would be gradually conferred as the country became 
settled up and cultivated. 

oid Next in number to the Gaelic names come those of Teutonic 

English. origin, framed in the Old Northern English or Northumbrian 
language, a dialect of Anglo-Saxon. That this was spoken, if 
not by any large number of the people, at all events by the 
clerics, we have recently received very conclusive evidence. 
The fragments of two Eunic inscriptions upon carved crosses 
were discovered, one in 1885, in the ruins of the Priory Church 
at Whithorn, the other in 1886, under a mass of cliff debris in 
St. Ninian's Cave, in the adjacent parish of Glasserton. Pro- 
fessor Stephens assigns these Eunes approximately^ the sixth 
century. 

The first-named cross had received severe handling to shape 
it into the conventional type of modern headstone. The greater 
part of the inscription, which had been cut on the edge of the 
stone and round the circular head, had been tooled off ; the 
runes which remain are equivalent to the following : 

T*LFEE>S. 

Professor Stephens of Copenhagen is of opinion that the 
lost letter after T is I, which would, if restored, give a name 
which is not uncommon, viz., TilferJ? (meaning good-peace). 
It occurs in the oldest documents variously written Tilfri]?, 
TilfriS, Tilfrith, Tilferd, TilferS, and Tilfer]?. It is probably 
the name of the man in whose memory the stone was erected, 
and the formula appears, from analogy, to have run somewhat 
in this way 

" (This stane cefter) TilferJ? s(ette)" 

Of the inscription on the other cross also unhappily only a 
fragment remains. In this case, however, the damage has not 
been wanton, but accidental. Among the interesting dis- 
coveries recently made in St. Ninian's Cave, and since the 



TOPO GRAPH Y OF GALL OWAY. 19 

publication of its first exploration, 1 was that of a cross richly 
carved with an intricate design of interlaced Celtic character. 
The lower part of the carved face was occupied by a tablet, 
the greater portion of which had been broken off by the fall 
of a huge mass of rock from the cliff above. The inscription 
appears to have been in one line only, of which the final word 
remains, reading equivalent to 

WBOTE, 

i.e. wrought, worked, made. " Thus," writes Professor Stephens, 
" some such common formula, in stave-rime, as 
(^Efter Warince Wulfstari) wrote. 

Consequently both ristings are in old north English, Northum- 
brian, most likely of the sixth century." 

Besides these two inscriptions only four others referable to 
such an early date are known to me as having been identified 
in "Wigtonshire, and they afford no clue to the spoken language 
of the district, being in Latin ; one on a cross near Whithorn, 
one on a slab in the pavement of St. Ninian's Cave, and two in 
the old churchyard of Kirkmadrine. But there may be others 
in the Stewartry, and it is almost certain that the diligent 
inquiry now being made into such matters in the district will 
result in bringing to light more. 

To this Anglo-Saxon or Early Northern English dialect are 
to be assigned most of the words ending in -et (such as Aiket, 
Blaiket, Birket), a syllable which represents the A.S. wudu, a 
wood ; in rig, A.S. Jiric, a back or ridge (corresponding in 
sense to Erse druim, Welsh cefri), such as Brannet Eig, 
Eldrig, etc. ; in ton, A.s. ttin, an enclosure, a dwelling, Br. 
Scots toun, cognate with Erse dtin, Welsh din. 

But there are other names of Teutonic form not directly refer- Middle 

Northern 

able to Anglo-Saxon, but framed in Middle Northern English. English. 
Thus Tod Eig and Toddly, the ridge and the "lea," or field of 

1 Proceedings of Soc. Scott. Antiq., vol. vii., New Series, p. 83. Collec- 
tions Ayr and Galloway Arch. Assoc., voL v. p. 1. 



20 STUDIES IN THE 

the fox, contain the word tod, fox, which is of Scandinavian 
origin, borrowed by Northern English speakers directly from 
that source, and unknown in Anglo-Saxon. Such names must 
be considered some centuries younger than the other Teutonic 
forms. 

Lastly, there is the Scandinavian element to deal with. The 
Norsemen began in the eighth century to be the terror of the 
Celtic and aboriginal tribes inhabiting Scotland and Ireland. 
They formed settlements, and occupied fertile districts on the 
seaboard at various points of our coast. Ignorance of their 
language, which is most nearly represented by the Icelandic 
speech of the present day, debars the present writer from ventur- 
ing far towards the solution of those names in Galloway which 
seem to be referable to this people. But several are clearly 
capable of explanation by comparison with Icelandic forms, 
and it is hoped that attention may be paid by some capable 
student to the names in the list ending in -wick and -by. 

To sum up the data available for the present inquiry, it 
seems probable that we have 

First, a number of names surviving from aboriginal Iverian 
speech, incapable at present of any solution, and probably 
greatly altered in form by Celtic tongues, and subsequent 
reduction into English writing. These may be referred to a 
period anterior to the Christian era. 

Second, the bulk of the names in the district framed in the 
Goidhelic branch of Celtic, a dialect of which was probably 
spoken by the Cruithne or Picts of Galloway from, say, the 
second century down to the sixteenth, but the majority of 
which probably date from the first ten centuries of that large 
space of time. 

Third, a limited number to identify which no attempt has 
hitherto been made of names in the Brythonic branch of Celtic, 
imported from the neighbouring Province of Strathclyde in the 
interval between the sixth century, when St. Kentigern recon- 



TOPO GRAPH Y OF GALL OWAY. 21 

verted the Galloway Picts to Christianity, and the eleventh, 
when Brythonic speech had probably died out in Central 
Scotland. 

Fourth, names in Anglo-Saxon or Old Northern English, 
which are not likely to have been established earlier than the 
sixth or later than the ninth century. 

Fifth, those in the Scandinavian tongue, proceeding from 
the marauders of the eighth and two following centuries ; and 

Sixth, names in Middle English or Broad Scots, not older 
than the thirteenth century. 

Of course besides these there are a considerable number, 
but not so large as might be supposed, of what may be 
called modern names, both in Broad Scots and English, but the 
meaning of these is readily ascertained. 

Place-names mav be arranged in two classes Simple and Construc- 

tion of place- 
Compound. Erse or Gaelic names of the first class consist 



either of a substantive indicative of some natural feature 
as Clone (cluain, a meadow), Drum (druim, a ridge), Blair 
(bldr, a plain) or of an adjectival derivative from the name 
of some animal, plant, mineral, or natural feature which dis- 
tinguished the locality, as Brockloch, a place of badgers (broc- 
lach, badgery) ; Clauchrie, a stony place (clacharach or cloich- 
reach, stony) ; Gannoch or Genoch, a sandy place (gaineach or 
gainmheach, sandy). Such names almost invariably have the 
stress on the first syllable. 

Names of the second class consist of a substantive, generally, compound 
according to Celtic construction, occupying the first place, and 
a qualitative, either an adjective in the nominative, or a noun 
in the oblique case, with or without the definite article. Thus 
Blairbuy represents Udr, a field, and luidhe, yellow (the d being 
silenced by the aspirate). Auchenshinnoch is little altered from 
the original achadh, a field (the d silent as before), an sionaich, of 
the fox (s before a diphthong, of which the first vowel is e or a, 
is sounded like our sh\ or achadh na sionach, field of the foxes. 



22 STUDIES IN THE 

In many names the article is omitted, as in Balgown, from 
baile, the ground or house, gobhain (bh sounds v or w), of the 
smith ; and often the place of qualitative is occupied by the 
name of an individual, as in Balmurrie, i.e. baile, the ground 
or house, Muireadhaich (Murragh), of Murray. In these com- 
pounds the stress will generally be found on the first syllable 
of the qualitative ; so, although we speak of Tannoch, which 
is tamhnach [tawnagh], a word for a meadow not found in 
modern Gaelic, with the stress on the first syllable, it is trans- 
ferred in Tannyflux (i.e. tamhnach fliuch, wet meadow) to 
incidence the last as the qualitative. By observing the incidence of 
the stress in local pronunciation of names, valuable assistance 
is derived in arriving at a conclusion as to their original form. 
For example, in a name like Cullendeugh or Cullendoch, it 
might be inferred that the syllable deuch or dock represents the 
adjective dubh [dooh], black or dark, and that the meaning was 
cuileann dubh, the dark holly-tree. But the incidence of the 
stress on the first syllable points to its being a simple name, 
cuileanach, a place of hollies an adjectival form from cuileann. 
The d has been inserted in these two names in Girthon, Kirk- 
mabreck, and New Abbey parishes ; while in Balmaghie it 
remains, as Cullenoch, in nearly its original form. 

This rule is very constant, even where the name becomes 
much corrupted and disguised. There are two places called 
Inshanks, one in Kirkcowan, the other in Kirkmaiden. It is 
a corruption of uinnsean [inshan], the ash-trees ; and the stress 
remains to this day on the first syllable, though it might be 
expected to travel to the second when the meaning of the 
word was so completely lost, and when it assumed such a mis- 
leading form. 

The position of the stress as indicative of simple and com- 
pound names is not peculiar to Celtic speech. In Teutonic 
languages the qualitative is placed first. Thus, Whithorn 
= A.S. hwit oern, the white house, retains the stress on the 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 23 

adjective ; Stoneykirk = Steenie's or St. Stephen's church, on 
the qualitative proper name. In both of these names the 
change according to rule from the narrow a or e sound to the 
round o may be noticed. 

Sometimes, for no particular apparent reason, the usual order 
in Erse compounds is reversed, and the qualitative is placed 
first. Instances of these exceptional cases are Auchness, i.e. 
each innis, the horse pasture ; Duloch, i.e. dubh loch, the black 
lake ; Camelon and Camling, i.e. cam linn, the crooked pool ; 
but in every case the stress follows the qualitative syllable. 
Compare its position in lincom, i.e. linn cam, the crooked 
pool, the exact equivalent of Camling. 

In the language of the Irish Celts which is referred to 
throughout as Erse the stress is said to have been laid on the 
latter part of the simple words of more than one syllable, whereas 
in the dialect of the Scottish Gael it is supposed to have moved 
forward towards the beginning. This causes names of places in 
Ireland to have been somewhat differently Anglicised from the 
same names in Scotland. For example, suidheachan [seehan], a 
little seat, a residence, becomes Seeghane in Dublin and See- 
hanes in Cork, appearing in Galloway as Sheuchan, with the 
stress on the first syllable. 

A somewhat unusual example of the Irish stress remains in 
Knockan, the name of a field in Kirkinner, i.e. cnocdn, diminu- 
tive of cnoc, a hill. The farm of which it is a part bears the 
name of Little Hills, which is a translation of the Celtic. 
According to the usual position of the stress in Gallovidian 
speech, this name would have become Knockan, like Knock - 
ans in Minnigaff and Lochans in Inch, but for some unknown 
reason the local population have handed down the Irish pro- 
nunciation, and not the Scottish. In like manner Mahaar in 
Kirkcolm, representing the Erse machair, has the stress on 
the last syllable, while Macher in Inch, and all the many 
names beginning with this word, have the stress on the first. 



24 STUDIES IN THE 

In compound names the prefix is usually easily identified. 
Of hill names druim and cnoc rival each other in frequency. 
The low glaciated " sow-back " ridges, so characteristic of 
the undulating plain districts, are appropriately denominated 
" drums " the Erse druim being closely cognate with the 
Latin dorsum, a back. 1 Cnoc, of which the initial hard c, for- 
merly sounded, has become silent, expresses a more isolated 
circular or precipitous eminence. Upwards of two hundred 
and twenty hills in Galloway rejoice in the prefix Knock ; 
and it may be remarked that their distribution, though appar- 
ently capricious, must have depended on circumstances which 
can only now be surmised. The parishes of Stoneykirk and 
Sorby are not unlike in natural features. Both consist of 
undulating lowland, yet the former seems to have been 
inhabited more persistently by a Gaelic-speaking race than 
the latter ; for, whereas in Stoneykirk there are twenty-six 
names beginning with Knock, in Sorby there is not one. 

Next in frequency among hill-names comes barr, which 
means the top of anything. Sliabh, pronounced Slieve in Irish, 
becomes Slew in Scottish names. In Scotland the meaning 
also varies, signifying a moorland rather than a hill or moun- 
tain, as it does in Ireland. Meall, a hill, and maol, bald (a bald 
hill or headland) are difficult to distinguish from each other 
in Anglicised names, but both are common in the Province, 
the former generally forming the prefix Mill, the latter Mull. 

Hcann and JBeanndn are easily recognised in the syllables 
Ben and Bennan ; cruach, a stack-like hill, as Croach, etc. ; 
mullach, learg, leargaidh, leacdn, sron, ceann, muine, gob, are of 

1 It is worthy of notice that of the many hundred names in Galloway 
beginning with Drum, Pont notes only a very few. There can be no doubt 
that the names existed in his day, but he seems to have disregarded those 
that were not also the name of a house or farm. Cefn, the Welsh equiva- 
lent of druim, a back or ridge, is preserved in several names in the Brythonic 
district of Strathclyde. Thus Giffen, in North Ayrshire, is a ridge which 
forms a sharply defined feature descried for many miles in the flat land- 
scape around it. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 25 

frequent occurrence, while ros, roine, teanga, and rudha indi- 
cate points of land or headlands. 

In the prolific Celtic root carr, a stone, may be traced carraic 
and creag (the former referring exclusively to sea-cliffs), Angli- 
cised with little change as Carrick and Craig. Cam also, a 
word existing in all Celtic dialects, is from the same root. It 
means primarily a heap of stones, and generally is limited to 
the heap over a grave ; but sometimes it means a hill. Clack 
or dock, leac or liag, present themselves with little disguise. 
The latter (becoming leek or lick), with the literal meaning of 
a flag or flat stone, often signifies a burial-place, from the flat 
stones used in making cists ; while the former bears a variety 
of meanings, from the simple one of " a stone," through all 
the various objects for which stones were employed, either as 
memorials, tombstones, worshipping stones (as in Clachanarrie), 
foundation stones of huts, Christian churches, etc. 

Flat lands, fields, and enclosures are prefixes by such Fields and 

pieties. 

familiar words as achadh, meaning arable land ; faithche, a 
" green," whence our Broad Scotch " fey" ; Udr, a plain ; mach, 
also a plain, becoming Mye or May, and its derivative machair, 
which in modern Gaelic is limited in meaning to flat land 
bordering on the sea, but which formerly had a more general 
application. Tamhnacli, mentioned above as a word unknown 
to modern Highlanders, appears as a prefix in numerous places 
throughout the Province, and means a wet mowing meadow. 

The commonest prefix denoting water, whether as a stream water. 
or as a pool, is the Celtic pol. It may be recognised in names 
beginning Pol, Pal, Pil, Pul, Phil, Phal, Fil, Fal, Fauld, and even 
Pen and Pin. The obsolete Celtic dohhar, dur, gives the initial 
syllables Dar, Der, Dir, so common in the hilly and moorland 
districts ; while allt, which bears the original meaning of " a 
height," has come, as shown in the Glossary, to mean a glen or 
stream, in which sense it is usually found in Galloway. 1 Linn 
1 See under " Aldergowan." 



26 



STUDIES IN THE 



Dwellings. 



Qualitative 
suffixes. 



signifies a pool in a river, and tidbar, a well, assumes the forms 
tibber and chipper. 

Habitations and strongholds are indicated by the prefixes 
Dun, Car, Bal or Bally, Ty, Bo, from the Erse dun, and cathair, 
a fort ; baile, literally a townland, but the meaning of which 
became transferred to the house on the land ; teach, gen. tighe, 
a house, and both, a hut. But cathair [caer] is readily confused 
with ceathramhaidh [carrou], a land-quarter, which the process 
of phonetic decay has reduced to a single syllable ; indeed, in 
the absence of old written forms, it is difficult.to identify cathair 
as a prefix in more than two or three Galloway names. 

Another syllable which is hard to assign to one of three or 
four words is that which appears as the prefix Gal, Cul, or Kil. 
Cul, a back (in respect of position) ; cuil, a corner ; coill, a wood, 
and till, a cell or chapel, all melt indiscriminately into one of 
these forms, and it is by local characteristics or history that 
they must be referred to their proper signification. In this 
way it is safe to translate Culmore coill mor, the great wood, 
for a large part of that farm is flat land containing innumer- 
able trunks and roots of oak-trees ; Kildarroch is probably coill 
darach, the oak wood, though it may stand for cuil darach, the 
corner of the oaks, or cul darach, the hill-back of the oaks. 
But in almost every case where Kil antecedes a proper name 
it is safe to assume that the name is not older than the sixth 
century, and that the name signifies the cille or cell of an early 
saint. Such names are Kilmorie, Kildonan, Kilcormack. 

Difficult as the task sometimes proves to unravel the first 
part of compound place-names, it is simplicity itself compared 
with that involved in the solution of suffixes, which are usually 
the qualitative of the first word. Not only has the usual effect 
of the invariable tendency to economise labour in pronuncia- 
tion to be considered, a tendency which leads, as a rule, to the 
abbreviation of the original form, but the peculiar liability to 
aspiration which marks the Celtic consonants b, c, d,f, g, m, 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALL O WA Y. 27 

p, s, t. The aspirate, which in Erse literature is indicated by a The aspirate, 
dot over the letter, appears in written Gaelic as h following 
the aspirated consonant. Its effect upon d, f, s, and t is to 
silence them, or to reduce them to a slight h or y sound ; bh 
and mh are sounded like v or w, and in some cases become 
almost silent, as in diibh [dooh], black ; AmhalgJiadh [Owlhay], 
Aulay ; while ph has much the same value as in English. 

The difficulty of recovering the consonant silenced by the 
aspirate is well shown in the name Barnolas, a hill in Tung- 
land parish. It is only by comparison with the names Bar- 
soles, Barsolis, and Barsolus (the latter of which names is 
actually written by Pont Barolis), that it becomes apparent 
that the original form was Barr an sholais, the beacon-hill ; the 
initial s, being aspirated in the oblique case, has left no trace 
in the Anglicised orthography. 

Ch and gli in Erse have the same value of guttural spirants 
as they have in Broad Scots. They are often represented in 
modern forms of place-names by h, as in Barhapple (Font's 
Barchapil), i.e. barr chapul, hill of the horses. When ch, pro- 
nounced as in English church, occurs in a name of Celtic origin, 
it is perfectly certain that the original consonant was not c 
or ch, but a dental followed by a diphthong. Thus Challoch 
stands for tealach, and Chipper for tiobar. 

The letter h has no organic existence in the Celtic alpha- 
bets, therefore, when it occurs at the beginning of a syllable, 
it either marks the alteration of a lost consonant by aspiration, 
or is redundant, marking, in some cases, the accent of the tone 
syllable. 1 The student's first business, then, is to determine 
what consonant, if any, has disappeared ; aided by analogy of 
other forms of the word, in names either in the locality under 
consideration, or in other Celtic districts, he will arrive at the 
correct solution in many more cases than might at first seem 
possible. 

1 Rhys's Lectures on Welnh Philology, p. 262. 



28 STUDIES IN THE 

Eclipse. Another process which results in disguising the meaning 

of Celtic compounds is that known to Irish grammarians as 
edipsis, in respect of which Professor Rhys's language deserves 
attention. " There is nothing," he says, 1 " in eclipses which 
may be regarded as peculiar to the Celtic languages; but I 
will only cite from other languages just a sufficient number of 
analogous instances to indicate some of the quarters where 
more may be found. You may have wondered how such Eng- 
lish words as the following, now pronounced dumm, lamm, 
clime, came to be written dumb, lamb, climb. The answer of 
course is, that the & in them was formerly pronounced, and 
that this is merely another case of spelling lagging behind the 
pronunciation litera scripta manet. To this class of words 
may be added the modern woodbine, which at an earlier stage 
of the language was written wudubind ; and, to come down to 
our own day, all of you have heard London called Lunnun. 
Beyond the Tweed this and more of the kind may be con- 
sidered classic: witness the following stanza from Burns's 
'Five Carlins': 

' " Then neist came in a sodger youth, 

And spak wi' modest grace, 
An' he wad gae to Lotion town 
If sae their pleasure was." 

Here may also be mentioned that there are German dialects 
which habitually use kinner, vninner, wennen, unner, brannimn, 
for the book forms kinder, wunder, wenden, unter, branntwein. 
Similarly in Old Norse liann and lann are found for band and 
land, not to mention the common reduction of ?i5 into nn, as 
in finna, ' to find ' ; annarr, ' other ' (German, ander) ; munnr, 
' mouth ' (German, mund), and the like." 

But our difficulty in dealing with this process in Anglicised 
forms of Galloway names is that " litera scripta non manet." 
The names never were written in the original Erse ; all that 

1 Op. at. p. 55. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 29 

remain are letters to represent the sound of the names in the 
fifteenth, sixteenth, or seventeenth centuries. So in Dunman 
and Lagniemawn we are led by the analogy of Dunnaman 
and Dunmany in Ireland to supply the eclipsed b in dtin 
m-beann (the m which eclipses the b being the residuum of 
nam, the genitive plural of the definite article), the fortress of 
the peaks or gables, and by that of Cornaman in Cavan, and 
Eilean-nam-ban in lona, to supply it in lag na m-ban, the 
hollow of the women, and thus arrive at the meaning. 

In the most ancient instances of eclipse, dating, in all pro- 
bability, from a time before Celtic speech . was written, the 
eclipsed and silent consonant does not appear even in the 
earliest spellings. Thus mna, the genitive singular of ban, a 
woman, stands for m-bana. The initial k of knock, the common 
name for a hill, is still retained in our writings, for although 
it is now silent, it is pronounced in the Gaelic cnoc, and struck 
the ears of those who first committed local names to writing, 
in addition to which the similarity to the English knock, a 
blow, would tend to the identity of spelling in the two words. 
The consonants most liable to disappear by eclipse are 

b eclipsed by m 

c, d, and g n 

s t. 

The latter case is frequently the cause of obscurity, as in the 
names Baltier and Knocktaggart, which stand for baile t-sair, 
western townland, cnoc t-sagairt, the priest's hill. 

The use of the definite article and its preservation in com- The article, 
pound place-names is uncertain. Sometimes it remains com- 
plete, as in Ilan-na-guy, oittan na gaethe, island of the wind ; 
sometimes it is reduced to a single vowel, as in Knockiebae, 
cnoc na beith, hill of the birches ; sometimes to a single con- 
sonant, as in Arndarroch, ard na darach, height of the oaks, 
where it eclipses the preceding consonant ; often it is absent 
altogether, as in Barhullion, ban- chuileann, hill of hollies. 



30 STUDIES IN THE 

The employment of the English definite article before some 
names in Galloway has been the subject of speculation. It has 
been suggested that its presence denotes that the name which 
it precedes is a simple word in the original Celtic, expressive of 
some natural or artificial feature, without qualitative. Thus 
we hear country people talk of the Deny, the Airlour, the 
Knock, the Larroch, the Lochans, the Barr, etc. ; but never of 
the Monreith, the Barlae, the Knockcrosh, the Glenhowl. It 
seems to me, however, that its use depends upon the position 
of the stress. Names accented on the first syllable or mono- 
syllabic names are those which take the definite article. I 
cannot recall a single instance of a name accented on the second 
or following syllable which is ever used with the definite article. 
The stress in compound place-names is nearly always found, 
as has been pointed out, on the first syllable of the qualitative, 
or, in an uncompounded name, on the first syllable of that 
name. Several compounds may be mentioned before which 
the article is commonly used, as the Dhuloch, the Dowies, the 
Glaisters, but in all these the qualitative, contrary to the usual 
custom, precedes the substantive ; and in Teutonic compounds, 
as the Eldrig, the article is again found in use. It appears 
then, that it is used merely for euphony, a certain difficulty, 
having to be overcome in commencing a name with the stress 
syllable. 

Beasts. Animals whether domestic or of the chase give, as might 

be expected, names to many places. Gabhar or gobJiar [gower] 
is limited in meaning among the Irish and Highlanders to the 
goat ; but in early times it was equally used for the horse. 
Cormac gives gdbur, a goat, and gobur, a horse ; and in the 
many names in Galloway which contain this word it is im- 
possible to say with certainty which animal is referred to. 
Where the aspirated form is preserved, as in Auchengower, 
Craignegowrie (creag na goibhre), Inchnagour, etc., it may be 
surmised that the name is more recent than the use of gobur 



TOPO GRAPHY OF GALL OWAY. 31 

for a horse ; but names like Blairnagobber and Barngaber point 
to the earlier form, without the aspirate, of which the sense 
is ambiguous. 

The commonest names of the horse are 6ck and capul, appear- 
ing in Auchness (ech inis), Barneight (barr n-ecti), etc. ; and in 
Craignagapple, Fannygapple (faithche na-gcapul) ; the aspirated 
form giving names like Barhapple and Port Whapple. Lair, a 
mare, gen. laira, comes to us in Auchenlarie (achadh na laira), 
Garthlearie, Craiglarie, etc., and searrach [sharragh], a foal, in 
Balsarroch and Barsherry. 

Cattle are indicated by the words bo, as in Darnimow (dobhar 
na-7ribo) ; crock, cattle, as in Dirnow, formerly Dyrnagrow 
(dobhar na crock) ; mart, an ox, as in Ardnimord (ard na na- 
mart) ; laoch, a calf, as in Ballochalee (bealach na laoch). 

Sheep are usually designated caera, forming part of many 
names, e.g. Drumacarie, Culgary, Lumagary. 

The pig seems to have been the favourite eponymus 
among domestic animals, numerous places retaining muc and 
mudach in their names, such as Culmick, Clachanamuck, 
Muclach, Drummuclach. Other names for swine are tore, a 
boar, preserved in Glenturk; arc or ore a pig or other large 
animal, in Craiggork ; banbh [banniv], a young pig, in Auch- 
nabony. 

The commonest designation for a dog in Irish is cu, gen. 
con, but it is not to be recognised in names in this district, 
unless Carrickcone and Port Mona, both in Kirkmaiden, may 
be taken as compounds of con, the latter being called by Pont 
Port-na-mony-a-Koane, which may be a contraction of port na 
monadh a' con, port of the moor of the dog. The dog was 
so indispensable and highly-prized an animal among Celtic 
races, who were dependent, to a large extent, upon the chase 
for their subsistence ; it appears so frequently in their earliest 
literature, and bears so important a part in tradition, that 
we must suppose it to have borne another name in Galloway. 



32 STUDIES IN THE 

Accordingly we find many names containing rtiadadh [maddy], 
which is another name for a dog ; although some of them may 
refer to wolves, which bore, among other names, that of 
madadh fael. Drummoddie, Claymoddie, Craigmoddie, Dal- 
vadie, etc., may therefore be held to be designated either from 
dogs or wolves. 

It can hardly be supposed that animals so hurtful, and, at 
the same time, so plentiful as wolves were during the early 
and Middle Ages, can have been exterminated without leaving 
their name associated with some of their haunts ; yet it is not 
easy to identify in the names of places in the district any of 
the usual words meaning " wolf " in Erse, namely, fael, breach, 
or mac-tire. It is possible that the latter word is preserved 
in Drummatier, and breach may survive in some of the numer- 
ous names ending in brake or breck, though these syllables 
may be generally assumed to refer to the surface of the land, 
i.e. brdc, brindled or variegated. 

The wolf's near relative, the fox, must always have been 
plentiful, for we frequently find the common name for him, 
sionach [shinnagh], distinguishing natural features ; as Blair- 
shinnoch, Auchenshinnoch, Inchshannoch the latter place hav- 
ing the alternative name in the present day of Foxes' Battle. 1 
The older form of the word, sindach, is retained in Craigshindie 
and Craigsundie. It is well to remember, however, that some 
of these appellations may have been taken from the names of 
men, who, after the fashion of most barbarous or semi-civilised 
races, appropriate or receive the names of animals, in virtue 
sometimes of personal qualities, sometimes from an assumed 
cognisance. Auchenshinnoch may thus be either the field of 
the fox or Sionach's field. In Ireland, a numerous family of 
Sionachs assumed the name of Fox in obedience to the pre- 
scriptive laws which compelled them to relinquish their Celtic 
appellation, and by the latter name their descendants are still 

1 Rattle, a mass of fallen debris at the foot of a cliff. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALL O WA Y. 33 

known. 1 It is, of course, impossible at the present day to 
decide whether such place-names derive from the animal or 
from the individual who was called after the animal. 

Another wild animal, which is, however, wellnigh extinct 
in Galloway now, is the eponymus of a large number of places, 
namely, the badger, whose name broc, is the same in Celtic 
and Anglo-Saxon speech. This beast was a favourite article of 
diet ; to the present day badger hams are considered a delicacy 
in parts of Ireland ; consequently it is not surprising to find 
many places bearing the names of Brockloch (broclach, a badger 
warren), Cairnbrock, Killbrocks (coill broc, badger wood), and 
so on. 

Eilte, gen. eilidh, a hind, is probably the origin of Kilhilt 
{coill eilte), wood of the hinds, Craignelder, and other names ; 
dordn, an otter, of Puldowran and Aldowran ; cat, the wild-cat, 2 
of Drumwhat, Alwhat, Cairn-na-gath. 

En, a bird, may be recognised in Barnean, Dernain, Knock- Birds - 
nain ; iolare [illery], the eagle, in Benyellary ; fitheach [feeach], 
the raven, in Craigenveoch ; seobhag [shog], the hawk, in Garn- 
shog ; faeildn , the sea-gull, in Derwhillan; coileach, a cock (pro- 
bably a heathcock or grouse), in Craigenholly. 

Fish are commemorated in Lochanscadden and Culscadden, Fish, rep- 
tiles, and 
from sgaddn, a herring ; in Lochenbreck and Altibrick, from insects. 

brec, a trout ; in Lanebreddan, from braddn, a salmon ; frogs in 
Lingloskin and Darloskine, from losgdn, a frog ; and even the 
insect world seems to have given names to Barnshangan, 
Dernashangan, and many other places, from seangdn [shangan], 
an ant. The latter name, however, meaning literally the 

1 Dr. John Stuart mentions the application of an equivalent soubriquet 
in English-speaking times : " One of the monks who bore the body of St. 
Cuthbert to the grave was guilty, says Reginald, of hiding a cheese from 
his brethren, and was believed for a time to have been changed into a fox, 
whence his descendants were named Tod, ' quod vulpiculam sonat.' " Book 
of Deer, cvi. 

2 The domestic cat was probably unknown in North Britain in Celtic 
times. 



34 STUDJES IN THE 

slender or wee fellow, may very likely have been the name of 
individuals. 

Vegetation. "Woods, trees, and plants, naturally present themselves in 
all countries as distinctive features of locality ; accordingly our 
place-names contain a vivid portraiture of the primitive vegeta- 
tion of the land. Coill, a wood, appears both as a prefix, as in 
Culmore, coill mdr, the great wood, and as a suffix, as in Glen- 
whillie, gleann choille, the glen of the wood. The Scots pine 
is plentiful in our bogs, and was freely used in the construc- 
tion of crannogs or lake-dwellings; it is therefore somewhat 
strange that the only place which seems to have taken its 
name from that tree is Loch Goosey, in Kells parish, from 
guithseach [geusagh], a pine. 

Probably the most important tree, and not the least com- 
mon, was the oak, which accounts for the innumerable places 
named from dair, dara, darach, an oak, such as Auchendarroch, 
Drumdarrochy, Kildarroch; while doire [dirrie], meaning a 
wood generally, but also specially an oak wood, gives Derry, 
Blairderry, etc. Both these words, however, in composition 
are difficult to distinguish in Anglicised names from the form 
assumed by dearg, red. 

Beith [bey], the birch seems to have been as common as 
the oak, and may frequently be recognised in the syllable -bay 
or -bae, as in Polbae, Falbae, Knockiebay, or aspirated Width 
[vey], as in Auchenvey; and the adjectival form leithach 
[bayoch], a place of birches, yields Beoch. Other trees are 
fuinnsean, uinnsean, or uinnseog [inshan, inshog], the ash, as 
in Inshanks, Drumnaminshog ; fearn, the alder, as in Balfern, 
Drumfarnachan ; cuillean, the holly, as in Barhullion, Collin 
Island; from whence comes cuillcanach, a place of hollies, 
giving Cullenoch and Cullendoch; saileach [sallagh], the 
willow, giving Barsalloch; coll, a hazel, Barquhill, and the 
more modern form caldtun, Caldons ; leamh [lav] the elm, as in 
Lavach, or combined with coill, as in Barluell (barr leamh- 



TOPO GRA PHY OF GA LL O WA Y. 35 

chuill [lavwhill], hill-top of the elm wood). There is also an 
alternative form sleamh, or sleamhdn [slav, slavan], which 
remains in Craigslouan (creag sleamhan, crag of the elms). 
Sceithdg [skeog], the hawthorn, comes often in such names as 
Skeog, Drumskeog, Auchenskeoch. Humbler vegetation suf- 
ficed to distinguish Barnernie, from airne, a sloe-bush ; Drangan 
and Cardryne, from droiccheann or droineann, the black thorn ; 
Smirle, from smeur, smeurlach, a bramble ; Auchendolly, from 
dealg [dallug] a thorn ; Auchengilshie, Tarwilkie, Knockgulsha 
from giolc, the rush; Freuch, from fraoch, heather; Drum- 
rannie, from raineach, fern. 

Offices and occupations are largely represented; e.g. ri, a king Offices and 
or chief, as in Ardrie ; Grennan, being greandn, the chief resi- trades ' 
dence where he dwelt ; lard, a rhymer, in Dirvaird and Barn- 
board ; goWia [gow], gen. gobhan [gown], a smith, in Balgown ; 
Challoch, from tealach, the smith's forge, and Drumacardy, from 
cearda [carda], also a forge or workshop. Grtsach, a cobbler or 
embroiderer, is retained in Balgracie (baile gresaich, the cob- 
bler's house); while mills were plentiful, as shown by the 
many names containing muilean, as Drummullin, four times 
in Wigtonshire alone, Dernemullie, and so on. 

The advent of Christianity introduced a new element. Christian 
Words descriptive of ecclesiastical offices or rites were adapted t^. euc 
from the Latin to suit Celtic lips. Sacart or sagart, the priest 
(fromLat. sacerdos), built himself a till, a cell or chapel (Lat. cello); 
so to this day Altaggart (allt sliagairt, the priest's stream) flows 
past the site of Kilfeather (till Pheaduir, Peter's cell). Easpug, 
a bishop (Lat. episcopus), abb, an abbot, cUreg, a cleric, manach, 
a monk (monachus), brathair [braar], a friar, cailleach, a nun 
(this last not being a borrowed word), all have their memories 
perpetuated in Gillespie, Balnab, Portaclearys, Kermauachan, 
Altibrair, and Portencalzie. The Celtic till passed insensibly 
into the old Northern English kirk (A.-S. cirece, E. church). So 
we find such names as Kirkpatrick written indifferently Kil- 



36 STUDIES IN THE 

patrick and Kirkpatrick, in both of which forms the Celtic con- 
struction, with the qualitative last, is retained. The low Latin 
capella, a chapel, passed into the Erse caipeal, and survives not 
only in names like Chapelrossan and Barcaple, but as in 
alternative forms like Chapelheron or Chipperheron, in which 
caipeal, a chapel, and tiobar, a well, seem to compete which 
shall commemorate St. Kieran. 

Celtic hagiology is as slippery a subject as Celtic etymology, 
but there are many early dedications which cannot be mistaken. 
The name of the earliest evangelist of Galloway, St. Ninian, 
appears in many places, as Ninian, Eingan, and Dingan. The 
great missionary of the rival church of Ireland, Columba, has 
left his name ineffaceably stamped in the name Kirkcolm 
a parish which, as early as Edward Second's reign, was pro- 
nounced as now, Kircum. 1 In the same parish, Killiema- 
cuddican probably represents an endearing appellation after 
St. Cuthbert (rille ma Cudacain), whose name appears with 
more propriety in the written form of Kirkcudbright, though 
even there the pronunciation goes far to disguise it Kirk- 
coobrie. St. Peter, St. Fillan, St. Martin, St. Mary, St. Win- 
nock, St. Bricius, St. Kennera, and a host of minor person- 
ages, are commemorated in Kilfeather, Kilfillan, Kirkmadrine, 
Kilmorie, Kirkgunzeon, Kirkmabreck, Kirkinner, and other 
ecclesiastical sites. 

The name of the Saviour himself seems to be preserved in 
Clachaneasy (clachan losa) and Kirkchrist, while the lurid 
light of an earlier and more savage faith lingers round Beltane 
Hill. Clachanarrie, the stones of worship, may denote a pagan 
monument where the converted Gael bowed to the new religion, 
whose priests knew how to take a right advantage of the habits 
of devotion associated with certain localities. 

As the symbol of the new faith grew to be a familiar 
landmark in the eyes of the people, the cross became a fre- 

1 See Kirkcolm in Glossary. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 37 

quent component in local names, as is testified by names like 
Craigencrosh, Balnacross, Crosherie, and, in one place at least, 
Clayshant (clack scant, the holy stone), the Latin sanctus pre- 
serves, in Celtic dress, very much of its original appearance. 

The surface of the land was designated garbh [garriv], rough, 
or carrach, with the same meaning, in Garvilland or Knocken- 
harrie ; min [meen] or reidh [ray], smooth, as Barineen, Drum- 
rae. Hills were m6r, great, or beag, little, as Drummore, Drum- 
beg. When land grew light-coloured grass it would be apt to 
be described as ban, white, like Drumbain, fionn [finii], white, 
like Blairfin, or buidhe [bwee], yellow, like Drunibuie; when 
heather grew dark upon it, don, brown, would give the name 
Drum don ; and when peat or bog gave it a still darker hue, it 
would come to be known as dubh [dooh], like Drumdow. 
Green pasture is spoken of as glas, green, as in Barglas, while 
grey cliffs, or land strewn with boulders, is Hath [lee], grey, as 
Craiginlee, or riabhach [reeagh], grey, as Drumreoch. Odhar 
[owr] is another word signifying grey, which appears in many 
names, such as Drumours. Eedness from any cause, whether 
from peculiar vegetation, red soil, or, in some cases, from blood- 
shed, is expressed by one of three words, namely, dearg, giving 
Baryerrock and Barjarg ; ruadh [roo], in Teroye and Tannie- 
roach, or corcor, corcorach, in Barncorkrie. Dappled or varie- 
gated places are called brec or ceannfhionn [cannon], as Knock- 
break and Knockcannon. 

In short, every possible characteristic, whether of position, 
size, shape, colour, vegetation, consistency, every well-known 
variety of animals fed or hunted on the land, all customs reli- 
gious or otherwise, all occupations or handicrafts, as well as 
names of individuals, readily lent themselves as definitions of 
locality, and were applied by the early inhabitants in precisely 
the same simple, practical, and occasionally imaginative way, 
as is practised by people of the present day. 

From the time of Ptolemy nearly twelve hundred years 



38 STUDIES IN THE 

Early topo- elapsed from which we glean nothing, except incidentally, of 
Gaiioway. the topography of Galloway. 

About the year 1250 Matthew Paris compiled his Abbre- 
viatio Chronicorum, 1 in which he gives an interesting map of 
Great Britain, 2 the whole of Scotland, in accordance with the 
error prevalent among geographers from the days of Ptolemy, 
being represented as deflected to the east, Galloway occupying 
the north-west extremity ; the province (Galeweia) is placed 
north of the river making Clydesdale (fluvius faciens Cludes- 
dale), and it contains no names of places. 

Next in order of antiquity is a map 3 which hung until the 
middle of the eighteenth century in the Bodleian Library, and 
to which Mr. Cosmo Innes assigned a date earlier than A.D. 1330. 
It contains Great Britain and part of Ireland. Galloway is here 
treated in greater detail; in common with the whole island 
from Kent to Caithness, it is sparsely sprinkled with quaint 
red-roofed houses. The following names of places are given : 
Candida casa (Whithorn). 
mons crefel (Criffel). 
fluv. dee (R. Dee), 

loghdone (Loch Doon). 

f. loghenawe (probably Lochnaw, for although 
placed N.E. of the Dee, it is near 
the head of Loch Eyan, which is 
represented as running east and 
west). 

Then we have a map from the MS. of John Hardyng, 4 author 
of the Rhyming Chronicle, who was employed by Henry vi. for 
various political purposes in Scotland, A.D. 1437-1460. In 

1 Cott. MSS., British Museum, Jul. D. vii. fol. 50, B. 

2 Reproduced in the National Manuscripts of Scotland, vol. II., plate V A . 

3 Ibid. vol. in., plate ii. 

4 Hardyng's Chronicle ; Selden MSS. B. 10 (3356), Bodleian Library. 
This map is reproduced in the National Manuscripts of Scotland, vol. u. 
plate Ixviii. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 39 

Galway (Galloway) appear the names Kirkubrigh, Treve 
(Threave), and Sulway (Solway). 

Besides these there exists a report upon the Western 
Marches of Scotland, prepared probably by an English official 
between the years 1563 and 1566. 1 The first portion of the 
MS. has disappeared ; it begins in a most tantalising way in 
the middle of a description of the coast of Galloway, and an 
estimate of the force required to seize and hold it. Wigston 
(Wigtown), Cardines, Crukilton, Kirkcowbright, and other 
places are described with the utmost minuteness, and the views 
are carefully drawn and vividly coloured. The name of the 
writer and artist is not preserved. 

Towards the close of the century a complete and laborious Timothy 
survey of the province was for the first time undertaken. 
No one who has made a study, however limited, of the 
topography of Galloway, can fail to pay a tribute of praise to 
the memory of Timothy Pont. The labour involved in the 
production of his maps and writings would have been 
meritorious even had he been able to command modern 
appliances of survey and locomotion. But when it is remem- 
bered that Scotland in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
was traversed by few roads, and was in a condition varying 
between civil war and constant social disturbance, one cannot 
but marvel at the patience with which he prosecuted his task, 
and the completeness to which he brought it, and, at the same 
time, feel regret that he did not live to see his work in the 
hands of the public. 

Timothy Pont was the eldest son of Mr. Eobert Pont, a 
minister of the Church of Scotland immediately after the 

1 Cott. MSS., British Museum ; Titus, c. xii. fol. 76 to 87. This docu- 
ment has been printed in the History of Liddesdale, Eskdale, Ewesdale, 
Wauchopedale, and the Debateable Land, by K B. Armstrong (Edinburgh, 
1883), Part I., App. p. cvi. The coloured drawings of Cardiness (Cruggleton ?) 
Castle, Kirkcudbright, Carlaverock Castle, and Annan, are beautifully 
executed in facsimile. 



40 STUDIES IN THE 

Eeformation. He and his brother Zachary matriculated in 
St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, in 1579-80, and graduated 
in 1583-84. In 1574 Timothy's father, who was Provost of 
Trinity College, Edinburgh, granted him, while still a schoolboy, 
a charter of the church lands of Strathmartin and of Pentempler. 
Timothy was appointed minister of Dunnett, in Caithness, in 
1600, and notices of him as parson of that parish are found down 
to the year 1610. He seems, however, to have travelled in 
person over the greater part of Scotland, including the Isles, 
and to have collected a vast amount of material, topographical, 
historic, and antiquarian. His death must have taken place 
between 1610 and 1614, in which latter year Mr. William 
Smith was in occupation of the benefice of Dunnett, but, 
minute as are the circumstantial details of many ignoble lives 
and deaths in all periods of our history, Timothy Font's ener- 
getic soul passed away without record, and no man knows 
where his bones were laid. 

But a noble monument was reared to his memory by his 
own hands. His maps and papers passed into the hands of 
Kobert Gordon of Straloch, geographer and antiquary, " second 
son of Sir John Gordon of Pitlurg, who was directed by 
Charles I. to aid the Blaeus of Amsterdam with such 
information as the writings of Pont afforded, to further their 
project of publishing an atlas of Scotland in their great work 
of an Atlas of the World, which they undertook in 1655." 1 

Fifty years or thereby after his death the results of Font's 
labours were given to the world in Blaeu's magnificent Atlas, 
wherein, enshrined in time-mellowed vellum, is stored a mass 
of information such as has rarely been committed to the hands 
of a single publisher. Four maps are devoted to Galloway, 
one containing the whole Province, another the Sheriffdom of 
Wigton, a third the western half of the Stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, and a fourth showing the eastern half. They are 

1 Font's Cuninghame TopographlseJ, Introd., p. viii. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 41 

accompanied by an extract from Camden descriptive of the 
Province, and also by an article from the pen of Mr. John 
Maclellan, a translation of which is given in the Appendix. 

Many of the names contain misprints ; others, owing to the 
maps having been engraved in Amsterdam, have received a 
Dutch complexion, which may be recognised in variations 
such as Boirlant for Bordland (or Boreland, as it is now 
written) ; nevertheless, making every allowance for this, as 
well as for the arbitrariness of the spelling of the period, the 
value of Font's rendering of the names as they sounded in his 
ears in 1600 and the ten succeeding years, cannot be exag- 
gerated in relation to an attempt to interpret them. 

The vernacular of Galloway is said to have continued Erse 
or Gaelic until about the time of the geographer's birth. He 
probably encountered it still lingering in the wild districts of the 
Glenkens, Glentrool, and the moorland districts of Wigton- 
shire, and even if he were ignorant of it at the commencement 
of his work, his incumbency of the Highland parish of Dunnett 
must have given him a familiarity with its sound and sense. 
In his "Alphabet!" of places in Cuninghame, he interprets 
many Gaelic names, consequently his rendering of place- 
names in Galloway is infinitely more valuable than if they 
had been written down by a scribe ignorant of the speech in 
which they are framed. But though we accept gratefully their 
written forms of names, the greatest care must be exercised in 
accepting the etymologies of early writers. There seems to be 
a fascination in the pursuit of the idea conveyed in a local 
name, which, from the earliest times, has prevailed to lead 
sober-minded historians into rash speculations. Even the 
earnest Pont waxes almost waggish in his glee at having hit 
upon a connection between Ptolemy's Lucopibia and Whithorn : 
" Neirtmto this (Vigtoune) Ptolemee placed the city Leuco- 
phibia, therafter the episcopall seat of St. Ninian, wich Beda 
calleth Candida Casa, and wee now in this same sense Whit- 



42 STUDIES IN THE 

home. Quhat say you then if Ptolemee, after his maner, 
translated that name in Greeke \evica oiKiSia, that is, Whitt- 
houses (instead quhereof the transcribers have thruste upoiie 
us Leucophibia), wich the picts termed Candida Casa." 1 

It is perhaps hardly necessary to remark that Ptolemy 
wrote three centuries before Ninian built his Candida Casa. 
The name doubtless expressed the appearance of the first stone- 
and-lime building in these parts, as distinguished from struc- 
tures of dry stone, wood, or wattle. Among the crofters of 
the West Highlands at this day the distinction is well under- 
stood between a " black house " of dry stone and thatch, and a 
" white house " of stone and mortar with slate roof. Further, 
Ptolemy did not write Leucophibia, but Lucopibia, and as the 
locality he assigned to this place is extremely vague, it is 
much more probable that the name contains the original form 
of the name now written " Luce." 

Another instance of wild identification of places is given by 
Peter Heylin, who in his Cosmography (London, 1669) speaks 
of " the Novantes, containing Galloway, Carrick, Kyle, and Cun- 
ningham. Principal places of the which were Liwopibia, now 
Whithern, and Berigonium, now Bargenie" (Lib. i. 285). Having 
rendered Ptolemy's Rerigonium into Berigonium, and found 
Bargeny to correspond to the sound of the erroneous rendering, 
he unhesitatingly identified one with the other. 

In the seventeenth century several topographical treatises 
on Galloway were compiled. Of these there survive the follow- 
ing: Description of the Stewartrie of Kircudbright^ Description 
of the Parish of Kirkpatrick Durham? Description of the Parish 
of Minygaff* Description of the Shcriffdom of Wigtoun, by Sir 
Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, and David Dunbar of Baildon ; 5 

1 Font's MS., Advocates' Library, 33. 2. 27, No. 14. 

2 Sibbald MSS., Advocates' Library, Jac. v. 1.4. 

3 Macfarlane MSS., vol. i. p. 510 ; Advocates' Library, Jac. v. 4. 19. 

4 Ibid. vol. L p. 517 ; Advocates' Library, Jac. v. 4. 19. 

5 Sibbald MSS., Advocates' Library, Jac. v. 1. 4. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 43 

Further Account anent Galloway, by Dr. Archbald. 1 These 
tracts are printed in the Appendix to Symson's Description of 
Galloway? 

It is to be understood that no more is claimed for the The present 
following pages than to be a contribution to the study of the tentative, 
local names of Galloway. Difficulties, in themselves most 
forbidding, and almost sufficient to stop even an accomplished 
Celtic scholar on the threshold, might well have deterred an 
humble student such as the present writer. But it seemed to 
him that some portion of what has been done for Ireland by the 
labours of O'Donovan, Beeves, Joyce, and others, may some 
day be accomplished for Scotland ; and if the collection and 
systematic arrangement of names, and their collation with those 
conferred in Ireland by a people speaking the same language 
and leading similar lives, should prove an assistance to those 
who in future may undertake the work with higher qualifica- 
tions for success, then it may be that the labour connected 
with the task has not been altogether wasted. 

Most of the names in the Glossary will be found in the 
Ordnance Survey maps, but many which the surveyors have 
omitted have been copied from estate maps in private hands. 
My grateful thanks are due to those who have kindly assisted 
me in the search for these names, which are in danger of being 
lost sight of ; and I will thankfully receive any further contri- 
butions of names not recorded in these pages. Other names I 
have received orally, which do not appear in any maps or 
documents which I have seen. Some of them are interesting: 
Scrabba, for example, the name of two strips of pasture, one in 
Mochmm, the other in Glasserton parish, is the Erse scrath bo 
[scrawbo], cows'-grass, and corresponds with Scrabo in Ireland. 

1 Sibbald MSS., Advocates' Library, W. 5. 17. This Tract refers almost 
exclusively to the natural history of the district. 

2 A Large Description of Galloicay, by Andrew Symson, Minister of 
Kirkinner, MDCLXXXTV., with an Appendix containing Original Papers from 
the Sibbald and Macfarlane MSS. Edinburgh, 1823. 



44 TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 

The supposed derivations and meanings are, of course, with 
very few exceptions, stated tentatively. Where the sense and 
origin are very doubtful, a note of interrogation [?] follows the 
Celtic words ; the explanations in these cases are intended 
purely as suggestions. Dr. Joyce's work on the Origin and 
History of Irish Names of Places has been constantly referred 
to, as being the most complete study on topographical nomen- 
clature known to me. The Irische Texte, mit Worterbuch of 
Professor Windisch, has been relied on for Old Erse forms, 
while Dr. Reeves's monumental work, Adamnan's Life of St. 
Columba, and Dr. O'Donovan's Annals of the Four Masters have 
been found a perfect treasure-house of learned information. 

An attempt has been made to show the origin and con- 
nection of many of the words entering into our topography, 
and their connection with other branches of Aryan speech. 
In this I have relied mainly on Professor Skeat's Etymological 
Dictionary of the English Language, while Dr. Jamieson's well- 
known Dictionary of the Scottish Language is freely quoted in 
explanation of many Lowland or Broad Scots words applied to 
features of land, although the advance of Comparative Etymo- 
logy since the days of the last-named writer has rendered his 
derivations almost useless. 



AN TIK-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL 



AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL 
(THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY). 

ACHIE HILL (P. Achy). < Kells.' Achadh [aha], a field ; trans- 
lated campulus by Adamnan. Pont explains achadh, as 
" ane Irich vord signifies a folde or a crofte of land gained out 
of a vyld ground of before vnmanured." Cuninghame, p. 50. 
Origin uncertain, but possibly connected with Lat. ager, a 
field. It is liable to confusion in compound names with ath, 
atha [ah, aha], a ford. Cf. AUCHIE ; also Agha, a parish in 
Carlo w, and many names beginning with Ach, Auch, Agh, 
Augh, Auchie, and Aghy, in both Scotland and Ireland. 

ACQUAINTANCE HILL. ' Carsphairn.' Cf. QUANTAN'S HILL. 

ADDERHALL. ' Penninghame.' Eadar glwbhal [1] [howl], between 
the forks. Cf. Addergoole, Adderagool, Addrigoole, Adrigole, 
Edergole, and Edergoole in various parts of Ireland, i.e. eadar 
gabhal [adder gowl], between the (prongs of a) fork (of a river, 
roads, etc.); or perhaps like Adderwal in Donegal (eadar bhaile, 
mid-town), in which sense see BALMINNOCH. Joyce, i. 529, 
ii. 444. 

AGGISTON. * Sorbie.' 

AIKET HILL (Inq. ad Cap. 1550, Aikhead). ' Urr.' A.S. dc wudu, 
oak wood. A.s. dc gives BR. so. aik, and (by change of long a 
according to rule into oo), M.E. oke, ook, E. oak + DU. eik + iCEL. 
eik+DAN. eeg, eg+SWED. ek + G. eiche, from Teut. type aika 
(Skeat, s. v. oak). A.S. wudu (whence M.E. wode, wde, E. wood, 
BR. sc. wud) + iCEL. vfor, a tree, wood + DAN. and SWED. ved+ 
M.H.G. wife, O.H.G. witu + 'ERS'E and GAEL, fiodh + w. gwydd. 
Skeat suggests original sense was " twig," mass of twigs, bush, 
connected with E. withy *Jwi, to twine. 

AIKEY BUSH (P. Oakybuss, Akybuss). ' Balmaclellan.' Aiken 
bush, oak wood. The second syllable -ey is the remains of the 
suffix -en ; BR. sc. aiken (Jamiesori), A.s. dcen (Bosworth), of or 
belonging to the oak. 

AIKIEHEAD. ' Penninghame.' BR. SC. aiken head, hill of oaks. 



48 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

AIKIE SLACK. 'Colvend.' BR. sc. aiken slack, oak hollow. 
" Slak, slack, slake, an opening in the higher part of a hill, 
where it becomes less steep, and forms a sort of pass." 
Jamieson. A.S. sleac, slack, slow; M.E. slak, E. slack-}- ICEL. 
sfa&r+swED and DAN. sZa/;+PKOV. G. schlock, slack + M.H.G. 
slack, O.H.G. slah. All from a TEUT. base slaka, slack. The 
idea of slack used topographically seems to be intermission, 
relaxation, where the hill "leaves off" being steep, or where 
the effort in climbing is " slackened." 

AIMEY HILL. * Kirkcowan.' 

AIRD (Inq. ad Cap. 1623, Aird ; 1668, Aird). ' Inch.' Ard, high, 
a height. The same in ERSE, GAEL., c., and M. + LAT. arduus. 

AIRDRIE. ' Kirkbean.' See under ARDRIE. 

AIRDS (Inq. ad Cap. 1576, Airdis ; P. Airds). 'Girthon,' 
* Kells,' ' Berwick,' ' Troqueer.' The heights. See AIRD, to 
which E. plural has been added. 

AIRIE. ' Balmaghie,' ' Kells.' Airidh [airie], a shieling, a hill- 
pasture. " Airghe, a place for summer grazing in the moun- 
tains." Lluyd. This word does not seem to have survived 
in Irish place-names, but in the Martyrology of Donegal it is 
preserved in several, as Airidh Locha Con, the shieling or 
pasture of Loch Conn ; Airidh fotha, the long or far shieling ; 
Airiud bainne, Ariud-Brosca, Airidh-indaich, Ariudh-mmlt, etc. 

AIRIEBENNAN. ' Kells.' Airidh [airie] beannain, shieling or pas- 
ture of the hill ; dim. of beann, or airidh bennan, shieling of 
the calves; "bendan (bennan?"), O'Dav. p. 57. See under 
BENNAN. 

AIRIEGLASSEN (Inq. ad Cap. 1698, Whytharriglassen vel Whyte- 
darriglassen). ' Kirkcowan.' Airidh [airie] glasan [?], green 
hill-pasture. The terminal an is often added without a 
diminutive signification. Lluyd gives glasuaine, green, as 
equivalent to glas. " Some nouns ending in an and og do 
not always express diminutive ideas." O'Donovan. 

The meaning may also be airidh glaisin, hill-pasture or 
shieling of the streamlet (c/. Ardglushin in Cavan, the height 
of the streamlet); or again, Glasan's shieling, from a man's 
name. Glasan and Glaisin from glas, green, are mentioned 
by O'Donovan as one of the numerous names of men formed 
from adjectives denoting colour (Topographical Poems, p. 55). 

AIRIEHASSAN (P. Aryhassen). ' Kirkinner.' Airidh chasain [?] 
[hassan], shieling of the pathway. A farm on the old pack- 
horse track from Mochrum to Wigton. Cf. BALHASIE, 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 49 

CULQUHASEN; also Cassan in Fermanagh, Cussan in Kilkenny, 
Cossaun in Gahvay, Ardnagassan in Donegal, Ardnagassane in 
Tipperary, etc. GAEL, casan, a path, perhaps akin to E. cause- 
way, in which mistaken etymology has introduced wa; formerly 
causey (Milton, P.L., x. 415, and cause Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, 
xviii. 128, 140) o.F. caucie (F. chaussde, SPAN. cahada) LOW 
LAT. calciata (calciata via), a causeway LAT. calx. 

AIRIEHEMMING (Inq. ad Cap. 1628, Areheman ; P. Aryhaman ; 
Inq. ad Cap. 1650, Aricheman ; 1663, Arihemmane). 'Old 
Luce.' Cf. AREEMING. 

AIRIELICK (P. Airluick). ' Mochrum.' Airidh ttc or lie, shieling 
of the flat stones (or tombs). Flags used to be quarried here, 
a wall of which was found encircling a crannog or lake- 
dwelling in the moss, which was excavated in 1884. Coll. 
A.G.A.A., vol. v. p. 114; o. ERSE lee, ERSE leac [lack], lie 
[lick], Hag [leeg], GAEL, leac, w. Ihechen + LAT. lapis + GK. 
\i6o<>. For gen. plur. Uc, cf. " O etrochta lee I6gmar." Fis 
Adamndin (from Lebor Brec) 18, 1. 30, Windisch, p. 182 ; 
but in the Lebor na hUidre the same passage is given, " O 
etrochta le"ac logmar," showing the alternative form. 

AIRIELIG (Inq. ad Cap. 1692, Arielig ; 1667, Arilig; P. Ariluig, 
Erluganair, Arylaganair). ' Kirkcowan.' Airidh luig, shiel- 
ing of the hollow, or of the loch. Loch, gen. locha or luig. 
" Luig, the gen. of loch, An luig, of the lake." Lluyd. 
Arylaganair looks like airid-h luig an air, shieling of the hollow 
of slaughter, or of the ploughing. 

AIRIE5LLAND (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Ardowland ; P. Aryoullan ; 
Symson, Ariullan ; Inq. ad Cap. 1697, Arioland ; Inq. ad Cap. 
1628, Areulanes). ' Mochrum,' ' Old Luce/ ' Stoneykirk.' 

AIRIEQUHILLART [pron. Airiewhillart], (P. Arychollart; Inq. 
ad Cap. 1664, Airiquhillart). 'Mochrum.' Airidh abhal- 
ghoirt [1] [airy oulart], shieling of the apple-garden. Cf. 
Bally whollart in Down, Ballinoulart in Wexford and King's 
County, Oulart in Wexford, and Knockullard in Carlow. 
o. ERSE aball, uball, ERSE abhal, GAEL, ulhall + w. afal, B. 
aval + ICEL. epli + DU. appel + o. FRIES, appel + A.S. ceple 
ceppel (whence M.E. appel, appil, E. apple) + SWED. dple, apple 
+ DAN. able + O.H.G. a,pJwl, G. apfel + RUSS. jabloko + LITH. 
obulys. 

AIRIES (IV . P. MSS. Areiss ; P. Aiyes, Aries ; Inq. ad Cap. 1568, 
Airie ; 1625, Airie). ' Kirkcolm,' ' Kirkirmer.' Aros, a 
D 



50 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

house, a dwelling. " Aras, a room, a house." Lluyd. This 
word does not appear in Irish names. 

AIRLESS (P. Airlyis). ' Kirkinner.' 

AIRLOUR (P. Arlair; Inq. ad Cap. 1684, Aulare vel Airlare). 
' Mochrum.' Urldr [1], a floor ; hence a flat piece of land. 
Cf. Urlar in Sligo and Urlaur in Mayo. 

AIRY HILL (P. Ary). ' Berwick.' See under AIRIE. 

AIRYLAND (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Arilane; P. Arylane). 'Kelton.' 
Airidh leathan [airie lahan], broad hill-pasture. Leathan ' is 
often shortened to lane, especially in the north (of Ireland) : 
as in Gortlane, near Cushendall, in Antrim, Lislane in 
Deny and Tyrone.' Joyce, ii. 418. See under AUCHLANE. 

AKEWHAN FORD (on the Dee). 

ALCHERRY CLEUGH. ' Carsphairn.' The prefix appears to be 
aill, a cliff, or perhaps allt, a glen or stream. See under 
CLEUGH. 

ALDERG6WAN. ' Colvend.' Allt an gobhan [gown or gowen], the 
smith's glen. In primitive times the smith or worker in 
metals occupied an important office, and the word gobha [gow] 
gen. sing, gobhan, gobha, gabond, enters into innumerable place- 
names in Scotland and Ireland ; 0. ERSE goba, O. w. gob, 
\v. gof, C. and B. gof. O. ERSE alt, "cliff or height," ab 
altitudine (Corm. Transl., p. 56) ; GAEL, "allt, a river with 
precipitous banks ; a river, a brook." Macalpine. In 
Galloway and Ulster, it nearly always means a glen, or the 
stream that runs within the glen. The change of meaning 
has been progressive, from the height to the valley between 
the heights, thence to the stream in the valley. There are 
many words meaning " hill " that come to mean " hollow," 
and vice versa. 

ALi>6uRAN. ' Leswalt.' Allt ddran, glen of the otters, otterburn. 
Cf. POLDOWRAN, PULDORES. Ddran = dobharan [doveran, 
doran], the water-animal ; ERSE dobharchu, the water-dog, w. 
dyfrgi, C. dourghi, B. durki, Id dur. The idea is the same 
in Celtic and Teutonic languages. Thus otter A.S. otor + 
DU. otter + ICEL. otr + DAN. odder + SWED. utter + G. otter + 
Russ. vuidra + LITH. udra + GK. vSpa, a water-snake. The 
common Teutonic type is utra, answering to Aryan udra, 
standing for orig. wadra ; it is closely related to water. The 
sense is ' water-animal.' (Skeat.) 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 51 

ALHANG (a hill 2100 ft.) (P. Aldhing). ' Carsphairn.' Faill, or 
aill, a cliff or precipice. Usually faill in the south of Ireland 
becomes fhaill [ail] in the north. Cf. 0. ERSE ail, a stone. 

ALG6WER STRAND ' Girthon.' Allt, or aill gabhar [gower], the 
glen or cliff of the goats. Cf. Allagower in Dublin county). 
"Strand, a rivulet." Jamieson. A.s. strand, a margin. 
Gabhar or gobhar, a goat, gen. goibhre, 0. ERSE gabar, 
a horse or goat + W. gafar + C. gauvr + B. gauvr + LAT. 
caper. The word was originally applied both to the horse 
and the goat. Cormac gives gabur, a goat, gobur, a horse. In 
Colgan's Life of St. Aidus Loch-gabhra is translated Stagnum- 
equi. In mod. Gael, gobhar means a she-goat as distinct from 
boc, a he-goat. In this case, and many others, owing to the 
wild, rugged ground, and to the fact that wild goats exist in 
considerable numbers still, the name may be safely assumed 
as having been given in reference to goats rather than to 
horses. 

ALLANBANK. ' Buittle.' 

ALLANBAY. ' Minigaff.' Aill an beith [bey], cliff of the birch- 
tree, or eilean beith, island or river-meadow of the birches. 
Beith or beth, w. beduen. B. bezo, bedho -}- LAT. betula. 

ALLAN'S CROSS. ' Berwick.' 

ALLANc6o. ' Leswalt.' Eilean dubh [allan doov or doo], black 
isle. o. ERSE oiUn, ERSE oiUan, GAEL, eilean + A.s. igland 
(whence M.E. Hand, ylond) + DU. eiland + ICEL. eyland, G. 
eiland, etc. Means primarily an island, but, like innis (BR. 
sc. inch, and isle), is often applied to pasture beside 
water. Neither oilman nor E. island are at all related, except 
in sense, to E. isle LAT. insula. Dubh is a very common 
word in composition, assuming the various forms of duff, doo, 
dow, dhu, dew, dee, etc. It is used both as prefix and suffix, 
w. du. C. diu, B. deia. 

ALLANEASY. ' Leswalt.' There is an island of the same name 
on the West Highland coast, on which are remains of a 
chapel, and which bears the sense of eilean losa [eesa], isle of 
Jesus. Cf. CLACHANEASY. 

ALLANGIBBON (an island in the Ken). 'Dairy.' Eilean, an 
island. 

ALLEN HEAD. ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Whithorn.' Aillean [?], the cliffs. 
See under ALHANG. 

ALMORNESS [pron. Ammerness]. ' Buittle.' 



52 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

ALMANACK HILL. ' Inch.' Allt manach []], the glen of the monks. 
Close by is Auld Taggart, q.v. ERSE, C., and B. manach, w. 
mynach LAT. monachus (whence A.S. munec, E. monk) + GK. 
fjiova^of, solitary, deriv. of /ioi>o9, alone. Difficult to distin- 
guish, in some names, from meadhonach [minnach]. 

ALR!ITH. ' Carsphairn.' A ill raith []], cliff of the fort. See 
under WRAITH. 

ALT, The. ' Glasserton,' ' Kirkinner.' Allt, a height. The 
primitive meaning seems to have been retained in each of 
these places. See under ALDERGOWAN. 

ALTADOCH BURN. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

ALTAGGART BURN (P. Alt. Taggart). * New Luce.' Allt shagairt 
[haggart], the priest's glen. o. ERSE sacard (Cormac, sacart) 
LAT. sacerdos (lit. " a presenter of holy offerings "), from LAT. 
base SAC, which, being nasalised, gives sancire, to establish, 
confirm, of which past part, sanctus gives F. saint, E. saint. In 
this word the s in composition often disappears (as in this 
name) by aspiration, or is eclipsed by t, as in BARTAGGART. 
Of. Carrickataggart, in Donegal, and many other names in 
Ireland. 

ALTAIN. ' Kirkmaiden.' Alltdn, a little glen or streamlet ; dim. 
of allt. 

ALT GLEN, The. ' Mochrum.' Allt, a glen ; the pleonastic name 
of the glen at Alticry. 

ALTIBEASTIE (P. Alaveisty). ' Kells.' Allt a' biasta (gen. of beist), 
glen of the beast, or of the serpent. Cormac, be'ist = LA r r. 
bestia ; W. bwyst (in bivyst-fil). Ponfs writing shows the 
aspirated form of genitive, bheiste. Cf. BALLOCHABEASTIE ; 
also Altnapaste in Ireland, Knockuabeast in Koscommon, 
Lisnapaste in Donegal and Mayo, Tobernapeastia in Kilkenny. 

ALTIBRAIR. 'New Luce.' Allt a' brathair [braar], the friar's 
glen. Close to Kilfeather and Altaggart, Cf. PORTBRIAR : 
also, in Cork county, Garranabraher. Brathair, a brother, 
hence a friar, w. brawd, plur. Irodyr, C. bredar + A.S. br6thor, 
whence M.E. brother + ICEL. brodir + GOTH, bi'dthar + O.H.G. 
pruoder+RUSS. brat' + LAT. j "rater +GK. (frparrfp + SKT. bhrdtri 
>^BHAR, to bear. 

ALTIBRICK STRAND. ' Kells.' Allt na breac [brack], stream of 
the trouts. Breac, a trout = bre"c, spotted; the spotted fish. 

ALTICRY (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Alticray; P. Aldchry). 'Mochrum.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 53 

ALTIGOUKIE (P. Altigobraide). ' New Luce.' 

ALTIVOLIE. ' Stoneykirk.' Allt na bhuaile [voolie], glen or 
stream of the cattle fold. Cf. Ballyvooley in Antrim, etc. 
Buailf, deriv. of bo, a cow. " The term booley was not confined 
to the mountainous districts, for in some parts of Ireland it 
was applied to any place where cattle were fed or milked, or 
which was set apart for dairy purposes." Joyce, i. 229. 

ALTIWHAT. ' Girthon.' Allt na chat, glen of the wild cats. See 
under ALWHAT. 

ALTON (Ing. ad Cap. 1629, Auldtoun ; 1630, Auldtoune ; 1636, 
Altoun ; P. Esschonne, from easdn, dim. of eas [ass], a 
cascade). ' Kirkmaiden.' Alltdn, a streamlet, dim. of allt, 
see ALTAIN. 

ALT6GUE [pron. Alchogue], (Inq. ad Cap. 1697, St. John's Croft, 
adjacens Culgroat, vocata Altileog; 1636, Crofta Sancti 
Johannis adjacens vocata Altichoge ; P. Aldtewick). 
' Stoneykirk.' Alltog, dim. of allt. 

ALWHANNIE (a hill, 1200 ft.). ' Carsphairn.' A ill, a cliff, per- 
haps fheannogh, of the carrion crows, like Mullanavannog in 
Monaghan. Cf. BARWHANNIE. 

ALWHAT (a hill, 1937 ft.). ' Carsphairn.' Aill chatt [haat], 
cliff of the wild cats. Cat (GAEL, and ERSE), a word of un- 
known origin, exists in many languages ; DU. hit + ICEL. 
Tcottr + DAN. kat + SWED. katt + O.H.G. kater, cfiazzd + G. kater, 
katze + w. cath+ BRET. caz+LATELAT. catus + nuss. kof, 
koshka + ARAB. qitt + TURK. kedi.+A.s. cat, catt. (Skeat.) Cf. 
DRUMWHAT, CAIRN-NA-GATH ; also Roscat in Carlow, and 
other places in Ireland. 

ALWHIBBIE. ' Stoneykirk.' Allt, a stream or glen. 

ALWHILLAN. ' Kells.' Aill chuileainn [liwillan], cliff of the holly 
bush. Cuileann, w. celyn, celin, B. kelen. In the E. holly the 
final n (retained in SC. hollin) has been dropped; M.E. holyn 
A.s. holen (this M.E. form produces holm oak (quercus ilici- 
foliits), the holly-leaved oak) -f DU. hitlst + G. hiilse, holly 
-f r. houx ; perhaps the base KUL, HUL is connected with LAT. 
culmtn, a peak (culmus, a stalk), from the pointed leaves. 
(Skeat). 

ANABAGLISH (P. Ennabaguish). ' Mochrum.' Eanach logluasgach 
or bogghluiseacM, the floating bog or morass ; a sufficiently 
close description of the place. Cf. Annaghbeg, in Ireland, 
and many other places in that country with names begin- 



54 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

ning Annagh, Anna, and Anny. Eanach, a moor, a marsh 
(O'fieilly) ; bogghluiseachd, floating, moving (O'Reilli/) ; GAEL. 
bogluasgach ; waving, floating, softly moving (Macalpine). 
Deriv. of bog, soft ; bogach, a bog. See under BOGUE. 

ANN AT HILL. * Kirkinner.' Annoid [annud], a church. This 
is on the farm of Kirkland of Longcastle, which accounts for 
the name. 

ANNATLAND (near Sweetheart Abbey). * New Abbey.' Church 
land. See under ANNAT HILL. 

ANSTOOL (P. Amstel). ' Balmaghie.' 

ANWOTH {Inq.ad Cap. 1575, Anuecht). (A parish in the Stewartry.) 

APPLEBIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1598, Aplebie ; W. P. MS. Apilbie ; P. 
. Apleby). ' Glasserton.' 

ARBIGLAND (P. Arbiggland ; Sibbald MS. Arbiglam). ' Kirkbean.' 

ARBRACK (Inq. ad Cap. 1625, Arbrok; W. P. MS. Arbrok; P. 
Arbrock). ' Whithorn.' 

ARDAcHTE (Ing. ad Cap. 1633, Ardachir vel Aldachie). 'Kirk- 
cowan.' Ard achadh [aha], high field. Cf. Ardagh and 
Ardaghy, commonly in Ireland, written by the Annalists 
Ardachadh. See under ACHIE and AIRD. 

ARDNIM6RD (Inq. ad Cap. 1614, Ardnamoird; 1692, Ardenmort; 
1627, Ardinmorde ; P. Arynamoirt). ' Kirkcowan.' Ard na 
mart, height of the oxen, or (if Font's spelling be the original), 
airidh na mart, hill-pasture of the oxen. Cf. Stranamort in 
Cavan, and Cahernamart (the old name of Westport) in Mayo. 

ARDOCH (P. Airdoch). ' Dairy.' See under ARDACHIE. The old 
name of Craufurdland, in Kilmarnock parish, was Ardach, of 
which Pont says, " Aaird-dach, or Ard-daach, as some inter- 
pret it ; a heigh plott, or daach, of land layand vpone a 
know." CuningJuime, p. 55. 

ARDRIE. ' Kirkcolm.' Ard righ, height of the king or chief (see 
under AUCHENREE), or perhaps ard reidh [ray], high plain, 
smooth height. " Reidh is usually applied to a mountain flat, 
or a coarse, moory, level piece of ground among hills." Joyce, 
i. 427. B. reiz. Cf. AIRDRIE. See under AUCHENREE. 

ARDWALL (P. Ardwel, Ardwell). 'Anwoth,' 'Borgue,' 'New 
Abbey.' Ard gall [?], the stranger's height, or height of the 
standing stones. The change from g to w is according to rule. 

ARDWELL. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Stoneykirk.' 

See under ARDWALL. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 55 

AREEMING (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Arreimein; Macfarlane MS., Arim- 
ing). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Cf. AIRIEHEMMING. 

ARGRUSK, ISLE OF (in the Dee). ' Minigaff.' 

ARKLAND (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Arkland ; P. Arckland). ' Gir- 
thon.' 

ARMANILLIE. ' Balmaclellan. 

ARNDARROCH (P. Arndarrag, Arndarrach). 'Dairy.' Ard na 
darach, height of the oaks. O. ERSE dair, gen. daro, dara, 
darach, GAEL, darach, W. derw, C. dar, B. derven + GOTH. triu, gen. 
trims, a tree + SWED. trd + DAN. tree + ICEL. ire, timber +A.S. 
tred, a tree (whence E. tree). All from TEUT. type trewa, a 
tree + RUSS. drew, a tree + GK. 8/91)9, an oak, Bopv, a spear 
shaft + SKT. dru, ddnt, wood. (Skeat, s.v. Tree.) 

ARNGRENNAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Argranane; P. Ardgrenen). 
' Tungland.' Ard an grianain [greenan], the height of the 
castle. See under GRENNAN. 

ARNMANNOCH (P. Ardmannoch, Armaunoch). ' Kirkgunzeon.' 
Ard na manach, height of the monks. Close by is a ruined 
church. See under ALMANACK. 

ARROW (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Arrow; P. Arrow; W. P. MS. 
Arrow). ' Glasserton.' Arbha [1] (arva, arwa, arroo), corn. 
Cf. ARVIE and ERVIE, also Clonarrow in King's Co., and 
Derryarrow in Queen's County. 

ARTFIELD (P. Artfell). ' Old Luce.' 

ARVIE. (P. Aruy, Erby, Errby). ' Kirkcolm,' 'Parton.' See 
under ARROW. 

ASHIEFANE. ' MinigaflF.' 

Ass OF THE GILL (a ravine on the Cree, about a mile above 
Newton-Stewart). 'Minigaff.' A compound of three lan- 
guages. GAEL, eas [ass], a cascade, SCAND. gil, a ravine. First 
came the Celt, who spoke of it as eas, then the Norse invader 
who called it gil, finally English speech united the two by 
interposing preposition and article. 

AUCHABRICK. ' Kirkmaideo.' Achadh Me [aha breck], dappled, 
brindled field. A common epithet of variegated, brindled 
land (see FLECKEDLAND). o. ERSE brdc, ERSE and GAEL, breac, 
w. brech, brith, formerly brida (Rhys, p. 62), B. briz+iCEL. 
freknur, pi. freckles + SWED. friikne, a freckle + DAN. fregne 
+ E. freckle, freckly + GK. irepicvos, spotted + SKT. 



56 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

AuCHENCliRN (Inq. ad Cap. 1575, Auchincairne; P. Achincairn). 
'Berwick.' Achadh an cairn, field of the cairn. "I went 
... to Aghakern, or the field of the cairn, a village so called 
from a cairn near." Letter from Bishop Pococke to his sister, 
A.D. 1760. O. ERSE carnd earn, card, a heap of stones, espe- 
cially over a grave. GAEL., ERSE, w., M., c., B. earn. The 
root-sense seems to be "stone," not "heap;" probably from 
a root car. whence carraig, creag, a cliff or rock, carrach, rocky 
(cara i. clocha, O'Dav., p. 63), B. karrek. a rock in the sea, ERSE 
ceart, a pebble, E. chert. The genitive of earn is now chuirn, 
but the old genitive was cairnd or chairnd : " Doberat cloich 
each fir leo do chur chairnd." Leabhar na h-Uidre, p. 86 b , 40. 

AUCHENCL6Y (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Auchincloye ; P. Achincloy). 
' Girthon,' ' Stoneykirk.' Achadh na cloicJie, field of the stone. 
Many townlands in Ireland bear the name of Aghnacloy. 
Cf. Auchencloich in Kilbirnie parish, Ayrshire, translated 
by Pont, " Ye fold of stones, or stoney fold." Cuninghame, 
p. 48. 

AUCHENDARROCH (P. Assindarroch). ' Inch.' Achadh na darach, 
field of the oaks, oakfield. Cf. Auchendarroch in Ayrshire, 
and Aghindarroch in Tyrone. See under ARNDARROCH. 

AUCHEND6LLY (P. Achindoly). * Crossmichael.' Achadh na 
dtulach [?], field of the hillocks, or achadh na dealg [dallig], 
field of the thorns. Cf. AUCHENTALLCCH and CLAUCHEN- 
DOLLY, and, in Antrim, Ballynadolly. 

AUCHENFAD. ' Eerwick,' * Troqueer.' Achadh fada, long or far 
field. " Fad, fada, long, tall." O'Reilly. 

AUCHENFRANCO (P. Achinfranco). 'Loch Button.' Achadh an 
Francaich, the Frenchman's field. Cf. FRANCO HILL, also, 
in lona, Port na bhfrancach. ERSE Francach, w. Frennig, 
C. Frinkak. + O.H.G. franko, a Frank, a free man. " The origin 
of the name Frank is obscure." Skeat. 

AUGHENFL6wER (P. Ach-na-flowir). ' Kirkcudbright.' Perhaps 
to be compared to Flowerhill in Sligo, which is a semi- trans- 
lation of cnoc an lobhair [lour], the leper's or sick man's hill. 
Cf. DRUMFLOWER. See under BARLURE. 

AUCHENGALIE (P. Achingailluy). * Mochrum.' 

AUCHENGASHELL. ' TAvynholm.' Achadh an gcaiseail [aha an 
gashell], field of the stone fort (castle). ERSE caiseal, \v. castell, 
C. costal + A.S. castel + 'LAT. castelhim, dim. of castrum, a camp. 

AUCHENGILSHIE (now called Gilshie Feys). 'Kirkinner/ 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 57 

Achadhdn giolchach [ahaan gilhya], rushy field. Cf. KNOCK- 
GILSIE, KNOCKGULSHA, CASSENGILSHIE, TARWILKIE. " Giolc, 
a reed or cane." Lluyd. In Southern Ireland giolc means 
broom, and also sometimes in the North ; e.g. Giltagh, in 
Fermanagh, which is called " Giltagh or Broomhill " in the 
Grand Jury Map of Devenish. Joyce, ii. 335. 

AUCHENGIBBERT (P. Achingibbert). ' Urr.' Acliadh an tiobair, 
field of the well. (See under AUCHENTIBBERT.) Tobar or 
tiobar, a well, often appears as chipper, kibber, or kipper, in 
compound as well as in simple place-names ; e.g. KIBBERTIE 
KITE WELL, CHIPPERMORE, CARRICK KIBBERTIE. 

AUCHENGOOL. ' Berwick.' Achadh na gabhal [gowl] ; literally 
the field of the fork (as the dividing of streams), (gabhal, 
furca, Ir. Gl.) ; but in MOD. GAEL, gabhall means " a portion 
of laud done by cattle in ploughing." Macalpine. O'Clery 
also gives gabhail, i. creach, plunder. See under ADDERHALL. 

AuCHENG6\VER. ' Kirkcolm.' AcJiadh na gobhar [aha na gowr], 
field of the goats. See under ALGOWER. 

AUCHENGRAY. ' New Abbey.' Achadh na gre"aich [1], field of the 
level moor or high flat. See under IRONGRAY. Auchengree, 
in Dairy parish, Ayrshire, written Achin-gray by Pont, is 
rendered Achadh na criadh, clay field, by his editor, Dobie. 
(CuningJiame, p. 48.) 

AUCHENHAY (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Auchinhey ; MS. 1527, Auchin- 
hay; P. Achinhae). 'Borgue,' 'Colvend,' 'Kirkpatrick Dur- 
ham.' Achadh na haithe [aha na haye], field of the kiln. 
Aith'[ah] a kiln for drying corn. " It is generally found in 
the end of names, joined with na, the gen. fern, of the 
article, followed by h, by which it is distinguished from ath, 
a ford, which takes an in the genitive." Joyce, i. 377. Cf. 
Annahaia and Annahaigh in Monaghan and Armagh, Bally- 
nahaha and Ballynahaia in Limerick ; Lisnahay in Antrim, 
Gortnahey in Londonderry, and Auchnahay in Antrim, etc. 

AUCHENHILL. 'Colvend.' Achadh an chuill [aha an hill], field of 
the hazel bush. o. ERSE collde (" coll, corylus," Ir. Gl.), w. 
coll (Bhys), c. goluidhen, B. Muedhen, GAEL, calllun + LAT. 
corylus (cosulus) + DAN. and S\VED. hassel + ICEL. hasl + A.S. 
hcesel, whence M.E. hasel and E. hazel. Hazel-nuts, in pre- 
historic times, formed an important article of human diet. 
When Barhapple Loch, in Old Luce, was drained, a very 
large crannog or lake-dwelling was exposed, the lee shore of 



58 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

the lake (N.E., according to the prevailing S.w. wind) was 
found strewn with immense quantities of broken nut-shells. 
See under INCH. 

AUCHENINNES (Cluirter 1696, Auchinfines). 'Urr.' An island 
in the "Water of Urr. Achadh an inis (dative case), field in 
the island. 

AUCHENLARIE (P. Achinlary). ' Anwoth.' Achadh na laira, field 
of the mare. ERSE larach, o. ERSE lair (Ir. Gl. 294), GAEL. 
lair. 

AUCHENLECK (P. Achinlick). ' Minigaff.' Achadh na Uc [lack], 
field of the tombs (lit. flat stones). See under AIRIELICK. 
Cf. AUCHLEACH. 

AUCHENL6SH (MS. 1527, Auchinlosh). ' Colvend.' Achadh na 
lus [1], field of herbs. Lus, porrum (i.e. a leek), Ir. GL 810 ; 
w. llys, C. lysaan, B. luzauan. Cf. Auchinloss, in Ayr- 
shire. 

AUCHENLOY. ' Glasserton.' 

AUCHENMALG (P. Achinmalg). ' Old Luce.' 

AUCHENREE. ' Port Patrick.' Achadh an righ [ree], the king's 

field. O. ERSE ri, gen. rig, w. rhuy, O.w. rhi, 0. ruy, B. rue, 

plur. rovanet+uw. rex, gen. regis + GOTH. raTrs + SKT. rdjan. 

Ri or righ, translated king, " is often," says O'Donovan (Hy 

' Many, 64 note), " applied to a petty chief of one barony." 

AUCHENREOCH. ' Urr.' Achadhan riabhach [ahaan reeugh], little 
grey field. " Riabhach, brindled, tabby, grey." OReilly. 

AuCHENRdcHER (Inq. ad Cap. 1661, Ardcrocher [i.e. hangman's 
hill] ; P. Acchrocchyrr). ' Inch.' Achadh an cwchadhair 
[croghar], the hangman's field. Deriv. of crock, lit. a cross, 
the gallows. Cf. Ardnagroghery in Cork, Knockcrogherie 
in Connaught, etc. 

AUCHENSHEEN (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Auchinschine ; P. Auchim- 
sheem). ' Colvend.' Achadh na sion (?), [aha na sheen], 
field of the foxgloves. For the gen. plur. of this word, which 
takes its name from sith, a fairy (GAEL, lus-nam-ban-sith, plant 
of the fairies), cf. " Is dath sion and cech gruad," Tochmarc 
Elaine, p. 132, 1. 25 (Windisch). In Irish names the s is 
generally eclipsed by t, thus Gortatean in Antrim (gort a t- 
sian), Mullantine and Drumanteane in Armagh ; Carricka- 
teane in Cavan, etc. The foxglove seems indelibly connected 
in the popular mind with fairies, for although the E. word is 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 59 

not, as has been erroneously alleged, from " folk's glove," but 
from A.S. foxes glofa (cf. NORW. revhandskje, from rev, a fox) ; it 
goes also by the name of " fairy-fingers." Perhaps achadh an 
sidheain [sheean], the field of the fairies' palace. Cf. Aghin- 
tain in Tyrone (in which s is eclipsed by t). Sidhean [sheean] 
gives names to many places in Ireland, Sheean, Shean, 
Sheaun, Sheehaun. Joyce, i. 187, and ii. 329. Cf. Fairy 
Knowes. 

AUCHENSHINNOCH. ' Dairy.' Achadh na sionnach [aha na shin- 
nagh], field of the foxes, o. ERSE sinnach, sindach; ERSE 
and GAEL, sionnach. Cf. BLAIRSHINNOCH, INSHANNOCH, 
KIRSHINNOCH, CRAIGSHUNDIE, BENSHINNIE, CRAIGSHINNIE, 
TODDLY, etc.; and, in Ireland, Aghnashannagh, Monashinnagh, 
Coolnashinnagh in Tipperary, and Coolnashinny in Cavan, 
etc. 

AuCHENSKE6cH (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Auchinskeoche ; 1605, 
Auchinskeaucht; M.S. 1527, Auchinskeauch; P. Achinskioch). 
' Colvend.' Achadh na sceithidg [skeyoge], field of the hawthorns. 
Cf. in Ireland, Aghnaskeagh and Aghnaskew, etc., and Auchen- 
skeith in Dairy parish, Ayrshire. See under SKEOG. 

AUCHENTALLACH. ' Twynholm.' Achadh an tealaich [tyallagh], 
field of the forge. See under CHALLOCH. 

AUCHENTIBBERT (P. Achyntybert). ' Port Patrick.' Achadh an 
tiprat or tiobraid [tibbred], field of the well. Cf. WELLFIELD 
and AUCHENGIBBERT ; also Auchintibber in Ayrshire, Aghin- 
tober and Aghatubrid in Ireland. See under TIBBERT. 

AUCHENVEAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1646, Auchinvea ; 1656, Auchinvain). 
' Inch.' Probably the same as Auchenvey, q.v. 

ATJCHENVEY (Inq. ad Cap. 1607, Auchinvay). ' Par ton.' Achadh 
an Width [ahanvey], field of birch tree. See under ALLANBAY. 

AUCHESS. ' Kirkcowan. 

AUCHIE. ' Inch.' Achadh [aha], a field. See under ACHIE. 
AtiCHiE GLEN. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under AUCHIE. 

AUCHLANE. ' Kelton.' Achadh leathan [lahan, lane], broad field. 

Cf. Auchleand. o. ERSE lethan, W. llyddn, C. and B. ledan, 

GAEL, leathan + LAT. latus. 

AUCHLANNOCHIE. ' Minigaff/ 

AUCHLEACH [pron. lee-ach], (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Auchsleoch). 

' Stoneykirk.' Kirkcolm ' (twice). See under AUCHENLECK. 



60 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

AUCHLEAND [pron. Aghlyaun], (P. Achleaun). 'Wigtown.' 
Achadh leathan [aha lahan], broad field. See under AUCHLANE. 

AUCHMANISTER or AucHENMANiSTER. ' Old Luce.' Achadh an 
mainisdir, the field of the monastery, close to the Abbey of 
Luce. Cf. Aghmanister, in Abbeymahon parish, Cork ; 
Drummanister, etc. From LAT. monasterium (whence E. minster, 
not akin to minister) GK. fjLovacmjpiov fAOvacn")]?, dwelling 
alone /u,ovdeiv fiovos. See under ALMANACK HILL. 

AUCHMANTLE (P. AchmantU). ' Inch.' 

AUCHNAB6NY. ' Rerwick.' Achadh na banbh [bonniv], field of 
the young pigs ; swine pasture. Banb, a pig (Cormac) ; w. 
banw. Cf. Drumbonniff in Down, Drumbanniv in Clare, 
Drumbannow in Cavan, etc. 

AuCHNASSY (P. Achtasy). ' Kirkcolm.' 

AUCHNEEL (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Auchmaneil; P. Achneil). 'Les- 
walt.' Achadh Niaill, Neil's field. Auchmaneil, from the 
Rolls, indicates the patronymic. Pont interprets Ardneill in 
Ayrshire as "Neel's knope." (Cuninghame, p. 56.) 

AUCHNEIGHT [pron. Aughneagh], (Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Auchnaucht). 
' Kirkmaiden.' Achadh n-ech, field of the horses. 

AtlCHNESS or ACHNESS (P. Achnish). ' Glasserton,' ' Kirk- 
maiden,' ' Mochrum.' Each inis, horse pasture. The same 
word as Aughinish and Aughnish in various parts of Ireland, 
which the Four Masters write Each-Inis (inis meaning a water- 
side pasture as well as an island ; see INCH), o. ERSE ech + 
LAT. equus + GK. i7T7ro5+A.S. eoh+SKT. acva. 

AuCHNiEBtrr. ' Kells.' Achadh na boc [1], field of the he-goats. 
-Boc+B. and w. bwch, a buck ; C. byk, boch, a he-goat +A.S. bucca 
(whence M.E. bukke, E. buck)-\-vu. bok, a he-goat +ICEL. bukkr, 
a he-goat +O.H.G. poch, a he-goat, a buck+SKT. bukka, a goat. 

AuCHNdTTEROCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Auchoteroch; 1668, Auch- 
riostroch ; P. Atnottroch). ' Leswalt.' Achadhdn dchtarach 
[ahanoghteragh] upper field ; O. ERSE liachtarach, adj. from s. 
liachtar, 6chtar ; ERSE and GAEL, tiaclidar, W. uch, uched, uchel, 
high, uchder, uchdra, height ; c. ehical ; B. uhel, high. 

AUCHRAE (P. Achre). ' Dairy.' Achadh reidh [ray], smooth field. 

AUCHREOCH [pron. ree-agh], (P. Achreoch). ' Balmaclellan.' 
Achadh riabhach [reeagh], grey field. Cf. AUCHENREOCH ; also 
Aghareagh in Ireland. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 61 

AUCHTEN. ' Port Patrick.' 

AUCHTRIEVANE (from estate-map of Cuil). ' Kirkmabreck.' 
Uachdarachd bhdn [vane], white upper land. See under AUCH- 

NOTTEROCH. 

AULDBRECK (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Olbreck. P. Ulbreck. W. P. 
MSS. Olbrek). ' Whithorn.' Allt breac, trout stream. See 
under ALTIBRICK. 

AULD HILL. ' Penninghame ' (twice). Allt, a height. See under 
ALDERGOWAN. 

AULD TAGGART. ' Inch.' Allt shagairt, the priest's glen (the 
aspirate silences the s). See under ALTAGGART. 

AULD WIFE'S GRAVE. ' Inch.' 

AWHIRK (Inq. ad Cap. 1637, Auchork; 1543, Aquhork; P. Acchork). 
' Stoneykirk.' Achadh a' cheorce []] [hurkya], oatfield. See 
under BARN KIRK. 

BACHLA. ' Kirkmaiden.' " Bachlach, mann mit einem stocke 
(bacJmll) " ( WindiscTi), man with a stick. " A herdsman, a 
rustic." O'Reilly. From bachall, a staff, especially a crozier; 
w. baglL,A.T. baculus. Cf. Moyvoughey, in Westmeath, 
written by the Four Masters Magh-bhachla, the field of the 
crozier. Bachlach was probably used to designate a rock in 
the same way as buachail, a boy, in Ireland. See under 
BOWHILL. 

BACK DRUM [M.S. 1527, Backlauch, (i.e. back law, or hill)]. 
' Kirkmabreck.' English prefix to GAEL, druim, a ridge. See 
under DRUM. 

BAD'S KNOWE. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

BAIL FELL. ' Colvend.' See under BELTONHILL. 

BAILIE HILL. ' Stoneykirk.' " Baillie, meaning doubtful, perhaps 
a court or enclosure." Jamieson. MOD. GAEL, baile [bally], a 
town or village, also a farm ; aig baile, at home. 

Baile, a measure of land, a holding, a townland. " As an 
existing element, it is the most prevalent of all local terms in 
Ireland, there being 6400 townlands, or above a tenth of the 
sum total, into whose names this word enters as an element." 
Reeves. 

It receives the gloss locus in the Book of Armagh, Cormac's 
Glossary, and the Book of Lecan, also Cormac gives baile as the 
equivalent of rath ; hence it appears to have been originally 



62 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

applied specially to the dwelling-place and house, then gener- 
ally to the land. The old form was bale : " In bale athera- 
su frim-sa dul it chomdail, ragatsa." Serglige Conculaind, 39. 

" Mr. O'Donovan, in his edition of the Battle of Magh Lena, 
gives probably the oldest view of these land divisions over all 
Ireland, as it is attributed to the same Finntan who is said to 
have preserved the record of the ancient mythic colonisation 
of Ireland." Skene, Celt. Scot. iii. 154. 

The poem, of which two or three stanzas here follow, is 
well worth the study of any one interested in the subject 

1 

How many Trichas in noble Erinn, 
How many half -Trichas to accord, 
How many Bailes in linked array, 
How many doth each Baile sustain. 

2 

How many Bailes and Tricha-ceds, 

In Erinn the abundant in wealth, 

I say unto thee an assertion with sense 

I defy all the learned to confute it. 

4 

Ten Bailes in each Tricha-ced, 

And twenty Bailes (thirty in all), it is no falsehood ; 
Though small their number to us appears, 
Their extent forms a noble country (crick). J 

5 

A Baile sustains three hundred cows, 
With twelve Seisrichs it is no lie ; 
Four full herds may therein roam, 
With no cow of either touching the other. 
***** 

11 

Twenty Bailes, too, and five hundred, 

And five thousand (5520 in all), it is no falsehood, 

Since I have taken to divide them 

To the number of Bailes in Erinn. 

" The word baile, which now means a village, town and 
townland, is frequently used in the Irish annals to denote the 
residence of a chieftain, a castle, or military station, as in the 
following example in the Four Masters, at the year 1560 : 
" Do chdidh ar bhdrr an bhaile, agus ro fhuaccair go riabhe an 
caisUn ar a chumus ;" i.e. " he went up to the top of the baile, 
and proclaimed that the castle was in his power." It seems 
to be derived from the same source as the Greek vroXf?, the 
Latin villa, and the French ville." Hy Fiachmch, 210, note. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 63 

BAILIEWHIRR (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Balzequhir; W. P. MSS. Balle- 
quhir ; Galloway Estate Map, Balzeuchar ; P. Balwhyr). 
' Whithorn.' The z in the variant forms represents a y 
sound, not a sibilant. 

BAINLOCH or BEINLOCH. ' Colvend.' 

BALANNAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Ballannane). ' Tungland.' 

BALCARRY (Inq. ad Cap. 1628, Balcarrie vel Ballincarrie ; P. Bar- 
kery). ' Old Luce.' Baile caithre [1] [carey], house or land 
of the standing stones. 

BALCARY. Cf. BALCARRY. ' Eerwick.' 

BALCRAIG (P. Balkraig, W. P. MSS. Balcreg). ' Glasserton.' Baile 
creige, house or townland of the crag. Cf. BALGREGGAN ; also, 
in Ireland, Ballynacragga, Ballynacraig, Ballynacraigy, Bally- 
nacregga, and Bally nacregg. 

BALCREY. ' Whithorn.' 

BALCULLENDOCH. ' Penninghame.' Baile cuileannach [cullenagh], 
townland of the holly wood. See under CULLENDOCH. 



(P. Baldun). ' Wigtown.' Baile duine, townland of the 
fort. There is a large fort here. Dun, a fort ; W. din, 
a hill-fort ; GAEL, dun + A.S. tun, a fort, enclosure, town, 
whence, by transferred sense, E. down, a hill, from a hill being 
usually chosen for a stronghold ; and also adv. and prep. 
down, a contraction of M.E. a-down = A.S. of dune, off the hill 
(Skeaf). Cf. Ballindoon, in Ireland. 

BALENSACK. ' Borgue.' 

BALFERN (Inq. ad Cap. 1608, Balfairne ; P. Balfairn). 'Kirk- 
gunzeon.' Baile fearn, townland of the alders. o. ERSE 
ferndg (Ir. Gl. 558), ERSE and GAEL, fearn, fearnog, W. gwern, 
B. and C. guern. 

BALGERRAN. ' Crossmichael.' 

BALGOWN (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Bellingowyne ; P. Balgawin). 
' Kirkcolm/ ' Kirkmaiden.' Baile gobhan [gown], the smith's 
house or townland. See under ALDERGOWAN. Cf. Bally- 
gowan, Ballygow, Ballingowan, frequently in Ireland. 

BALGRACIE (P. Balgresy). ' Leswalt.' Formerly Larbrax Greesie. 
See LARBRAX. Baile greusach [gressegh], the cobbler's house. 
GAEL, greusach, a shoemaker O. ERSE gre"ss, greas, " any arti- 



64 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

ficial work in the execution of which trade or art is required." 
O'Don. Suppl. " Greis, needlework, embroidery, fine clothes, 
furniture." O'Reilly. GAEL, greas, embroidery. 

BALGREDDAN (P. Balgreddan; Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Balgredden ; 
MS. 1527, Balgredane). 'Kirkcudbright.' 

BALGREGGAN. ' Stoneykirk.' Baile gcreigain []] [greggan], house 
of the little crag. Cf. BALCRAIG. 

BALHASIE. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

BALIG. ' Rerwick.' Baile luig, townland of the hollow. (See 
under LAG.) Cf. Ballinlig, Ballinlug, Ballinluig, Ballylig, 
and Ballylug, common townland names in Ireland. 

BALKAIL (P. Balkel). ' Old Luce.' Baile caol [1] [keel], narrow 
townland. Cf. Ballykeel in Ireland. See under CARSKEEL. 

BALKELLY. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

BALKERR (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Balker). 'Inch.' 

BALLAIRD (P. Balard). ' Kirkinuer.' Baile ard, high house or 
townland. Cf. Ballard, in Ireland. 

BALLANC6LLANTIE (P. Bhellanheullanduy). ' Old Luce.' See under 
BALCULLENDOCH. 

BALLINCLAUCH (the old name of Glenluce village). ' Old Luce.' 
Baile na clock, town of the stones, stone town. Cf. Ballina- 
clogh, Bally clogh, Bally clohy, Bally naclogh, and Ballynacloghy, 
frequent names in Ireland. 

BALLINGAIR. ' Dairy.' 

BALLINGEAR (Inq. ad Cap. 1571, Ballingae). 'Kells.' 

BALLOCH (a valley between Barncorkrie and Cairn Fell). ' Kirk- 
maiden.' Bealach [ballagh], a pass, a road, a gap. Fdg-a- 
bealach [faugh-a-ballagh], clear the road ! is the slogan of the 
Connaught Eangers. As a prefix bealach and beul atha [bel- 
aha], ford mouth, are often indistinguishable in composition. 
Cf. LOCH VALLEY. 

BALLOCHABARGIN. ' Inch.' 

BALLOCHABEASTIE (the name of a gateway on the farm of Culroy). 
' Old Luce.' Bealach a biasta, pass of the beast. See under 
ALTIBEASTIE. 

BALLOCHADEE. ' Kirkcowan.' Beul atha duibh [belahadee]. mouth 
of the black ford. o. ERSE bel, ERSE be"al, b6ul, " a mouth, an 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 65 

orifice, a hole." O'Reilly. See under ALLANDOO and 
CARSNAW. 

BALLOCHAD60N. ' Inch.' Bealach a duin or beul atha duin, the 
road, pass, or ford-mouth of the fort. Cf. Bealach-duin (Four 
Masters, 770, 778, 855, etc.). 

BALLOCHAHEATHERY. ' Old Luce/ 

BALLOCHALEE. ' Stoneykirk.' Bealach na laegh [lea], pass of the 
calves. Laegh generally becomes lee in composition, " and the 
articled terminations -nalee and -nalea are of frequent occur- 
rence. Ballinalee, in Longford and Sligo, is properly written 
in Irish Bel-atha-na-laegh, the ford-mouth of the calves." 
Joyce, i. 470. Cf. Clonleigh, i.e. Cluain-laegh (Four Masters, 
1480). w. llo, c. leaugh, B. lue, GAEL, laoch. 

BALLOCHANAMOUR or BALLOCHANARMOUR. ' Kirkmabreck/ 
Bealach an amuir, pass of the trough or hollow place. "Ammor, 
amor, a trough." Corn. Iran. p. 1 5. Cf. LAGANAMOUR, and in 
Ireland, Lugannamer and Leganamer in Leitrim, Bohammer 
in Dublin, Glenannummer in King's County, and Glennanam- 
mer in Koscommon. 

BALLOCHAN6UR. * Kirkmabreck/ 

BALLOCHAR6DY. ' Kirkcolm/ 

BALLOCHGUNION. ' Kirkmaiden/ 

BALLOCHJARGON. 'Old Luce/ Bealach deargdn [dyargan], red 
pass or road ; or perhaps bealach Deargain, Dergan's pass. 
The initial d before a diphthong passes into English _;' in 
composition. 

BALLOCHMYRE. ' Penninghame/ 

BALLOCH o' KIP. ' Kirkcolm/ Bealach a' dp [kip], the pass or 
road of the tree trunk. Cf. Knockakip, in Clare County, 
spoken of by the Four Masters (1573) as "mullach cnuic 
beoil an chip," i.e. top of the hill of Belankip (beul an chip, 
ford mouth of the tree trunk), o. ERSE cep, a post, a block 
+ LAT. cippus. 

BALLOCHRAE. ' Kirkcowan/ Bealach reidh [ray], smooth pass. 

BALLYFERRY. ' Inch/ Baile foithre [1] [bally fihra], townland of 
the copse. See under WHERRY CROFT. 

BALLYMELLAN. ' Mochrum/ Baile muileain [meulan], mill house 
or townland. o. ERSE muilend (retaining d from LAT. molendi- 
num), w. melyn, c. belin, melin, B. mul, melin. The E. mitt, 

E 



66 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

(properly miln, as in BR. sc.) is descended from LAT. molina 
,^/MAR, to grind. 

BALMACLELLAN (P. Ballmacklellann). A parish in the Stewartry. 
Baile Madellan, Maclellan's land or house. Named from 
John Maclellan, who, "in February 1466, obtained a charter 
from King James in. of the lands and village." M'Kerlie. 

BALMACRAIL. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

BALMAE (P. Balme). ' Kirkcudbright.' 

BALMAGHIE [pron. Magee], (P. Balmagy). A parish in the 
Stewartry. MacGhie's land. 

BALMANGAN (P. Balmangan). ' Berwick.' 

BALMEG (Inq. ad Cap. 1698, Tarhouse in Air (vel Tarhirismore) 
aliter vocata Balmeg, both the first names being misreadings 
of Torhousemuir). ' Wigtown.' Baile mbeag [meg], little 
house. Of. Balbeg, in Ayrshire. Of. " mil m-bec," little beast, 
Compert Conculaind, L. U.5. " In miol m-becc," little beast, Eg. 
(Windisch, 139). o. ERSE bee, bec-c, ERSE beag + 'w. bach, 
bychan, C. bian, bihan, B. bihan ; perhaps akin to GK. j3aios, 
LAT. ve- in composition, and possibly E. wee, though Skeat 
gives the latter as being a form of way. 

BALMESH (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Balmasche; 1668, Balmass; P. Bal- 
mess). ' Old Luce.' 

BALMINNOCH (P. Balmeanach ; Inq. ad Cap. 1625, Balmanocht). 
' Kirkcowan.' Baile meadhonach [minnagh], mid-house or 
townland. Cf. Ballymena in Antrim, and Ballymenagh in 
other parts of Ireland. Meadhonach o. ERSE meddn-\-A.S. 
mid, midde -\-ICEL. mi'Sr + SwED. and DAN. mid - (in composi- 
tion) + GOTH, midja + O.H.G. wii/i + LAT. meditis + GK. /Ltecro?, 
^Eolic yu-eo-cro? ( = yu-e^.709) + SKT. mddhya. All from an 
adjectival base, MADYA, root unknown. (Skeat.) 

BALMIJRRIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1628, Balmurran; P. Balmoory). 
'-New Luce.' Baile Muireadhaich [Murragh], Murray's house. 
No fewer than sixty-nine personages of this name are men- 
tioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, the earliest being 
Muireadhach Tireach, who, in A.D. 326, is said to have 
expelled Colla Uais, king of Ireland, into Alba (Scotland) 
with three hundred followers. Cf. Ballyrnurry, seat of the 
O'Murry's, in Roscommou. 

BALNAB (P. Balnab ; W. P. MSS. Balnab). 'Inch,' 'Whithorn.' 
Baile an abadh [abba] or an aib, the abbot's house. Near 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 67 

Saulseat and Whithorn Priories. In the former case it is 
referred to in Inq. ad Cap. 1600, as an appanage of Glenluce 
Abbey: " alia domus vulgo vocata the Abbot of Glenluce's Skait- 
house." Abb~LA.T. abbas, abbot SYEIAC abba, father. Cf. 
Ballinab, in Waterford. 

BALNACR6SS or BARNCR6SH (P. Barncrosches, Barncroshes). 
' Tungland.' Baile na crois, house of the cross. GAEL, croich, 
gallows, crock, to hang, crois, a cross; w. crog, a cross, crwg, a 
crook, crogi. to hang ; c. croiss, B. croas, ERSE crock, a gallows, 
cros, a cross + LAT. crux. (Skeat, s.v. Crook.) Cf. Ballyna- 
cross, in Ireland. 

BALNEIL (P. Balneel). 'New Luce.' Baile Niaill, Niel's house. 
Cf. AUCHNEEL, DRUMNEIL, etc. 

BALQUHIRRIE \jpron. whirrie], (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Balquhirrie; 
1661,Ballquhirre; P. Balwhyrry). 'Kirkcolm.' Baile choire 
[?] [hurrie], place of the glen. Coire, lit. a caldron, hence a 
place resembling a caldron, a dell ; see under CORRA POOL. 
Perhaps more likely baile fhoithre [hwihra], land or house of 
the copsewood. See under BALLYFERRY, WHERRY CROFT. 

BALRAGGAN. ' Minigaff.' 

BALSARROCH (P. Balsyrnoch ; Inq. ad Cap. 1624, Balseroch). 
' Kirkcolm.' Baile sairach or sairthach [sairagh] [?], eastern 
place ; apparently a derivative from o. ERSE sair, east 
(Windisch), as iarthach or iarach, from iar, west. Oir, 
thoir, soir, are all forms of the word occurring in old Irish 
MSS., as well as the derivative form oirtJiear [urher]. Per- 
haps baile searrach [sharragh], townland of the foals. See 
under BARSHEKRY. Cf. Balsarroch in Ayrshire. 

BALSCALLOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Balstalloch ; P. Barskalloch). 
' Kirkcolm.' Baile sceilig, place of the rock. Cf. The Skelligs, 
two rocks off the coast of Kerry which give the name to 
Ballinskelligs, which is another form of Balscalloch. " Scei- 
lig, a rock." O'Eeilly. " Scillic, a splinter of stone." 
Cormac. " Sceillic, a sea rock." 'Donovan (in notes on Four 
Masters), w. skol. See under SCAUR. 

BALSHERE. ' Kirkmaiden.' Baile siar [shear], west house or 
place. Cf. Clonshire, cluain siar, a meadow west of Adare in 
Limerick. Iar [eer], siar [sheer], both O. ERSE forms signi- 
fying "west." Joyce (ii. 451) says the primary meaning is 
" hinder " or " posterior " + SKT. avara, posterior. Whitley 
Stokes suggests this as the origin of Eriu (which we now 



68 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

write Erin, from the gen. 'Erenri), Ireland, of which the old 
Celtic form seems to have been Everis or Iveris. See his 
Three Irish Glossaries, p. Ixiii., note. Derivative forms iarach, 
iarthach [eeragh], and siarach, for which see BLAWWEARY, 
BARSHERRY, etc. Cf. BALTIER and BALSHERE. 

BALSIER [pron. seer], (P. Balsyir). ' Sorbie.' See under BAL- 
SHERE. 

BALSMITH ( W. P. MSS., Balsmy the). ' Whithorn. ' Probably either 
a semi-translation of BALGOWN (q.v.), or a mediaeval appella- 
tion from a person named Smith to distinguish it from 
BALNAB, close by. 

BALTERSAN. ' Penninghame/ Baile tarsuinn, the house ath- 
wart, or at the crossing. ERSE trasnu, tarsna. Cf. CRAIG- 
TARSON, CRAIGTERSAN ; and, in Ireland, Ballytarsna, Bally- 
tarsnay, Ballytrasna, Ballintrasna, Baltrasna. 

BALTIER (P. Bantyre ; W. P. MSS. Balteyre). ' Sorbie.' Baile ttar 
[tear], west house. See under BALSIER. Tiar = t-siar, t-iar, 
westward. 

" Atat ar in dorus tiar insinnait hi funend grian 
Graig n-gabor n-glas, brec a mong, is araile corcordend." 

Sergigle Conculaind, 33, 18. 

BALT6RRENS. ' Kirkcowan.' Baile terrain, house or place of the 
hillock KNOWE VILLAGE, in the same parish is the Scotch 
equivalent. Cf., however, Ballytoran, in Tipperary, baile 
tedrrann, the town of the boundary, and Knocktoran in 
Limerick. 

BALUNTON. ' Minigaff.' 

BALYETT (P. Balyett). ' Inch.' 

BALZIELAND [pron. Bailie-land (the z has a y sound)], (Inq. ad 
Cap. 1661, Balyelland M'Kellie ; 1610, Balzelland M'Kellie). 
'Kirkmaiden.' The old name of Logan. See under BAILIE 
HILL. 

BANDOLIER SLUNK (a gulley on the sea-coast). ' Stoneykirk.' 
" Slunk, a slough, a quagmire." Jamieson. The word is 
applied in Galloway as equiv. of slouch, a gulley on the sea- 
coast. ERSE slochd, sloe. See under SLOCK. 

BANKBEN, a hill of 800 ft. (P. Banck). Twynholm.' 

BAR or BARR, in many parishes, generally with the definite article 
prefixed, and often with pleonastic " Hill " or " Fell " added. 
Ban; the top of anything, hence a hill + A.S. beer, bare, bare+ 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 69 

ICEL. berr, bare, naked, O.H.G. par, G. Sar+LiTH. basus, bare- 
footed + SKT. bhds, to shine ; applied hence to a hill in the 
same way as maol, bald (see MEAUL). 

BAR ALLAN. 'WigtoAvn.' Barr dhallain [allain] [?], hill-top of 
the standing stone. Of, Pairc an dhallain, in Cork. Or 
perhaps barr Alain, Alan's hill-top. 

BARBAE (P. the same). 'Borgue,' ' Kirkcowan,' ' Stoneykirk.' 
Barr beith [bey], hill of birches. Cf. BARBETH and BARBAY. 
See under ALLANBAY. 

BARBAIN. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Barr bdn [bane], white top. 
BARBEGS. ' Port Patrick.' Barr beag [beg], little hill. 

BARBETH (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Barbeth (' Kirkcolm') ; P. Barbetth 
(' Kirkcolm ')). ' Kirkcolm,' ' New Abbey.' Barr beithach 
[beyach], birchen hill, adjective from beith; or possibly from 
the substantive beith (see BARBAE), by restoration of the silent 
thy as in rath or rdlth. (See WRAITHS.) 

BARBEY. ' Urr.' See under BARBAE. 

BARBUCHANY (P. the same; Inq. ad Cap. 1685, Barbuchannan). 
' Port Patrick.' Barr bothanach [bohannagh] [?], hill of the 
booths or huts; adj. from bothan. Bothdn, casa (Ir. Gl. 120), 
dimin. of both, a hut. See under Bow. 

BARBUIE. 'Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Ban' buidhe [buie, bwee], 
yellow-top, o. ERSE bude, buide + LAT. badius. An extremely 
common qualitative of place-names. 

BARBUNNY (Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Barbundie ; P. Barbunduy). 'Kirk- 
cowan.' Barr buin duibh [?] [doo], hill of the black bottom, or 
bun dubh, black stumps. Bun, the antithesis of barr; as in GAEL. 
" cha'n fhag e bun na barr," he will leave neither bottom nor top 
(root nor branch) Macalpine ; and the Irish, " gan bhun, gan 
bharr," without head or tail. " Bun, root, stock, bottom." 
O'Reilly, w. bon, a root ; GAEL, bonn, the sole of the foot, a 
foundation, the bottom + DU. boden + ICEL. botn + DAN. 
bund + SWED. bolten + O.H.G. podam + G. boden + LAT. 
fundus + GK. TTvOfMJv + SKT. budhna, depth. Cf. Bunduff, 
in Donegal, which, however, does not mean " black bottom," 
but " end of the river Duff." 

BARBUSH. ' Troqueer.' 

BARCAPLE (P. Barkapil). ' Tungland.' Barr caipeail, hill-top of 
the chapel. See under CHAPELROSSAN. 



70 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAWHEL. 

BARCHAIN. 'Kelton.' 

BARCHESKIE. ' Berwick.' Barr deasgadh or demeart [?], southern 
hill-top, o. ERSE, des-cert dess, the right hand, or south, 
from the south being on the right of a person facing the east ; 
ERSE and GAEL, deas + w. dehen + LAT. dexter + GK. Se^to? 
SKT. dakshina, on the right + O.H.G. zeso, on the right + 
GOTH, taihswa + RUSS. desnitza, the right hand. Cf. SKT. 
daksha, clever, dexterous. Or possibly barr sescinn, hill-top 
of the marsh. Sescenn gives names to many places in Ireland, 
e.g. Sheskin and Seskin, Seskinrea and Ballinteskin. Deriv. 
from siosg, a sedge. Of. Ballinteskin, in Leinster. Cf. BAR- 
TASKIE and BARHASKINE. 

BARCHESNIE. ' Balmaghie.' 

BARCHESSIE. 'Penninghame.' See under BARCHESKIE. 

BARCHLY (Inq. ad Cap. 1625, Barincla). ' Kirkcowan.' Barr 
cladh [claa], hill-top of the mounds, or graves. See under CLY. 

BARCLAY (Inq. ad Cap. 1608, Barclay). ' Berwick.' See 
BARCHLY. 

BARCL6SH (P. Barclossh). ' Kirkgunzeon.' Barr dais [clash], 
hill-top of the trench, pit, or grave, o. ERSE class, a word 
which Joyce says is extremely common in the south of Ireland, 
but seldom met with in the north. It is, however, of fre- 
quent occurrence in Galloway. Cf. CLASHMURRAY. 

BARCLAY (P. Barcloy). ' Colvend,' ' Kells.' Barr cloiche, hill-top 
of the stone. See under AUCHENCLOY. 

BARCLY (P. Barchly). ' Kirkgunzeon.' See under BARCHLY. 

BARDARROCH (P. Bardarach). ' Kirkpatrick Durham,' ' Minigaff.' 
Barr darach, hill-top of the oaks. See under ARNDARROCH. 

BARDENNOCH, a hill of 1081 feet (P. Bardannoch). ' Carsphairn.' 

BARD6NACHIE. ' Kirkcowan.' Barr Donnachaidh [Donnaghy], 
Duncan's hill-top. The Erse form of this ancient name is 
Donnchadh. 

BARDRESTAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1601, Bardrestoune; 1607, Bard estane). 
' Urr.' Barr Druist, Drest's or Drostan's hill-top. " In the 
Liber Hymnorum, or Book of Hymns of the Ancient Church 
of Ireland, edited by liev. Dr. J. H. Todd, there is a hymn or 
prayer of St. Mugint, and the scholiast in the preface narrates 
the following tradition : ' Mugint made this prayer in Futerna 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 71 

(\Vhithorn). The cause was this : Finnen of Magh Bile went 
to Mugint for instruction, and Eioc and Talmach, and 
several others with him. Drust was king of Uretan then, 
and had a daughter, viz., Drusticc was her name, and he gave 
her to Mugint to be taught to read.' . . . Dr. Todd considers 
. . . that the Drust of the legend is one of these two Drusts 
who reigned from 523 to 528. . . . This Drust is therefore 
clearly connected with Galloway ; and we thus learn that 
when two kings appear in the Pictish Chronicle as reigning 
together, one of them is probably king of the Picts of 
Galloway." Celt. Scot. i. 135. King Drust is thus re- 
ferred to in a poem quoted by O'Clery in his Martyrology 
of Donegal : 

" Truist, king of the free bay on the strand, 
Had one perfect daughter 
Dustric, she was for every good deed renowned." 

Liber Hymnorum, p. 117. 

Stuart (Sculptured Stones, vol. i. p. 31) mentions Trusty's 
Hill as one of the Boreland Hills in Anwoth parish, but it 
does not appear to be given in the Ordnance map. Cf. 
TROSTAN, BARTROSTAN. Some of these places may take 
their names from Drostan, the disciple of St. Columba, who 
accompanied him in his voyage to Scotland. Drum parish, 
in Eoscommon, was formerly called Druim Drestan. 

BARDRISTAN. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under BARDRESTAN. 

BARDRdCHWOOD (P. Bardrochat). ' Minigaff.' Barr droicheaid 
[droghed], hill-top of the bridge (nothing to do with " wood "). 
An immense number of places in Ireland and Scotland are 
named from bridges, e.g. Drogheda in Ireland, i.e. droichead 
atha [drohed-aha], the bridge of the ford ; and in Galloway 
cf. Droch Head, Kildrochat, Drumdrochat, etc. o. ERSE 
drochet, droichet. 

BAREAN (P. Barren). 'Colvend.' Bairghin [bareen], a cake. 
" A piece of land approaching a circular shape is sometimes 
called bairghin. The complete word is exhibited in Barreen, 
in Kildare." Joyce ii. 56. o. ERSE bargen. w. B. and C. bara, 
bread + A.s. bread + DU. brood + ICEL. brauZ. Skeat quotes 
Pick's suggestion of a connection with root of E. brew (from 
the fermentation of bread in baking) A.s. bredwen + O.H.G. 
pruwan + G. brauen + ICEL. brugga + SWED. brygga A/BHRU, 
to brew ; BHUR, to boil. 

BAREND. ' Balmaghie,' ' Parton,' ' Berwick.' See under BAREAN. 



72 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

BAREND BAR. ' Colvend.' See under BAREAN. 
BARENESS. Scand. berr nes, bare headland. ' Colvend.' 

BAREWING (P. Ewinstoun). ' Balmaclellan.' Barr Iain, John's 
or Ewen's hill-top. 

BARFADDEN. ' Dairy.' Barr feadain [fadden], hill-top of the 
streamlet ; or perhaps barr Fadain, Fadan's, or the long man's 
hill-top, a man's name (now written Fadzean), deriv. from 
fada, long ; or barr Phaidin, the hill top of Paidin, or little 
Patrick. Feaddn, a streamlet, is a deriv. offead [fad], a pipe, 
tube, or whistle, " whence, in a secondary sense, it comes to 
be applied to those little brooks whose channels are narrow 
and deep like a tube." Joyce, i. 458. Cf. Faddan, Feddan, 
Fiddau, Fiddane, etc., in Ireland. 

BARFALLS. ' Penninghame.' The " faulds " (folds or enclosures) 
of Barr. 

BARFILL (P. Barfill). ' Old Luce,' Urr.' Barr phuill [fill], hill 
of the hole, pool, or water of any sort. ERSE and GAEL, poll, 
gen. puill, phuill, a hole, pit, mire, bog, pond, pool, and even 
a stream (occurring most frequently in the latter sense in 
Galloway place-names) ; W. pwll, c. pol, M. poyl, B. pmtll + 
LAT. palus, a marsh, + GK. ^77X09, mud. From the Celtic 
comes A.s. p6l and G. pfuhl, from the former of which M.E. 
pol, pool, E. pool. 

BARFLAWEN. ' Kirkcowan.' 

BARFRAGGAN. ' Kelton.' Barr fraechan [I], hill of the blaeberries 
or whortleberries. From this plant are named Frehans, 
Freahanes, and Freffhanes in Ireland ; Lyrenafreaghaun in 
Limerick, Kilnafrehan in Waterford (same meaning as Hurt- 
wood, near Leith Hill in Surrey), Kylefreaghane in Tipperary, 
Binnafreaghan in Tyrone. GAEL, fraochag, deriv. of fraoch, 
heather. 

BARG!LY [pron. Bargawly], (P. Bargaly; Macfarlane MS. Burgally). 
'Minigaff.' Borg Amhalghaidh [owlhay] [?], Aulay's house. 
" Brug, brugh : a palace, a grand house or building ; a royal 
residence ; a town, a borough ; a fortified place " O'Reilly. 
"Borg, a village." Idem. See under BORGUE and MAC- 
HERALLY. 

BARGATTON (Inq. ad Cap. 1637, Bargaltoun; P. Bargatoun). 

' Balmaghie.' 
BARGESKIN. ' Balmaclellan.' See under BARCHESKIE. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 73 

BARGLASS (P. Barglash). * Kirkinner.' Barr glas, green hill. 
" Glas is commonly translated green, and this is its usual 
acceptation, for we find it often applied to express the green 
of grass or foliage. But the word was also used to designate 
a greyish or bluish green, or rather a greyish blue, a shade 
of colour having in it little or none of what we should call 
green. For instance glas was often applied to a greyish blue 
eye, and also to the colour of the water-wagtail. In its 
topographical application, however, it must generally be 
understood to mean grass-green." Joyce, ii. 281. w. B. and 
C. glas. " Glas, green, verdant, pale, wan, poor." O'Reilly. 
Prob. akin to LAT. glaucus, bluish GK. fyXau/co?, gleaming, 
silvery, bluish. 

BARGRENNAN. ' Minigaff.' Barr grianain [greenan], hill of the 
house or palace. See under GRENNAN. 

BARGRUG (P. Bargrugg). ' Kirkgunzeon.' Barr gruaig []], hill top of 
the grass. Gvuag, hair, " by a natural extension of meaning is 
applied to long hair-like grass growing in a marshy or sedgy 
place. Hence we have in various parts of Ireland Grogach, 
Grogey, Grogan, Groggan, Grogeen, and Gruig, all signifying 
sedge a place producing long sedgy grass." Joyce, ii. 339. 

BARHAMMER. ' Parton.' Close by is a place called Gamer, of 
which hammer seems to be the aspirated form. 

BARHAPPLE (Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Barquhapple; 1624, Barquhapill). 
' Kirkcowan.' ' Old Luce.' Barr chapaill, hill-top of the horse. 
Cf. PORT WHAPPLE. Perhaps sometimes barr chapeail, from 
the late Latin capella. The next hill to Barhapple in Kirk- 
cowan, is called Chapel Hill. ERSE and GAEL, capall, a horse 
(in some places limited in sense to a mare), w. ceffyl+LAT. 
caballus (whence ITAL. cavallo, F. chevafy-\-GK. Ka/SaXXo?, a 
horse+RUSS. kobuila, a mare+iCEL. kapall,& horse. 

BARHARROW (Inq. ad Cap. 1599, Barharrow). ' Borgue.' Barr 
charrach [harragh], rough hill-top. Carrach, stony, rough 
car, cara, a stone, or gharbh [harriv, harve], rough. Cf. Bar- 
garriff, in Ireland. 

BARHARRY. ' Balmaclellan.' ' Kirkcowan.' See under BAR- 
HARROW. 

BARHASKIXE (P. Barchaisken). ' Old Luce.' Cf. Barcheskie. 

BARHASTRY. ' Buittle.' 

BARHINXIGANS. 'Balmaclellan.' Barr Fhionnagain [hinnigan], 
Finnigan's hill. A man's name, formed from fionn (o. ERSE 
finn, find}, white. 



74 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGATDHEL. 

BARHdlSE \pron. Barhoshe], (Inq. ad Cap. 1609, Barquhoyis). 
' Kirkcowan.' ' MinigafF.' This name is the same as 
Barcosh, in Dairy parish, Ayrshire, written by Pont Barqu- 
hoise. Cuninghame, p. 83. 

BARH6LM (P. Barhoom). ' Kirkmabreck.' 

BARHtlLLiON (P. Baryillen). ' Glasserton.' Barr chuileann [hwillanl 
hill-top of the hollies. See under ALWHILLAN. Cf. Bohul- 
lion (both chuillinn, hut of the holly), in Donegal. 

BARJARG. ' Kirkinner.' Barr dearg [dyarg], red hill. See under 
BARYERROCK. 

BARlAs (P. Barle; MS. 1527, Barley). 'Kirkcowan.' 'Kirk- 
inner.' ' Penninghame.' Barr Hath [lee], grey hill-top, 
or laegli [lay], hill-top of the calves. See under BALLOCHALEE. 

BARLAMACHAN. ' Penninghame/ 

BARLAUCHLIN (P. Barlachlan). ' Penninghame.' Barr Lochlinn, 
Lauchlan's hill-top. Lochlainn, lord of Corca-Modhruaidh, 
is mentioned by the Four Masters as dying in 983, and 
another of the name, the son of Macleachlainn, was slain, 
1023. The origin of this name may have been Lochlannoc/i, 
a Norseman. The names O'Loughlin and MacLauchlan are 
still common. 

BARLAY (P. Barley). ' Balmaclellan.' ' Colvend.' ' Girthon/ 
See under BARLAE. 

BARLEDZIEW [pi-on. Barleddy], (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Barladzew; 
W. P. MS., Bardlodzew). < Sorbie.' 

BARLEACH [pron. Barlee-ach]. ' New Luce.' Barr Hag, hill-top 
of the flat stones, or tombs. See under AUCHLEACH and 
AIRIELICK. 

BARLENNAN (P. Barlenan). ' Kirkcowan.' 

BARLdcco (Inq. ad Cap. 1508, Barloko ; P. Barlocco). 'Borgue/ 

BARL6CHAN (P. Barlochenn). ' Buittle.' Barr lochain, hill-top of 

the lakelet. 
BAR16CKHART (P. Barlockhart). ' Old Luce.' 

' Borgue.' Cf. BARLOCCO and BARLUKA. 



BARLtrE. ' Balmaghie.' 

BARLIJELL. ' Old Luce.' Barr leamh chuill [lavhwill, loughil], 
hill of the elm wood. Cf. Laughil, Loughill, Laghil and 
Cloonlaughil in Ireland. ERSE leamh, usually leamhdn 
[lavaun] in the south of Ireland, and sleamhdn [slavan] in the 
north. W. llwyf, llwyfan, B. uloch. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 75 

BARLUITH. ' Urr.' 

BAELUKA. ' Twynholm.' Cf. BARLOCCO and BARLOKE. 

BAELURE (P. Barlune misprint). ' New Luce.' Barr lobhair [?] 
[louer], hill of the leper, or infirm person. 0. ERSE lobor, 
lobur, infirmus, debilis (Zeuss, 781), ERSE and GAEL, lobhar + 
LAT. lepra, leprosy + GK. XeVpa, leprosy GK. Xe-Trpo?, scaly, 
scabby GK. Xevro?, a scale \e7reiv, to peel+RUSS. lupiti, to 
peel + LITH. lupti, to scale. , 

BARLYKE. ' Kirkcowan.' 

BARMAGACHAN (P. Barmakgachin). 'Borgue.' Barr mic Eochagain, 
M'Geachau's hill. The Irish form is Macgeoghegan. Cf. 
Ballymagautry, in Down, formerly Balimacgehan. 

EARMARK (P. Barmarck). ' Balmaclellan.' 

BARMAIN. ' Old Luce.' Barr meadhon [men], middle hill. See 
under BALMINNOCH for 'meadhonach, of which this is the simpler 
form. It appears in Irish names such as Inishmaan, Inish- 
meane, Inishmaine, Kilraain, etc. 

BAUMEAL [pron. Barmale], (Charter 1586 Ballmiell ; P. Barmeill; 
Jr. P. MSS. Barmaill). ' Glasserton.' Barr mdel, bald or 
bare hill-top ; see under MEAUL. Cf. BENMEAL. 

BARMEEN. ' Kirkcowan.' Barr min [meen], smooth hill ; cf. 
Barmeen in Antrim. 

BARM6FFITY (Inq. ad Cap., 1604, Barmoffate). ' Kirkpatrick Dur- 
ham.' 

BARMORE (P. Barmoir). ' Kirkcowan,' ' Minigaff.' Barr m6r, great 
hill-top. ERSE m6r-\-\f. maivr, c. and B. maur, vaur, vear. 

BARM6RROW. ' Balmaclellan.' 

BARMULLIN. ' Kirkinner.' Barr muileain, mill hill. See under 

BALLYMELLAN. 

- 

BARNAER (P Barnawyr). ' Old Luce.' Barr an air, hill-top of 
the ploughing, or of the slaughter. Ar, ploughing, and dr y 
slaughter, are indistinguishable in composition. " o.w. air, 
w. ae r, a battle = agr- of the same origin as the Greek aypa, 
a catching, hunting, the chase." Rhys, p. 64. " \v. ar, 
ploughed land + ERSE arathar, a plough + GK. ap6a>, I 
plough + LAT. aro + GOTH. arjan, to plough + E. to ear, earth, 
that which is eared or ploughed." Pihys, p. 92. 



76 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

BARNAGEE. ' Glasserton.' Bearna gaoithe [barnageeha], gap of 
the wind. Cf. Barnageeha in Mayo ; written in the Annals 
Bearna-na-gaoithe {Four Masters, 1590). See under CURGHIE. 

BARNAM6N. ' Stoneykirk/ Barr na mban [man], the hill-top of 
the women. Cf. LIGNAMAN; also, in Cavan and Leitrim, 
Cornaman [i.e. cor na mban]. o. ERSE ben, gen. mnd, w. buu, 
C. banen. 

BARNAUGH. ' Portpatrick.' 

BARNBARROCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1560, Barnbaroch ; Sibbald MS. 
Barinbaro; P. Barnbarraugh Castle, Barbarraugh). ' Col vend,' 
' Kirkinner.' 

BARNBAUCHLE. ' Loch Eutton.' Barr an buachail [1] hill-top of 
the herdsman, or standing stone. Buachail, a boy or cow- 
herd; from bo, a cow. See under BOWHILL. But compare 
Bearna baeghail, the gap of danger, " used in the Irish Annals 
to denote a perilous pass where the chief usually placed 
guards to prevent his enemies from making irruptions into 
his territory. The Irish to this day use the saying, ' td s6 
a m-bedrna an bhaoghail,' i.e. ' he is in the gap of danger,' 
when they see a man in danger of being ruined. For a 
beautiful description of what the Irish and Highlanders called 
' a gap of danger ' in the Highlands of Scotland, the reader 
is referred to Waverley, by Sir Walter Scott, vol. i. c. 15." 
Hy Fiachrach, 211, note. 

BARNBOARD (Inq. ad, Cap. 1599, Barnebard). ' Balmaghie.' Barr 
na bard, hill-top of the rhymers. This name appears to be 
taken from the gen. plu., like Derrybard, in Tyrone. Gener- 
ally the aspirated gen. sing, appears, as in DIRVAIRD (q.v.), 
Gortavard in Donegal, Aghaward in Eoscommon, Glenaward 
in Meath, Ballyward in Down, Tyrone, and Wicklow. When 
the gen. plu. appears, the b is generally eclipsed by m, thus 
Aghnamard (i.e. achadh na mbard), Latnamard (i.e. leacht na 
mbard), both in Monaghan, etc. etc. \v. bardd, ERSE and 
GAEL, bard, c. bardh, B. barz ; a Celtic word which has been 
borrowed by E. speakers. 

BARNCALZIE. 'Kirkpatrick Durham.' Barr na cailleaich, the hill- 
top of the nun, or old woman, o. ERSE caiUeck, a nun, an 
old woman (JFindisch), ERSE and GAEL, cailleach, with the 
same alternative meaning. Deriv. unknown ; that from 
caille, a veil, being suspicious. See under CRAIGENCALLIE. 

BARNCAUCHLAN. ' Minima ff.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF G ALLOW A Y. 77 

BARNCLEUGH. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

BARNCORKRIE. ' Kirkmaiden.' Barr an corcoraichdh [corkeragh], 
hill-top of the ruddiness, or (plur.) barran chorcrai, ruddy hill- 
tops. There is a mass of ruddy granite exposed here, where 
the cliff abuts on a bay called PORTENCORKRIE, q.v. o. ERSE 
corcur (subst.), corcra (adj.), w. porfor, ERSE corcar, GAEL, cor- 
cttr + M.E. purpre (whence E. purple, by substitution of I for r, 
as in marble for M.E. marbre, and in Molly, Dolly, for Mary, 
Dorothy (Skeat) + LAT. purpura=GK. iropfyvpa, the purple- 
fish ; 7rop(f)vpeo<f, the orig. sense of which, " as an epithet of 
the sea, seems to have been ' troubled ' or ' raging,' hence 
dark, and lastly purple. Hence the etymology is from the 
Gk. 7rop<f>vpeiv, to grow dark, used of the surging sea, a 
reduplicated form of (frvpeiv, to mix up, to mingle, orig. to 
stir violently */ BHUR, to move about quickly, whence SKT. 
buranya, to be active, LAT. furere, to rage. A.S. purpur, is 
borrowed directly from Latin." Sfaat, s.v. Purple. The 
interchange of p and c is according to well-known rules. 

BARNCROSH (P. Barncrossches, Barncroshes). 'Tungland.' See 
BALNACROSS. 

BARNEAN (P. Barneen). * Old Luce.' Barr n-e"n [nane], hill-top 
of the birds. Cf. Ardnaneane in Limerick, o. ERSE and 
ERSE en, GAEL, eun, w. edn, C. edhyn, B. eddn, ezn. 

BARNECALLAGH. ' Old Luce.' See under BARNCALZIE. 

BARNECONAHIE. ' Old Luce.' Barr na ceannaiche [kennaghie], 
hill-top of the merchants or pedlars. This word appears in 
several Irish names, e.g. Bellanaganny, in Meath, which the 
Four Masters (anno 1482) call Ath-na-gceannaigheadh, the ford 
of the pedlars. Cf. also Annagannihy in Cork. o. ERSE 
cennaige, a buyer ; ERSE ceannaighe or ceannaidhe ; GAEL. 
ceannaiche. 

BARNEIGHT (P. Barnacht). ' Kirkcowan.' Barr n-ech, hill of the 
horses. See under AUCHNESS. 

BARNERNIE [pron. Barnairney], (P. Barneirny). ' Kirkcowan.' 
Barr n-airne [airnie], hill-top of the sloes. Cf. Killaruey, 
three times in Ireland, Magherarny, Clonarny, and Mullarney. 

BARNESS (P. Barness). ' Kirkinner.' Barr n-easa, hill-top of the 
torrent. It is upon the Bladnoch river. 

BARNEYCLEARY. ' Old Luce.' Barr na' clerech, hill of the clergy. 
Cf. CLARY and CLARY PARK, and PORTACLEARYS. Also, iu 



78 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

Ireland, Farrancleary, in Cork, Ballynaglerach, in Clare, 
Tipperary, and Waterford. This word ( LAT. dericus) 
appears in old Irish Texts, " Clerich hEreun." Fiacc's 
Hymn, i. 6 (A.D. 540); also in Fis Adamndin, 31 (date 
variously estimated from A.D. 800 to 1000). c. doireg, 
B. doarec. 

BARNEY HILL. ' Kirkcowan.' 

BARNFAULD (from estate-map of Cuil). ' Kirkmabreck.' 

BARNEYWATER. ' Girthon.' Btarna uachdar, upper gap or pass. 
Uachdar is corrupted into water in some Irish names, e.g., 
Clowater in Carlow, dock uachdar. See under AUCH- 
NOTTEROCH. O. ERSE berna, a cleft ; GAEL, beam, a small 
gap, a fissure. 

BARNF06T. ' Girthon.' 

BARNGABER. ' Borgue.' Barr na gabar, hill of the goats ; the old 
unaspirated form of gabhar. See under ALGOWER. 

BARNG6UF. ' Crossmichael.' 

BARNHILLIE (Macfarlane MS., Barnkylie). ' Balmaclellan.' Barr 
na choille (hillie), hill-top of the wood. The sixteenth 
century form, Barnkylie, shows the original unaspirated 
genitive coille. ERSE coill, GK. v\ij, LAT. silua. Eoot 
unknown, and the connection of LAT. and GK. not established. 

BARNH6URIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1560, Barnchwry; 1602, Barnhowrie). 
' Colvend.' Barr n-huidhre [1] [hoorie], hill-top of the dun 
cow, gen. of odhar. " Odhar [owr] is often applied to a cow ; 
and several places have derived their names from legendary 
cows with this designation." Joyce, ii. 287. Cf. Monahoora 
in Down, Loughnaheery and Essnaheery in Tyrone. The 
celebrated MS. Lebdr na h-Uidre, the book of the brown cow, 
is said to have been named from the skin of the animal that 
covered it. 

BARNIE HILL. ' Penninghame.' Be"arna, a gap, a pass. See under 
. BARNEYWATER. 

BARNIGHLEA. * Kirkcowan.' 

BARNKIRK (P. Barnkerk). ' Barr na coirce [kirkya], hill-top of the 
oats. Of. BARNKIRKY, CULQUHIRK, and in Ireland Lissacurkia, 
twice in Eoscommon, Farranacurky in Fermanagh. Coirce, 
oats + W. ceirch, B. Jcerch, c. kerh, perhaps from /^/GAR, to 
grind, whence LAT. gramim + GK. yvpis, meal, + RUSS. zerno, 
corn. + ICEL., DAN., and SWED. korn + A.S. corn (E. corn) + 
GOTH, kaurn + G. korn. Possibly this word is barr na circe 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 79 

[kirky], hill-top of the heath-fowl, from cearc, a hen; thus, 
Castlekirk on Lough Corrib is called Caislen-na-circe by the 
Four Masters. 

BARNKIRKY. ' Girthon.' See under BARNKIRK. 

BARN6LAS. 'Tungland.' Barr an sholais [olas], hill-top of the 
light or the beacon. Cf. BARSOLUS (P. Barolis), BARSOLES, 
BARSOLIS, BARNSOUL. Also, in Ireland, Ardsollus in Clare, 
Drumnasole in Antrim, Rossolus in Monaghan, and several 
places name Assolas and Athsollis, atha solais, the ford of the 
light, from a light being shown to guide people over the ford. 
Lights were shown in old times as beacons on hill-tops. A 
striking picture of a Red Indian signalling with a light on 
a hill-top was exhibited in a gallery of American and 
Colonial pictures in London in 1886. The primitive mode 
of obtaining fire by friction was practised until compara- 
tively recent times in some parts of Scotland. " When a 
contagious disease enters among cattle, the fire is extinguished 
in some villages round. Then they force fire with a wheel, 
or by rubbing a piece of dry wood upon another, and there- 
with burn juniper in the stalls of the cattle, that the smoke 
may purify the air about them. . . . This done, the fires 
in the houses are rekindled from the forced fire. All this I 
have seen done." Shaw, p. 290. 0. ERSE sollus (adj.) bright, 
prob. akin to LAT. sol, the sun, ^SWAR, to glow. 

BARNS, THE. Whithorn.' 

BARNSALLIE (In q. ad Cap. 1668. Barnsullye; P. Barnsuille). 'Old 
Luce.' Barr no, seilach [sallagh], hill of the willows. Cf. 
BARSALLOCH, also Ardsallagh in Meath. o. ERSE sail, ERSE and 
GAEL, sail, sell, saileach, w. hdyg (plur.) + LAT. salix + GK. 
e\iKij + ICEL. selja + SWED. salg + DAN. selje + G. sahlweide 
( O.H.G. salohd), whence M.E. salwe, E. sallow, sally, and BR, sc. 
sauch. The root meaning is the " water-tree," cf. SKT. sari, 
water, saras, a pond, sarasiya, the lotus, sarif, a river, ^ SAR, 
to flow. (Skeat, s.v. Sallow.) 

BARNSHALLOCH. ' Ealmaclellan,' ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Barr 
na sealg ["?] [shallug], hill of the hunting. Cf. Drumna- 
shalloge in Tyrone, Derrynashallog in Monaghan, Ballina- 
shallog in Derry, Drumashellig in Queen's County, i.e. druim- 
na-sealg, etc. o. ERSE selg, ERSE and GAEL, sealg, the chase. 

BARNSHANGAN. ' Stoneykirk.' Barr na seangan [shangan], hill 
of the ants. ERSE seangan [shangaun], an ant, is a derivative 



8o AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

of seang, slender, O. ERSE segon (Cormac). The Ulster pro- 
nunciation omits the middle intrusive n, and is as if written 
shaghan. Pismire Hill, near Louth, is the modern name of 
Cnoc-na-seangan,ihe hill of the ants (Four Masters, A.D. 1148), 
but it is quite probable that in other instances it may be from 
a proper name of an individual, Seangdn, from seang, slender. 
Cf. BARNSHANNON, DALSHANGAN ; also Auchenshangau, near 
Ardrossan (Cunninghame, p. 49), and Knocknashagan in 
Donegal and Fermanagh, Knocknaseggane in Armagh, etc. 

BARNSHANNON (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Barnsangan, ml Dalsangand; 
P. Barnshangan). ' New Luce.' See under BARSHANGAN. 

BARNSLADIE. ' Kirkcowan.' Barr an slaide [?], hill of the 
slaughter, o. ERSE slaide, to slay, GAEL, slad, carnage + 
ICEL. sld + DAN. slaae + SWED. sla + GOTH, slahan + G. 
schlagen ( O.H.G. slahan) + A.S. slean (whence M.E. sleen, slee 
E. slay, slaughter} from Teut. base slah, to smite. 

BARNSH6T. ' Balmaclellan.' 

BARNs6uL. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' See under BARNOLAS. 
BARNST6BRICK (P. Barstobberick H.). ' Tungland/ 

BARNULTOCH (P. Barnulte ; Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Barnulto ; 1623, 
Barmulto). ' Inch.' Barr an Ultaich, the Ulsterman's hill. 
Cf. Knockanulty in Clare, Ardultach in Galway, and 
Ballinulty. 

BARNIINAN. ' Stoneykirk.' 

BARNWALLS. ' Balmaclellan/ 

BARNYARD. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Bearna ard, the high pass 
or gap. See under BARNEYWATER. 

BARNYCL!GY. ' Penninghame.' Barr na claigean [claggan], hill- 
top of the skulls. " Applied to a round, dry, rocky hill." 
Joyce, ii. 428. Cf. Claggan, Clagan, and Claggan in 
Ireland. Claigean also means in Mod. Gael, an arable field 
(Macalpine). 

BARR. ' Loch Button,' ' Berwick.' See under BAR. 

BARRACHAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1612, Barqurochane ; P. Barchracchan). 
' Mochrum.' In Renfrewshire a place of the same name is 
pron. Barrachan. 

BARRACK SLOUCH (pron. Sloogh). 'Kirkcolm, s.c.' GAEL. 
" bearradh [byarra], the brow of a hill, a precipice." Mac- 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 81 

alpine. " Slouch (gutt.), a deep ravine or gully." Jamieson. 
A name applied to gullies on a rocky coast GAEL, slochd, a 
den, a pit. 

BARRAER. ' Penninghame.' See under BARNAER. 

BARREID. ' Penninghame/ 

BARREL HILL. ' Inch.' 

BARSALLOCH (P. Barsalloch, Balsallach). ' Penninghame,' ' Moch- 
rum.' See tinder BARNSALLIE. Or barr salach, miry hill. 
It is impossible to distinguish between salach, miry, and 
seileach, a willow, in compound names. Barr in some districts 
of the Highlands bears the secondary meaning of " a road." 
In Lochaber barr salach would mean " the miry road," and 
this possibly may be the sense here. 

BARSCARROW (MS. 1527, Barskarauch). ' Stoneykirk.' Barr 
sceirach, rocky hill-top. See under LOCH SKERROW. 

BARSC6NE. ' Buittle.' 

BARSCRAITH. ' Col vend.' Barr scratha or scrath [scraa or scrau], 
hill of the sod or sods. " Scraw, a thin turf, Gall., Dumfr." 
Jamieson. " Scraws, thin turfs, pared with flaughter 
spades, to cover houses." Mactaggart. Cf. NOGNIESCRIE, 
SCRABBA ; also in Ireland, Ahascragh and Ballinescragh. 

BARSHERKY. ' Balmaclellan.' Barr searrach [sharragh], hill-top 
of the foals. Cf. BALSARROCH ; also Aillenasharragh in Clare, 
Clonsharragh in Wexford, Carrigeensharragh in Tipperary. 

BARSKE6GH (P. Barskyoch ; MS. 1527, Barskeauch). 'Buittle,' 
' Kells,' ' Penninghame.' Barr sceithidg [skeyoge], hill-top of 
the hawthorns. See under AUCHENSKEOCH. 

BARS6LES. ' Buittle,' ' Old Luce.' See under BARNOLAS. 
BARSOLIS. ' Crossmichael.' See under BARNOLAS. 

BARS6LUS (Inq. ad Cap. 1629, Barsoullis ; 1623, Barsollis; P. 
Barolis). ' Inch.' See under BARNOLAS. 

BARSTIBLY. ' Tungland.' 

BARTAGGART (P. Bartaggart; MS. 1527, Barnetagart). 'Balma- 
clellan.' Barr-t-sagart [bartaggart], hill-top of the priests. 
In the MS. of 1527 Barnetagart [barr na-tsagari\, shows it is 
the hill of the priests, not of the priest. See under ALTAGGART. 

BARTASKIE. ' Kirkcowan.' See under BARCHESKIE. 
BARTR6STAN (P. Bartrostan). ' Penninghame.' See under BAR- 

DRESTAN. 

F 



82 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

BARVALGANS. ' Penninghame.' Ban Bholgcain [?] [volgan], 
Bolcan's hill. Cf. Bovolcan in Antrim, which Colgan writes 
Both Bolcain (Bolcan's hut) ; Drumbulcan, Drumbulcaun, and 
Drumbulgan, in other parts of Ireland ; also Trabolgan in 
Cork harbour, called Mur Bolcan in the Book of Rights. 
{Joyce, ii. 22), and Doonbolgan in Eoscommon. 

BARVENNAN (P. Baruennan). 'Penninghame.' Barr bheannain 
[vennan], top of the hillock. Beanndn, dim. of beann, a hill. 
See under BENAILSA. 

BARVERNOCHAN (P. Barvarranach). ' Kirkinner.' 

BARWHANNY (P. Barwhony). ' Kirkinner.' Barr bhainne [?] 
[wanny, vanny], hill of the milk. This is a very doubtful 
suggestion, but the names Tawnawanny in Fermanagh, 
Tullinwannia in Leitrim, Tullinwonny in Fermanagh, and 
Coolavanny in Kerry, are referred by Joyce, ii. 206, to this 
origin. ERSE bainne, milk, from bdn, white. Cf. MILKING 
HOLES, MILKING LOAN, and MILKY BRAES. 

BARWHAR (P. Barwhar). ' Loch Button.' Barr ghar [1] [haar], 
near hill- top. O. ERSE gar, near (0' Donovan, Grammar, p. 122), 
ERSE gar, ERSE and GAEL, gearr, short + w., B., and c. byr, short; 
gar, ger, near (prep.), C. and B. ber, short, liars, near (prep.). 

BARWHILLANTIE (P. Banvhillenty). 'Parton.' Cf. BALLAN- 

COLLANTIE. 

JSkRWrnL (Charter 1586,Barquhulle). 'Girthon,' 'Kirkcowan.' Barr 
chuill [hwill], hill of the hazel bush. See under AUCHENHILL. 

BARWHINNIE. ' Buittle.' Barr mbuine [1] [vinnie, winnie], hill- 
top of the brake or thicket (0' Donovan). An old word in 
Irish MSS. appearing as a prefix to a great many Irish names. 
See under DALMONEY. 

BARWHINNOCK. ' Twynholm.' See under BARWINNOOK. 

BARWH!RRAN. ' Penninghame.' Barr chaerthinn [hirren], hill-top 
.of the rowan trees (Joyce, i. 513). Cf. Attachoirinn in lona, 
Drumkeeran in Leitrim, Fermanagh, and other parts of 
Ireland. 

BARWICK. ' Dairy.' 

BARWINNOCK (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Barvanock; 1620, Barvennag ; P. 
Barwannach, W. P. MS. Barvannok, Barvennik). 'Glasser- 
ton.' Barr bhfeannog [?] [vannog], hill-top of the carrion 
crows. Cf. CORBIESTANE and BARWHINNOCK ; in Ireland, 
Mullanavannog in Monaghan, and (without eclipse of / by 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 83 

bh) Toberfinnock in Wexford. Perhaps barr mheadhonach 
[veannagh], middle hill. 

BARYERROCK (P. Balyerrack). ' Kirkinner.' Barr dliearg 
[yerrug], red hill-top. o. ERSE derc, derg, red. Cf. PORT- 
YERROCK, and, in Ireland, Lickerrig (i.e. lie dhearg), in Galway, 
Rathe rrig (i.e. rath dhearg), in Queen's County. 

BATWELL. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

BAWNHEAD. ' Carsphairn.' A hybrid word bdn [bawn], lea-land, 
with E. substantive. A word applied to grass-land from its 
pale colour. See under WHITELEYS. 

BAZARD LANE (a stream). ' New Luce.' Cf. BIZZIARD FELL. 
BAZARD HILL. ' New Luce.' 

BELGAVERIE. ' Kirkcowan.' The prefix is obscure ; the latter 
moiety of this name is apparently aimhreidh [avrea], i.e. not 
smooth, uneven, from aimh, a negative prefix, and reidh [ray], 
smooth. Cf. TYDAVERIES, and, in Ireland, Lackavrea, a 
mountain on Loch Corrib ; Ouvry, in Monaghan, formerly 
Eaverie ; Avery, an island on Connemara coast ; Owenavrea 
in Mayo, etc. 

BELLERIG. See under BELTON HILL. ' Kelton.' 

BELLEW, CRAIG or. 'Minigaff.' Beul umha [bel ooa], cave 
mouth. Cf. BELLOUE, BILEOW. See, for various forms of uamh, 
a cave, Joyce, i. 438. O. ERSE uam. 

BELL6UE CAVE. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' E. cave, added pleonasti- 
cally. See under BELLEW. 

BELLYMACK (Inq. ad Cap. 1548, Ballemak). ' Balmaghie.' 
BELSHORE. ' Colvend.' 

BELT HILL. ' Balmaclellan.' See under BELTONHILL. 

BELTONHILL (P. Beltanhill). ' Terregles.' Beail teine, Baal's fire. 
" Bdalteine, the first day of May ; so called from the fires 
lighted on that day by the pagan Irish in honour of the god 
Beal." O'Reilly. " Belltaine, i . bU tene . i . tene shoinmech 
. i . ddthene dognitis druidhe triathaircedlu (no cotinchetlaib) mdraib 
combertis na cethrai arthedmannaib cacha bliadna cusnattndtibsin." 
" Biltene, i.e. a goodly fire, i.e. two fires which Druids used 
to make through incantations (or with great incantations), 
and they used to bring the cattle to those fires against the 
diseases of each year." Cormac, p. 6. " On the 1st of May 
they (the Highlanders) offered sacrifice for the preservation 
of their cattle ; and that day was held sacred to Pan or Baal, 



84 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

and wais commonly called La Baal-tine, corruptly ' Beltan- 
day,' i.e. the Day of Baal's Fire. Clear remains of that 
superstition I have been present at when a young boy. 
Upon Maundy-Thursday the several herds cut staves of 
service-wood about three feet long, and put two cross- 
sticks into clefts in one end of the staff. These staves 
they laid up till the 1st of May. On that day several herds 
met together, every one had two eggs and a bannock, or 
thick cake of oatmeal, crusted over with the yolks of eggs. 
They raised a pile of dry wood or sticks on a hillock ; then 
they made the Deas Soil thrice round the fire, after which 
they roasted their eggs, and ate them with a part of the 
bread. The rest of the bread they brought home to be eaten 
by the family ; and having adorned the heads of their staves 
with wild herbs, they fixed them on the tops, or above the 
doors of their several cotes ; and this they fancied would 
preserve the cattle from diseases till next May." Shaw, p. 
282. Whitley Stokes, however, rejects the derivation from 
Baal ; " the root of Belt-aine (as I divide the word) is per- 
haps the same as that of the Lith. baltas, white ; the aine 
is a termination as in sechtmmne, ' week.' " Cf. BARNOLAS, 
KNOCKTINNEL. 

BENAILSA. ' Minigaff.' ERSE beann, GAEL, beinn ( + LAT. pinna), 
a peak, a hill. 0. ERSE benn, bend, " peak, gable, horn " 
(0 'Donovan). Not, as often supposed, a form of w. pen, the 
ERSE and GAEL, equiv. of which is ceann. "Beann is not 
applied to great mountains so much in Ireland as in Scot- 
land, . . . but as applied to middle and smaller eminences it 
is used very extensively." Joyce, i. 383. 

BENBRACK (P. Benbrek). ' Carsphairn.' ' Kells ' (thrice), ' Dairy.' 
Beann breac [brak], spotted, brindled hill. See under 
AUCHABRICK. 

BENBtllE. ' Glasserton.' Beann buidhe [buie, bwee], yellow hill. 
Cf. BENWEE. See under BARBUIE. 

BENDHU [pron. Bendew]. ' Kirkmaiden.' Beann dubh [ben doo], 
black hill. Cf. BendufF, Bindoo, Binduff, etc., hills in Ire- 
land. 

BENDdo. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' See under BENDHU. 

BENFADZEON [pron. fadyen]. ' Girthon.' See under BARFADDEN. 

BENG!IRN (a hill of 1280 feet). ' Berwick.' Beann gcairn [gairn], 
hill of the cairn. See under AUCHENCAIRN. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 85 

BEXGHIE. ' Girthon.' Beann gaiethe [geeha or gwee], hill of 
the wind. Cf. WINDY STANDARD, WINDY HILL, etc. See 
under BARNAGEE. 

BEXGRAY (a hill of 1175 feet). 'Girthon.' Beann grfaich[1], 
hill of the high flat or moor. Cf. KNOCKGRAY. See under 

AUCHENGRAY. 

BEXINXER. Carsphairn.' 

BENJARG (P. Benjarg). ' Girthon.' Beann dearg [dyarg], red 
hill. 

BEXJOHN (a hill of 1150 feet). ' Anwoth.' Beann donn [1], 
brown hill. o. ERSE donn, dond ; GAEL, and ERSE donn ; w. 
dum + A^s. dunn (whence E. dun). 

BEXLEIGHT. * Xe\v Luce.' Beann leacht, hill of the tombs. See 
under LEIGHT. 

BENLOCH STRAND. ' Carsphairn.' 

BENLOCHAN. ' Kirkmaiden.' Beann lochain, hill of the lakelet. 

BENMEAL. ' Girthon.' Beann mael, bare hill. Cf. BARMEAL. 
See under MEAUL. 

BEXMIXXOCH (P. Binmeanach Hill). 'Minigaff.' Beann mm- 
dhonach [meanogh], middle Hill. See. under BALMINNOCH. 

BENM6RE (a hill 1177 feet). 'Minigaff.' Beann mdr, great hill. 

BENNAN (P. Bennen). Of frequent occurrence ; beanndn or 
beinndn, dim. of beann or beinn, but used as an equivalent ; for 
instance there are two hills of the name, one in Kells of 1800 
feet, the other in Irongray of 1175 feet. 

BENNANBRACK. 'Minigaff.' Beanndn breac, brindled or spotted 
hill. Cf. BENBRACK. 

BENXAYEOCH [veeogh]. 'Kirkmaiden.' Beann na bhfltheach 
[veeagh], hill of the ravens. Cf. CRAIGENVEOCH, DUNVEOCH, 
and in Ireland Mulnaveagh, near Lifford, and Benaueha 
(where the /has disappeared by aspiration), written in Irish 
Beann na fheiche. 0. ERSE//acA. 

BEXXEEVE. ' Balmaclellan.' 

BEXNIEL6AN. ' Dairy.' 

BEXXIGUIXEA. ' Kells.' Beann gCinniadk [1] [ginneh], Kenneth's 
hill. Cf. CAIRN KEXXAGH, CAIRXKENXY, CAIRN KINNA, 
EINGUIXEA ; and in Ireland, Cairnkenny in Tyrone, etc. 

BEXOWR. 'Girthon.' Beann odhar [owr], grey hill. o. ERSE 
odar, " pale, wan, dun" (O'RtiUy). 



86 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

BENRdACH (gutt). ' MinigafF.' Beann ruadh [rooh], red hill 
o. ERSE rtiad, rhudd, c. rydh, B. ryudh. Cf. DU. rood + ICEL. 
rau'Sr + DAN. and SWED. rod + G. roth + GOTH, muds + A.S. 
redd (whence M.E. reed, rede, E. red) + LAT. rufus, rutilus 
, to redden, whence SKT. rudhira, blood, GK. epevOeiv, 



BENSHINNIE. ' Parton.' Beann sionach [shinnagh], hill of the 
foxes. See under AUCHENSHINNOCH. 

BENTFOOT. ' Kirkgunzeon.' "Bent. 1. A coarse kind of grass 
growing on hilly ground. 2. The coarse grass growing on 
the sea-shore. 3. The open field, the plain." Jamieson. 
Here used in the last sense, i.e. the foot of the open pasture. 
" Bent, coarse grass on the moors, the grassy moor itself (as 
opposed to heathery, or ling-covered moors." Lucas, Nid- 
derdale Glossary. O.H.G. pinuz, M.H.G. binez, binz, G. binse, 
bent grass. 

BENTS. 'MinigafF.' See under BENTFOOT (1). 

BENTUDOR or BENTUTHER. ' Eerwick.' Beann t-sudaire [toodery], 
hill of the tanner. ERSE sudaire, a tanner (Joyce, ii. 116). 
In this word the interpolated t in composition almost always 
eclipses s. Cf. KNOCKTOODEN, LAGTUTOR, and in Ireland, 
Edennatoodry in Tyrone (eudan a 'tsudaire, hill-brow of the 
tanner), Knock atudor in Cavan, Listooder in Down. 

BENNUSKIE (a rock in the tideway). ' Kirkmaiden.' Beann uisge 
[usky], point (of rock) in the water, o. ERSE usce, gen. usci 
(Windiscti), water; ERSE and GAEL, uisge ; whence E. whisky. 

BENWEE. ' MinigafF.' Beann bhuidhe [wee]. See under BENBUIE. 
There is more than one hill in Ireland called Benwee. 

BENYELLARY (a hill 2359 feet), (P. Benellury M.). 'MinigafF.' 
Beann iolaire [illery], hill of the eagles. ERSE iolaire (whence 
Slievanilra, i.e. sliabh an iolaire, in Clare County) and iolar 
[iller] (whence Coumaniller in Tipperary) ; w. eryr, c. er + 
A.S. earn, eagle, E. erne, osprey + DU. aarn + ICEL. aurn, 
em. The white-tailed eagle (Haliaetus alUcilla) bred until 
recent years in this region. The last was shot by Lord 
Ailsa's keepers about the year 1866. In a description of 
MinigafF, preserved among the Macfarlane MSS., are some 
interesting notes on the fauna of this very mountain in the 
1 6th century. " In the remote parts of this great mountain 
are very large Red-deer; and about the top thereof that 
fine bird called the Mountain Partridge, or, by the com- 
monalty, the Tarmachan, about the size of a Red-cock, and 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 87 

its flesh much of the same nature ; feeds, as that bird doth, 
on the seeds of the bullrush, and makes its protection in the 
chinks and hollow places of thick stones, from the insults of 
the eagles, which are in plenty, both the large gray and the 
black, about that mountain." Red-deer, ptarmigan, and eagles 
are now all alike extinct ; but so late as 1811, in the General 
View of the Agriculture of the County of Ayr, the following 
passage occurs : " Eagles formerly abounded so much about 
Loch Doon, in the higher parts of Carrick, as to prove 
formidable enemies to the helpless sheep for many miles 
round their haunts. They have been much reduced in their 
numbers by the shepherds, but they are by no means extir- 
pated. They still hatch in the most inaccessible rocks, and 
occasionally carry off, in their powerful talons, a lamb to feed 
themselves and their young." 

BENNYLOW. 'Kirkcowan/ 

BEOCH (P. Baoch, Bioch, Byochs ; Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Beauch). 
' Inch,' ' Kirkpatrick Irongray,' ' Peuninghame,' ' Tungland/ 
Beithach [bayoch], a place of birches. Cf. Beith in Ayrshire, 
and Beagh, Behagh, and Behy in Ireland. Slieve Beagh is 
written Sliabh beatha by Muircheartach. 

BERE HILL. 'Kirkmaiden.' A.S. bere, barley (BR. so. bear) -J- 
LAT. far, corn. 

BESSIE YON. ' Glasserton.' Bessie's oven ; cf. Yorkshire yoon y 
an oven A.S. of en, ofn + DU. oven + ICEL. ofn, later omn 
+ SWED. ugn + G. ofen -f- GOTH, auhns + ERSE amhan + 
GAEL, amhuinn, uamhainn. In northern dialects it is not 
uncommon to prefix y before a vowel ; thus BR. SC. yin, one, 
yow, ewe, yeild, eild, age, etc. 

BETTY KNOWES. ' Loch Button.' 

BIANGENS. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

BIAWN. ' Kirkmaiden.' Badhun []] [bawn], a cattle pen (literally 
bo dun, cattle fort). Hence Bawn, a common name in Ireland, 
o. ERSE and GAEL. b6, a cow, w. bu, buw, also buwch, a cow, 
biw, cattle, C. biuch, B. bio'ch (the final ch is unaccounted for) 
+ DU. koe + ICEL. k'yr + SWED. and DAN. ko + O.H.G. chuo y 
chuoa, M.H.G. kuo, ku, G. kuh + A.S. cu, plur. cy (whence M.E. cu, 
cou, plur. ky, kie, kye, E. cow, plur. Jdne, BR. SC. coo, plur. kye) 
+ LAT. bos, an ox + GK. ySoO? + SKT. go, a bull or cow. 
The common Aryan form is gau, an ox, from /^/GU, to low, 
to bellow ; SKT. gu, to sound. (Skeat, s.v. Cow.) 



88 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

BiLE6w (a cave mouth). ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' (twice.) See under 
BELLEW. 

BINE HILL. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Port Patrick.' 

BIRKETS HILL. ' Urr.' A.s. beorc or birce wudu, birch wood. 

E. birch, BR. SC. birk A..s. beorc, birce (whence M.E. birche) + 

DU. berken boom -f ICEL. and SWED. bjb'rk + DAN. birk + G. 

birke + RUSS. bereza + SKT. bhurja, a birch. See under 

AIKET. 

BISHOP BURN. ' Penninghame.' Named from the Bishop of 
Galloway's palace, Avhich formerly stood at Clary. 

BISHOPTON (P. Bishoptoun ; W. P. MSS. Bisscoptoun). ' Twyn- 
holm.' The bishop's house. 

BIZZIARD FELL. ' Kirkcowan.' Cf. BAZARD LANE. 
BLACKBEAST. ' Eenvick.' 

BLACKCRAIG (P. Black-kraig Hill). ' Dairy.' Cf. CRAIGDHU. 

BLACK GAIRY (P. Blakghary). 'Kells.' Garry or gairy, a 
common term in Galloway for a rough hill-side or stony 
place, ERSE garbh [garriv], rough. Not in Jamieson. 

BLACKDUBS. 'Minigaff.' "Dub, (1) a small pool of rain-water; 
(2) a gutter" ( Jamieson) ERSE doub ; "in doub" the stream 
(Broccan's Hymn, 1. 54 ; Windisch, p. 33). "Dob, river, 
stream." O'Reilly. Probably from the root word dub, dark, 
which is emphasised in the present case by the prefix. 

BLACKGRANE. 'Carsphairn.' " Grain, grane. 3. The branch of 
a river. 4. It also signifies the branches of a valley at the 
upper end, where it divides into two, as Lewishope Grains. 
5. In plur. the prongs of a fork." Jamieson. 

BLACKGROUND. 'Old Luce.' Cf. TARDOW. 
BLACKHEAD. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Cf. CUNDEE. 

BLACK ISLE, THE (a meadow in the moors). ' New Luce.' See 
under ALLANDOO and INKS. 

BLACKMARK. ' Dairy.' Mark is a common name for lands in 
Galloway, and though it often means " merle, merkland, a 
denomination of land from the duty formerly paid to the 
sovereign or superior " (Jamieson), it has often, as in this case, 
another meaning, i.e. " Markstane, a landmark, Galloway ; 
synon. Marchstane " (Jamieson). S^ under MARK. 

BLACKMORROW WELL. ' Kirkcudbright.' Said to have received 
its name from an outlaw named Black Murray, on whose 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 89 

head a reward was set by the Crown. One of the Maclellan 
family found him asleep, and drove a dagger through his 
head, which is supposed to be the origin of the cognizance of 
the Maclellans. 

BLACKMYRE. ' Kirkmabreck.' A place where black dye-stuff 
was obtained. " Notwithstanding their seeming neglect of 
their persons, these islanders were not without a spice of 
vanity, for they had invented dye-stuffs to diversify the 
colours of their clothes ; and their dying materials were (all 
of them) the produce of their own soil ; the principal these 
three : a kind of mud called mireblack, made a very deep and 
durable black ; a kind of stuff called carker, scraped off the 
rocks, made a very fine red ; and a kind of plant almost the 
same, and of the same effect, as madder." An Historical 
Essay on the Dress of the Ancient and Modern Irish, by Joseph 
Walker, 4to, Dublin, 1788. "At the bottom of some deep 
bogs a half-liquid stuff, as black as jet, is found, which was 
formerly used by the peasantry all over Ireland for dyeing 
black. It gives frieze and other woollens an excellent dye." 
Joyce, ii. 270. Cf. DOCHIES. 

BLACKNOOK. ' Kirkinner.' Black corner. E. nook, BR. sc. neuk 
(M.E. nok), enters into many names in Galloway. Lucas 
(s.v. Newk) compares Norse kmikjr, a nob, peak, eminence ; 
but it may be taken generally as signifying a corner, 
equivalent to ERSE and GAEL. cuil. 

BLADNOCH [pron. Blaidnoch], (Cott. MS. 1563, Blaidno, Blaidnoo; 
Font's MS., Bluidnoo ; Inq. ad Cap. 1643, Bladzenoche ; 
Symson, Blaidnoch). A river in Wigtonshire. 

BLAIKET (Inq. ad Cap. 1548, Blaikat ; 1552, Blaket ; P. Blakitt). 
' Wigton.' A.S. blcec wudu, black wood. M.E. blak node or 
wde. A.s. blac, blcec (whence M.E. blak, E. black) + ICEL. blakkr 
(used to describe the colour of wolves) + DAN. blcek, ink -f- 
SWED. black, ink ; SWED. dialect blaga, to smear with smut. 
The idea seems to be smoky, smutty, arising from the root 
of blow, in the sense of a flaring fire, cf. O.H.G. pMhan, M.H.G. 
bliijen, G. Udhen, to blow, to melt in a forge. Cf. AIKET. 

BLAIR (P. Blaar, Blair ; W. P. MSS. Blair). ' Sorbie,' ' Stoneykirk.' 
" Bldr, a plain, a field ; a dispute, contention, a battle." 
O'Reilly. GAEL. " Blar, a battle, engagement, battle-field ; 
ground, plain." Macalpine. The word does not seem to 
occur in Irish names, nor is it noticed by Lluyd, Windisch, 
or Joyce. The primary meaning is probably that of " a 



90 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

plain," and then a battle from the place chosen for it. 
The Scottish historian Buchanan's gloss upon it is " solum 
arboribus liberum," ground clear of trees, such as, in a densely 
wooded country, would naturally be chosen for a battle. 

BLAIRBUIE (W. P. MSS., Blairbowy). ' Glasserton.' Bldr buidhe 
[buie], yellow plain. This word, or Blairfin, would graphi- 
cally designate a piece of cultivated land, corn, or light- 
coloured grass, among surrounding moor or wood. In com- 
mon parlance, arable pasture is now spoken of as " white 
land" in the sense of pale. Of. BLAIRFIN, WHITEFIELD, 
WHITEHILLS ; also Blarbuidhe in lona. See under BARBUIE. 

BLAIRBUIES (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Glenure, alias vocata Blairboyis; 
P. Blairbuy). ' Minigaff.' See under BLAIRBUIE. 

BLAIRDERRY (P. Blairdyrry). ' Old Luce.' Bldr doire [dirry], 
plain of the oak wood. ERSE " doire, a grove, a wood, a place 
full of bushes." Lluyd. It means specially an oak wood, 
from dair, darach, an oak. See under ARNDARROCH. 

BLAIRFIN. ' Kirkcolm.' Bldr Jion [fin], white field. See under 
BLAIRBUIE, WHITEFIELD. o. ERSE find, fin, w. gwyn, c. guydn, 
guyn, B. gwen. GAEL, fionn. 

BLAIRG6WER. 'Penninghame.' Bldr gobhar [go wr], plain of the 
goats. See under ALGOWER, Blairgowrie in Perthshire 
represents the genitive singular goibhre [gowrie]. 

BLAIR HILL. 'Kirkcowan,' ' Kirkinner.' Here the name of the 
plain, bldr, has been transferred to the hill. See GLAIK, LAG. 

BLAIRINNIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1608, Blairinny ; P. Blairynny). ' Cross- 
michael.' Blar roinne [rinnie], plain of the point or division 
of land. See under EHINNS. 

BLAIRMAKIN [pron. maukiuj, (Inq. ad Cap. 1581, Blairmalkein; P. 
Blairmakyn). ' Kirkinner.' 

BLAIRMICHAEL [pron. Blairmeeghl, gutt.]. ' Crossmichael.' Bldr 
Micheil [meeghl], (St.) Michael's field. 

BLAIRM6DDIE. ' Kirkcowan.' Bldr madadh [maddy], plain of the 
dogs, or perhaps of the wolves. " There are two words in 
common use for a dog, cu and madadh or madradh [madda, 
maddra], which enter extensively into local names. Of 
the two forms of the latter, madradh is more usual in the 
south and madadh in the rest of Ireland." Joyce, i. 479. 
Cf. w. madrin, madyn, a fox. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 91 

BLAIRM6RE. ' Kirkcolm.' Bldr m6r, great plain. 

BLAIRNAGOBBER. ' Kirkcowan.' Bldr na gobur, plain of the horses 
or goats. The unaspirated form of genitive. See under 
ALGOWER. 

BLAIROCH. ' Penninghame.' Bldrach, a level place, deriv. of blar. 

BLAIRS (P. Blairs). ' Kirkmabreck.' Bldr, a plain, to which E. 
plural has been added. See under BLAIR. 

BLAIRSHINNOCH (P. Blairshinnock). ' Kirkgunzeon,' ' Kirkinner.' 
Bldr sionach [shinnagh], plain of the foxes. See under 

AUCHENSHINNOCH and TODDLY. 

BLANYVAIRD (on the shore of Loch Ochiltree). ' Penninghame.' 
Blean a' bhaird [blainavaird], creek, curve, or bay of the rhymer. 
See under BARNBOARD and DIRVAIRD. o. ERSE blen, inguen, 
the groin ; ERSE U4an ; GAEL, blian, the groin ; " in a second- 
ary sense it is applied to a creek branching off either from 
the sea or from a lake, or formed by the mouth of a river." 
Joyce, ii. 264. Cf. LINBLANE, in Old Luce, and Blean, 
Blane, and BJaney, in various parts of Ireland; Bleanalung 
(the boat-creek, btean a' luing), in Lough Erne, etc. 

BLAWQUHAIRN [pron. Blaw-whairn]. 'Dairy.' Bldr chairn [harn] []], 
plain of the cairn. See under AUCHENCAIRN and BLAIR. 

BLA.WRAINIE (P. Blairenny). ' Balmaclellan.' Bldr raineach, 
ferny plain, o. ERSE raith (raithnech, ferns Cormac trans., 
p. 143), ERSE raithneach, W. rhedyn, G. reden, B. raden, GAEL. 
raineach, fern, bracken. 

BLAWRINNIE (P. Blairennies). ' Balmaclellan.' See under BLAIR- 
INNIE. 

BLAW WEARY. ' Balmaclellan,' ' Urr.' Bldr iarach or iarthagh 
[eeragh], west field. See under BALSHERE. Cf. CANEERIE, 
CASTLE WEARY ; and, in Ireland, Baurearagh, a hill in Cork, 
and Cloonearagh in Kerry and Koscommon. 

BLINDWALLS. 'Whi thorn.' 

BLOODMIRE Moss. 'Kirkpatrick Durham.' Probably named 
from the colouring given in various places by oxide of iron 
in the springs. 

BLOODY SLOUCH. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' See under BARRACK SLOUCH. 

BLOODY WIEL (a pool on the Luce, where the Hays and the Linns 
of Larg had a bloody encounter). ' New Luce.' BR. SC. 
wiel, wele, a whirlpool, a pool on a river where the water 
revolves A.S. wella, well, wyll (M.E. wel, E. icell)+iCEL. vell+ 



92 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

DU. wel, a spring + DAN. vceld (vcell) a spring +G. ivelle, a wave 
or surge (BR. SO. wall, a wave Jamieson). All from TEUT. 
base WAL, to turn round, from V WAR > to turn round. SKT. 
val, to move to and fro. Skeat, s.v. Well (2). 

BLOWPLAIN. ' Balmaclellan.' 

BLUE MIRE (on the Palnure). ' MinigafF.' Named from the 
bluish alluvial clay banks exposed by the fall of the tide. 

BLYTHEMAN'S BIG. ' Kells.' 

Bo STANE, THE. ' New Luce.' Bo, a cow. This is the name of 
a large black rock in mid-channel of the Luce, below the 
Loups of Kilfeather. In 1874 a gentleman who was fishing 
asked the keeper why it was so called, " Just because it's 
like a black stot" (bullock), was the reply. The name, 
though not given in any map, has been orally handed down 
from Gaelic-speaking times, the sense having been also pre- 
served, which does not often happen. See, under BIAWN. 

BOAK PORT. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Boc, a he-goat [?]. See under 

AUCHNIEBUT. 

BOAT DRAUGHT. ' Girthon, s.c.' A place where fishing-boats 
are drawn up. See under TARBERT. 

BODDON'S ISLE (an island in the Dee). ' Kells.' 

BODEN WALLS WELL. ' Glasserton.' 

BOGGRIE Moss. 'Girthon.' Soft, boggy moss ERSE bogur (a 
derivative of bog Lluyd), bogurach, bogreach. See under 
BOGUE. 

BOGHOUSE (P. Boighouse). 'Mochrum.' House of the bog, or 
soft land. 

BOGRIE (P. Boggryleinn). ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Formerly 
Boggrie Lane, the boggy stream, as shown by Pont. 

BOGUE. ' Minigaff.' Bog, soft ; o. ERSE bocc. Eeferred to the 
same root as E. bow, to bend. 

BOGUE FELL. ' Dairy.' See under BOGUE. Fell, a hill - ICEL. 
fjall, fell, a mountain + DAN. field + SWED. fjiill. Skeat suggests 
probably originally applied to open flat down = ~E. field. 

BOGUE QUAY (a landing-place in the Sohvay). ' New Abbey.' 
See under BOGUE. 

B6MBIE (P. Bouiby (misprint), Bomby). ' Kirkcudbright.' 

BONERICK. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 93 

BONSACK. . ' Urr.' 

BONYLAGOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Bonylagoch). ' Kirkcowan.' 

B6RELAND (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Bordland; P. Boirlant, Boirland). 
A frequent name all over Galloway. Dr. John Cowell in his 
Law Dictionary says, " Bordlands signifie the desmenes which 
lords keep in their hands for the maintenance of their board 
or table." If this is the correct meaning, then this name is 
the equivalent of a "home-farm"; but it is more probably 
bere-land, that is, land on which bere or barley was grown. 
The natives pronounce it Beurland. 

B6RGAN (P. Boirgan). ' Minigaff.' 

BORGAN FERRACH. 'Minigaff.' Farrach [1], a rendezvous, a 
meeting-place. Of. CLAYFARAS ; and, in Ireland, Farragh in 
Cavan, Farra in Armagh, Farrow in Westmeath and 
Leitrim, Gortnafurra in Tipperary, etc. (Joyce, i. 207). 

BORGUE (P. Boirg, Borg; Charter of David II. (Crauf. MS.), Borgg). 
'Borgue.' A parish in the Stewartry; +o. ERSE borg, brog, 
borce ("brogg thromm Temra," Tara's mighty burgh; F6L, 
Prol. 165), ERSE buirg,brugh, bruigliean, GAEL. borgh,E. burch+ 
SO AND. borg, a fort + ICEL. borg + ~D\J. burg+GOltt. baurgs, a 
town + o.'H..Gr.puruc(Gr. burg, A.s. burk, burg (whence M,E. burgh, 
borgh, BR. so. burgh, E. borough), from beorgan, to defend, 
protect -{- GOTH, bairgan, to hide, preserve, keep+LiTH. bruku, 
to press, constrain + LAT. farcire, to stuff +GK. <f)pd<r<riv, to 
shut in -GK. V* PAK - 

BORRON. ' Kirkbean.' 

BOUGHTY BURN. ' Penninghame.' The winding burn. " Bought, 
boucht. a curvature or bending of any kind." Jamieson. 
A.s. bugan, to bend + DU. buigen + iCEL. beyjia, to bend 
(tr.) + 8WED. bdja-\-DA.N. bb'ie, to bend (tr. and intr.) 
+ GOTH. biugan + O.H.G. piocan (G. beugen) + LA.T. fugere, to 
turn to flight + favyeiv, to flee + SKT. bhuj, to bend V BHOGH > 
to bend. (Sfceat, s.v. Bow.) 

BOUROCK. 'Loch Rutton.' " Bowrach, bowrock, bowrick, 3. a 
shepherd's hut, Galloway." Jamieson. See under BORGUE, 
of which this seems to be another form. 

Bow [pron. Boo], (P. Bow). ' Glasserton,' 'Berwick.' Both\\>o\, 
a hut. " Boo, bow, a term sometimes used to denote a manor- 
house, or the principal farm-house, or a village." Jamieson. 



94 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

Of. Bough in Carlow and Monaghan. o. ERSE and ERSE both, 
GAEL. buth + iCEL. bu% (whence M.E. bothe, E. booth) + SWED. 
and DAN. bod + G. bude, a booth ^BHU, to be; cf. SKT. 
bhavana, a house, a place to be in bhu, to be (Skeat). 

Bow BURN. ' Carsphairn.' See under Bow. 

BOWDY-HOUSE BRAE. ' New Luce/ A singular name to occur 
in the middle of wild moors. 

BOWHILL. ' Colvend.' Buachaill [boghel], a boy ; a name often 
applied in Ireland to upright stones, as Boughil near Kenmare, 
and many townlands called Boughill and Boghill. Joyce, ii. 
435. Buachaill, a boy, a cow-herd bo, a cow. 

BRACKENIECALLIE. ' New Luce.' Breacnach cailleaich [?], spotted 
land of the old woman or nun. Cf. Bracknamuckley in 
Antrim, broken land of the swine-pasture ; also Bracknagh, 
Brackenagh, and Brackney, occurring frequently as names of 
places in Ireland, i.e. breacnach (from breac, see under Aucha- 
brick), a variegated, freckled place. The alternative ERSE 
breaclach and breacnach has its parallel in the cognate E. freckle 
(spelt frekell by Sir T. More), and freken (used in plu. by 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, 2171). Cf. BKECKENIHILL, BfiEAKOCH 
HILL, BRECKLACH HILL, BRECKNACH. 

BRACO MOAT (P. Bracoch). ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

BRADEYARD. 'Colvend.' 

BRADOCK. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Braghaddg [brahdog], a throat or 
gulley; dim. of braghad. o. ERSE brdge, gen. bragat, braget, 
the neck; ERSE and GAEL, braghad +O.W. brouant, w. breuant, 
the windpipe ; which Rhys (p. 66) refers to same root as LAT. 
gurges, an abyss, gurgulio, the windpipe + O.H.G. gtierca, o. 
NORSE, kvcrkr, the throat. Cf. BRAUINA and BREDDOCK ; and, 
in Ireland, Braddocks in Monaghan, Bradoge, a tributary of 
the Liffey, and another stream at Bundoran in Donegal. 

BRAE (P. Brae). ' Loch Kutton.' Brd, bri, a hill-side, GAEL. 
braigh, a summit. It is interesting to trace this word brae 
from the SKT. tjbhur, to move quickly; whence bhru, eyebrow, 
PERS. abru, OK. o<pu<?, ERSE brd, a brow, M.H.G. bdr, the eye- 
lid, A.S. bru (a pronunciation retained in Broad Scots when 
speaking of the face, but in speaking of the hill-brow brae is 
used, although hill-broo is not uncommon). Ignorant of the 
figurative origin of brae the Lowland Scots often speak of the 
brae-face= hill-face, that is, literally, the face of the forehead. 
The Dutch also show how far the word has travelled from 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 95 

the original root-sense, for they call the eyebrow wenk-braauw, 
wink-brow or wink-wagger ; wenk being from a root, WAK, 
WAG, to move aside. 

BRAIDEN'S KNOWE. ' Carsphairn.' 

BRAIDENOCH (a hill of 1000 feet). 'Carsphairn.' The next 
adjacent hill is called Bardennoch. 

BRAID PORT. ' Girthon.' The broad landing-place. BR. so. braid 
-A.S. brdd (changing according to rule to M.E. brod, brood, 
E. broad) + DU. breed + ICEL. 6mV + SWED. and DAN. lred+ 
GOTH. braids -\-o.~H.G. preit, G. breit. Origin uncertain. 

BRAID FELL, broad hill. ' Inch.' 

BRAND EDLEYS. ' Urr.' A.S. brown or burnt meadows. " Branded, 
brannit, having a reddish brown colour as if singed by fire. 
A branded cow is one that is almost entirely brown." Jamie- 
son. The E. brown contains the sense of burning. "Brown 
may be considered as a contract form of the old past part, 
signifying burnt." Skeat. See under BRUNTLAND. A.S. ledh, 
led (whence M.E. ley, E. lea, ley, lay) + provin. G. loh, a morass, 
bog, or forest (as A.S.fledh, E. flea+G. floh\ (thus Water/0o = 
water-/ea or meadow) TEUT. base LAUH A TEUT. */ LUH, to 
shine + LITH. laukas + LAT. Incus, a grove (thus showing a 
curious commentary on the proverbial lucus a non lucendo)-\- 
SKT. loka, space, the world SKT. loch, to see SKT. ruch, to 
shine - V RUK, to be bright. (Skeat.) 

BRANNETRIGG. ' Kirkgunzeon.' Burnt hill. See under BRANDED- 
LEYS. 

BRANNIT MOAT. ' Carsphairn.' See under BRANDEDLEYS. 

BRANYEA [pron. yae], a hill of 1 125 feet. ' Girthon.' Brednsheach [?] 
[branyagh], (a) stinking (place), deriv. of brtan ; or else brdan 
chaedh [bran hay], stinking bog, a name which has travelled 
from the bog to the hill. o. ERSE brdn, ERSE Man, GAEL. 
lyreun [brann], stinking, foul, is an epithet often applied to 
bogs or swamps. "One of the indications that led Colonel 
Hall to the discovery of copper mines at Glandore in Cork, 
was the fetid smell emitted from a fire of turf cut in a neigh- 
bouring bog, which turned out to be strongly impregnated 
with copper. This bog Avas known as the ' stinking bog ' 
(mi'iin bhrhni), and the people had it that neither cat nor dog 
could live in the house where the turf was burnt." Joyce, ii. 
397 (quoting Mrs. Hall's Ireland, i. 142). This smell, as 
in Harrogate water, etc., arises from sulphur in combination 



96 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

with copper. Cf. Brenter in Donegal, i.e. brean tir, stinking 
ground, named from a sulphurous spring; Breandrum in 
several places in Ireland ; Breansha, near Tipperary (i.e. 
breanseach, a stinking place), etc. 

BRATNEY WA'S. ' Kirkinner.' 

BREACKOCH HILL (P. Brakoch). ' Leswalt.' Breacach [brakogh], 
brindled, broken. See under BRACKENICALLIE. 

BRECKLACH HILL (865 feet). 'Minigaff.' Breaclach, broken, 
variegated. Cf. Bracklagh, a frequent name in Ireland. See 
under BRACKENICALLIE. 

BRECKENIHILL \pron. Brecknihill]. ' Buittle.' See under BRACKENI- 
CALLIE. 

BRECKNACH. ' Dairy.' Breacnach, broken, variegated. See under 
BRACKENICALLIE. 

BRECONSIDE (P. Brakansyde). ' Kirkgunzeon.' A.S. or BR. sc. 
the hillside of brackens. A.s. bracce, fern, pi. braccan (whence 
M.E. braken, BR. sc. breckan, E. bracken) + SWED. broken, fern + 
DAN. bregne + iCEL. burkni, fern, brok, sedge. Side A.s. side, 
generally means the edge or border, but also a tract, as in 
BR. so. country-side, the district. 

BREDDOCK (P. Briddachan). ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' See under 
BRADOCK. 

BREEDIE BURN. ' New Luce.' Briglide [breedie], gen. of Brigid t 
Bridget. Dedications to St. Bridget or Bride are numerous. 
In this case the Gaelic prefix has been dropped. See under 
HILL MABREEDIA (which is in the immediate vicinity). 

BRENNAN. * Balmaclellan.' Bruiglieandn [breanan], a dwelling, a 
mansion; dim. ofbruigheiln, itself a dim. or derivative ofbruigh. 
Cf. Breenaun in Galway. See under DRUMABRENNAN. 

BREOCH. ' Buittle.' Bruigh, a house, a dwelling. See under 
BORGUE. 

BfifGiE BRAES. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

BRI'SHIE BRIDGE. ' Penuinghame.' 

BRISHIES (P. Bryishyish). ' Minigaff.' 

BROACH (P. Browach). * Kirkmabreck.' Bruigh, a house. See 
under BORGUE. 

BROADWALL. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

BROCHDOO. * Kirkcolm.' Bruach dubh [doo], black hill, or 
brugh dubh, black house. See under BROUGHHILL. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF CALLOW A Y. 97 

BR6CKLAN BRAES. ' Kirkmaiden.' A.S. broc land, badger ground. 
See under BROCKLOCH. 

BROCKLAW. ' Sorbie.' A.S. broc hlaew, badger hill. 

BR6CKLOCH (P. Broklocli). ' Carsphairn,' ' Inch,' ' Kirkcud- 
bright,' ' Kirkpatrick Durham,' ' Minigaff,' ' Penninghame,' 
' Port Patrick.' Broclach, a badger warren. Brocklagh is 
the form assumed in modern Irish topography. ERSE, GAEL., 
M. &r0c+w., c., and B. brock, from breac, parti-coloured, in allu- 
sion to the animal's striped face, just as breac, a trout, from 
his spots (the Irish form brech for broc also appears). From 
the Celtic was borrowed the A.S. broc, whence M.E. brok, BR. 
so. brock. See under AUCHABRICK. 

BR6CKLOCH BENNAN. ' Carsphairn.' Broclaich beanndn, hill of 
the badger warren. 

BR6CKLOCHS. ' MinigafF.' See under BROCKLOCH. 

BROCK'S COVE. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Badger's cave, see under 
BROCKLOCH. " Cove, a cave." Jamieson. This authority 
rightly derives cove A.S. cdfa, a chamber, a cave + iCEL. Icofi, 
a hut, a shed+G. koben, a cabin, a pig-stye. It has no con- 
nection with cave, alcove, coop, nor cup, though often erron- 
eously connected with these words. Cove, or more commonly 
co', is the usual name for a cave in Galloway. 

BR06KLANDS. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' In the absence of old 
forms of spelling it is impossible to say if this may not be 
corrupted from broclan (see BROCKLAN BRAES). It is prob- 
ably, however, A.S. brooc lands, a name commonly applied in 
England to low-lying, marshy ground (cf. ERSE leana). Brook 
is not of common occurence in Scotland (even in A.S. districts) 
M.E. brouke A.S. brdc, 6rooc+DU. broek, a marsh, a pool+ 
O.H.G. pruoch (G. brack), a marsh, a bog. 

BROOMHASS. ' Minigaff.' " Hass of a hill, a defile, q. the throat 
or narrow passage ; used in a general sense to signify any 
gap or opening." Jamieson. Hence this would be a pass or 
hollow where broom grows. BR. so. hass, hals, kawse=the 
throat, the neck. 

BROOMY KNOWE. ' Leswalt,' ' Mochrum.' BR. sc. knowe, a hil- 
lock, a knoll A.s. cnol (whence M.E. knol, E. knott)+W. knol, 
a turnip (in the sense of a lump) -f DAN. knold, a knoll +S WED. 
knoll, a knob. Skeat considers the word of Celtic origin, quasi 
knokel, dim. of knok, ERSE and GAEL, cnoc, W. cnol, a hillock. 
Cf. AUCHENGILSHIE, KNOCKGILSIE, etc. 

G 



98 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

BROUGH [broogh, guttJ\. ' Kells.' Bruach, a brink or hill, or 
brugh, a house. See under BORGUE. ERSE bruach, lit. big- 
bellied ; also " a border, brink, edge, bank, mound " (O'Reilly) 
bru, the womb, the belly +\v. and C. bryn, a hill, bryncu, a 
hillock, c. bron, a round protuberance, a breast, the slope of a 
hill ; akin to E. brink. The idea is that of " roundness," 
VBHRV, to swell, boil. (Skeat.) 

BROUGH HILL (Inq. ad Cap. 1625, 1647, Burgh Jerg; 1670, 
Brugh jarg). ' Kirkcolm.' Brugh dearg [dyarg], red house 
(see under BORGUE), or bruach dearg, red brink, border, or 
hill. Cf. Broughderg in Cavan, Fermanagh, and Tyrone, 
and Dergbrough in the latter county, which Joyce assigns 
to bruach (ii. 210). 

BR6UGHTON (gutt.) (P. Brogtoun; W. P. MSS. Brochetoun). 
'Whithorn.' A.S. burg tun, two words of almost identical 
meaning. It is possible that it first received a Celtic name, 
ERSE brugh, and then in A.S. times tun, an enclosure, a farm- 
house (BR. SO. toon) was added ; the sense being, the tun, or 
dwelling-place of brugh, the old house or fort. 

BROUGHTON SKEOG, i.e. Broughton of the hawthorns (W. P. MSS. 
Brochetoun Skeoche). ' Whithorn.' See under AUCHEN- 
SKEOG. 

BRUNTIS. ' Minigaff.' Burnt land. 
BRUNTLAND. ' Glasserton.' Burnt land. 

BUCHAN (P. Bukunstoun; MS. 1527, Buchane). 'Minigaff.' 
.Bothdn [bohan], a hut. See under BARBUCHANY and Bow. 
Cf. Bohaun in Galway and Mayo. 

BUCHAN BURN (P. Ess Bouchany). 'Minigaff.' Named from 
the farm-house standing on this burn (see BUCHAN). Pont 
preserves the old Celtic name eas bothanach [ess bohanagh], 
the torrent or cascade of the huts. See under Ass OF THE 
GILL, BARBUCHANY, and Bow. 

BUCHT DOULOCH CRAIG. ' Minigaff.' The crag of the sheep-pen 
of the black lake (see under DOULOCH), or the sheep-pen at 
the crag of the black lake. " Boucht, bought, bught, bucM, a 
small pen usually put up in the corner of the field, into which 
it was customary to drive the ewes when they were to be 
milked. " Jamieson. 

BUCKDASS OF CAIRNBABER. 'Minigaff.' SCAND. bukkr doss, the 
he-goat's ledge. Doss is used in the hill districts of Galloway 
to express a shelf or ledge on a cliff. " Yon sheep 's clinted 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 99 

on the dass," said of a sheep which has fed along a grassy 
ledge till it cannot turn, and will either fall over or die there. 

BUCKIE HILL. ' Whithorn.' " BmUes, fruit of a certain kind of 
briar." Mactaggart. The berries of the burnet rose (rosa 
spinosissima). 

BUCKIE KNOWE. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under BUCKIE HILL. 

BUCK LOOP. ' Minigaff/ The he-goat's leap. BR. sc. loup A..s. 
hlyp (+ICEL. hlaup, a leap+G. lauf, a course), from the verb 

hledpan, to run, to leap (of which the past tense is hledp) + 
0. SAX. hl6pan,to run + o. FRIES, hlapa+uu. loopen,tor\m (of 
which past tense fo'ep)+iCEL. /i/awpa+DAN. lobe, to run + SWED. 
lopa, to run + GOTH, hlaupan, to leap+O.H.G. hlaufan (M.H.G. 
loufen, G. laufen) from TEUT. base HLAUPAN, to leap. 

BUITTLE (a parish in the Stewartry), (Inq. ad Cap. 1572, Butill; 
1605, Butehill; MS. 1527, Buthle; P. Butill). Cf. Bootle in 
Lancashire. 

BULGIE FORD. ' Minigaff.' 

BULLET. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Builg [bullig], bellows ; " a word 
which generally occurs on the coast, where it is applied, like 
seiddn, puffing-holes, to rocks or points that break and spout 
up water during storms ; and it is commonly anglicised 
Bullig, which is a name constantly met with all along the 
western coast from Donegal to Cork." Joyce, ii. 249. 
0. ERSE bole, bolg, a bag; ERSE builg or bolg, a sack, pair of 
bellows ; GAEL, bolg, a belly, womb, or bellows ; w. bol+A.s. 
bcelig, belg, a bag+DU, balg, the belly +SWED. bdlg, belly, 
bellows +DAN. bdlg, shell, belly. All these words come from 
an early base BHALGH, to swell, common to both Teutonic and 
Celtic speech, to which may be referred ball, boil (subs.), bowl, 
bilge, bulge, belly, bag, bulk, boll, etc. (Skeat.) 

BUNKER'S HILL. ' Borgue.' 

BURNGRAINS. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

BURNYARD. ' Borgue.' See under BARNYARD. 

BURROW HEAD (P. Burrow Head). ' Whithorn, s.c.' Borg, brugh, 
a fortification. This headland, like most others on this coast, 
has been strongly fortified. See under BORGUE. 

Buss, THE (P. Buss). A wood or thicket. M.E. busk, busch (E. bush) 

DAN. busk + SWED. buske, a bush -f- DU. bosch, a wood, 
forest + O.H.G. busc, G. busch. The L. LAT. boscus, IT. bosco, r. 
bois are derived from the Teutonic. 

BUTTER CAIRN. ' Penninghame.' 



ioo AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

BUTTER HOLE. ' Buittle,' ' Dairy,' ' Kirkgunzeon,' ' Terregles.' 
The bittern's hole. "Boytour, butter, the bittern (Acts. Ja. VI.)." 
Jamieson. M.E. btioure, bytoure F. butor L. LAT. butorius. 

BUTTERLUMP. ' Balmaghie.' See under BUTTER HOLE. 

BUYOCH [pron. Boyoch], {P. Buyesh). ' Whithorn.' GAEL. " Bathach 
[bayach], a cow-house, a byre " (Macalpine), i.e. bo theach ; or 
else " bothach [boyach], a bog, a fen, a marshy place " 
(VReilly). 

BYNG HILL. * Kirkinner.' " Bing, a heap in general." Jamieson. 
Cf. BINE HILL. 

/>|ADGEKHOLE (P. Cadgerhal). < Carsphairn.' Cadger, a 
\J hawker, a dealer. " Cadger, a miller's man who goes from 
house to house collecting corn to grind, and returning it in 
meal." Grainge's History of Nidderdale, 1863. 

CADLOCH. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' 

CAGGRIE. ' Inch.' Cudhogreach or cathagreach []] [caagragh], adj. 
form from ERSE cudhdg, GAEL, cathag [cawg], a jackdaw, 
frequented by jackdaws. Cf. CAIGRIE. 

CliGRiE. ' Urr.' See under CAGGRIE. 

CAIRDIE WIEL (a pool on the Cree near the village of Clauchan- 
easy). ' Penninghame.' Probably the tinker's pool. BR. sc. 
caird, cairdie, a tinker, a gipsy ERSE ceard, a tinker o. ERSE 
cerd, a smith. Or perhaps from cearda, a workshop, a forge 
O. ERSE cerda, a forge (O'Eeilly), to which has been added 
BR. sc. wiel (see under BLOODY WIEL). 

CAIRN. Cam, a cairn. Many places are called simply The Cairn 
without other adjunct. See under AUCHENCAIRN. 

CAIRNAGREEN. ' Leswalt.' Cam na greine [greenie], cairn of the 
sun; or perhaps more probably from a proper name like 
Cairngranny, near Antrim, which Joyce (i. 335) refers to 
Cam Greine, Grian's Cairn (a woman's name). " A whimsical 
circumstance relative to these Crom-liaghs I cannot omit. 
They are called by the ignorant natives Grannie's beds. This 
Grannie is fabled to be the mother of Finmacoal or Fingal, 
and of her, as well as of her son, they have wonderful 
traditions. The source, however, of the appellation of 
Grannie's bed I conceive to be a corruption of the original 
Irish name of these altars. Grineus is, we know, a classical 
name of Apollo. In Cambden's Lauden we meet with an 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 101 

inscription ' Apollini Granno,' and Grian is a common name 
for the sun in Irish." A Philosophical Survey of the South of 
Ireland, in a Series of Letters to John Watkinson, M.D., 8vo, 
London, 1777. 

CAIRNARZEAN [pron. reean]. 'Inch.' 

CAIRNBABER (P. Garnbabbyir Hill). ' Minigaff.' 

CAIRNBR6CK (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Cairnebrek). ' Kirkcolm.' Cam 
broc, cairn of the badgers. See under BROCKLOCH. 

CAIRNBUIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1624, Cairnbuy ; P. Karnbuy). 'Kirk- 
colm.' Cam Buidhe [buie], yellow cairn. See under 
BARBUIE. 

CAiRNBtiY. ' Mochrum.' See under CAIRNBUIE. 

CAIRNDARROCH. 'Kells.' Cam darach, cairn of the oaks. See- 
under ARNDARROCH. 

CAIRNDERRY. 'Minigaff.' Cam doire [dirry], cairn of the oak 
wood. See under DERRY. 

CAIRND6NALD. ' Kirkcolm.' Cam Domhnuill [Donnill], Donald's 
cairn. 

CAIRND6NNAN. ' Kirkcolm.' Cam Donnain, Donnan's cairn. 
Donndn, a man's name, from donn, brown. (O'Don. Topgr., 
p. [55].) 

CAIRND06N (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Kerindoun; W. P. MSS. Cairm- 
downe). ' Glasserton.' Cam duin, cairn of the fort. The 
modern farm-house occupies the site of the fort. 

CAIRNDUBBIN. ' Carsphairn.' Cam Dubaghain, Dubagan's or 
Dougan's Cairn. 

CAIRN EDWARD (P. Karn Edward). ' Kells.' 

CAIRNEY HILL, in several parishes ; hills upon which there are or 
have been cairns. 

CAIRNEYW!NIE (a hill of 1065 feet). ' Kirkmabreck.' 

CAIRNFIELD (P. Kairnfields). ' Kirkinner.' There used to be 
cairns here, now removed, and a circle of large stones, of 
which only one remains. " Cairn " and " Antique Cairn " 
are marked on an estate map of 1777. 

CAIRNF6RE. ' Minigaff.' Cam mhor [vore] [?] great cairn. Cf. 
CAIRNMORE. 

CAIRNGAAN (P. Karngan; Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Carnegayne). 
' Kirkmaiden.' 



102 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CAIRNGARROCH (P. Karnygyrach and Karngyroch; Inq. ad Cap. 
1610, Carnegirroch). ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Stoneykirk.' Cam 
gcarroch [garrogh], rough cairn. See under BARHARROW. 

CAIRNHAGGARD. 'Stoneykirk.' Cam shagairt [haggart], the 
priest's cairn. Of. Drumhaggart in Donegal. See under 
ALTAGGART. 

CAIRNHANDY. ' Stoneykirk/ 

CAIRNHAPPLE (P. Karnchaple). ' Leswalt.' Cam chapul [happul], 
cairn of the horses. See under BARHAPPLE. 

CAIRNHARROW. ' Anwoth.' Cam charroch [harrogh], rough cairn. 
Aspirated form of CAIRNGARROCH, q.v. 

CAIRNHINGEY. ' Stoneykirk.' 

CAIRNH6LLY. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

CAIRNIE FINNART. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

CAIRNIEWA. * Inch.' 

CAIRNIEWELLAN. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

CAIRN KENNAGH. ' New Luce.' Cam Cainneaich, or possibly 
Cinaeidh [kinneh], Kenneth's cairn. Both occur as proper 
names from very early times. From Canneagh of Agha Boe, 
named St. Kenny (Four Masters, 598) is derived the name of 
Kilkenny. 

CAIRNKENNY. ' Inch,' ' New Luce.' Of. Cairnkenny in Tyrone. 
See under CAIRN KENNAGH. 

CAIRN KINNA. 'Minigaff.' Cam Cinaeidh [kinneh], Kenneth's 
cairn. See under BENNIGUINEA. 

CAIRNLEES. ' Crossmichael.' Cam liath [lee], grey cairn ; cf. 
Carnlea in Antrim, or earn lios [lis], cairn of the fort. 

CAIRN MAGNEELIE. ' Inch,' ' New Luce.' M'Neil's cairn. The 
resemblance to Karnmenelez in Cornwall (translated by 
Borlase, in his Ncenia Cornubice, the cairn-stones of the 
angels) is singular, though accidental. 

CAIRNM6N. ' Stoneykirk.' Cam na-mban [carnaman], cairn of the 
women. Cf. Carmoan in Cornwall. See under BARNAMON. 

CAIRNM6RE. 'Kirkmaiden/ 'Mochrum.' Cam mdr, the great 
cairn. 

CAIRNMULTIBRUGH (Inq. ad Cap. 1607, Carnemulktibrugh ; P. 
Kairn Multibrugh). 'Inch.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 103 

CAIRN-NA-GATH. ' New Luce.' Cam no,' gcat [gaat], cairn of the 
wild cats. Cf. Carnagat in Antrim and Tyrone. See under 
ALWHAT. 

CAIRNPAT, CAiRXPidx, or PIOT FELL (P. Karn Patt). 'Port 
Patrick.' (St.) Patrick's Hill. 

CAIRNRAWS. ' Kells.' 

CAIRNSCARROW. ' Inch.' Cam scairbhe [?] [scairvie, scarrow], 
cairn of the ford. But see under BARSCARROW and CAIRNS- 

GARROCH. 

CAIRNSGARROCH. ' Carsphairn.' Cam g-carroch, rough cairn, 
with redundant s as in Cairnsmore. Cf. CAIRNSCARROW. 

CAIRNSIM. ' Stoneykirk.' 

CAIRNSMORE of Carsphairn, of Dee, and of Fleet, three hills in the 
Stewartry (P. Karnsmoor H., Kairnsmoort Hil). 

" Cairnsmore o' Fleet and Cairnsmore o' Dee, 
And Cairnsmore o' Carsphairn, the biggest o' the three." 

Local Rhyme. 

See under CAIRN MORE. 

CAIRNTAMMOCK. ' Girthon.' Cam tomach, bushy cairn ERSE 
torn, dumetum (Llwyd), a thicket, GAEL, tomach, bushy. Or, 
possibly, BR. sc. the cairn hillock. " Tammock, tommack, a 
hillock, Galloway." Jamieson. 

CAiRNx6oTAN. ' Kirkcolm.' 

CAIRNT6SH (P. Kairntoish). 'Girthon.' Cam tuas [1], upper 
cairn, or perhaps earn less, south cairn, o. ERSE suas, tuas 
(adverb), above (do-uas 1 ?, Windiscli). o. ERSE less, dess 
(adverb), southerly. See under BARCHESKIE. 

CAIRNWEIL. ' Stoneykirk/ 

CAIRNYARD. ' Kirkmabreck,' ' New Abbey.' Cam ard, high cairn. 
See under AIRD. 

CAiTANS [pron. Catyens]. * Whithorn/ 

CALDONS (Inq. ad Cap. 1602, Caldonis; 1616, Caldanis; P. Kal- 
douns, Kalduns, Calduii). ' Minigaff,' ' Stoneykirk.' Coil- 
dean, the hazels (plur. of 0. ERSE collde), E. plur. added. 
See under AUCHENHILL. 

CALDOW (P. Kaildow ; MS. 1527, Caldow). ' Balmaclellan/ 
Coill dubh [kyll doo], dark wood. Cf. BLAIKET. 



104 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CALDRON, THE HOWE OF THE. * Minigaff.' A secluded Alpine 
valley on the east shoulder of Cairnsmoor. " How. (1) Any 
hollow place; (2) a plain." Jamieson. How+A.S. holh, a 
hollow, an extended form from hoi, a hole. Caldron is the 
equivalent of GAEL, coire, applied to a gorge or contracted 
glen. See under BALQUHIRRIE. 

CALF KNEES (a hill of 1803 feet). ' Carsphairn.' Probably 
another form of "ness," a headland A.s. nces, nes; 1. the 
ground; 2. a promontory or headland + ICEL. wes+DAN. nces, 
SWED. nds. " The sense of ' promontory ' is due to some 
confusion with nose, but it is not quite certain that the two 
words are related." Skeat. But see under GLOON. 

CALG6w (P. Koulgaw). ' Minigaff.' Cuil gobha [gow], the smith's 
corner, or cul gobha, the hill-back of the smith. The change 
from u sound to a is very unusual. Close by is Challoch, 
i.e. tealach, the forge. See under ALDERGOWAN. 

CALH!RNIE. ' Penninghame.' 

CALLAN HILL. ' Balmaghie.' Cuillean [?] [cullan], holly. See 
COLLIN HILL. 

CALLIED6WN. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

CALLY (Inq. ad Cap. 1572, Calie and Caliegirtoun ; P. Kelly; 
Charter 1418, ze Gale ; also written Kalecht-Girthon and 
Kalacht). ' Girthon.' " Gala, caladh, a port, harbour, haven, 
ferry." O'Reilly, who says Calais has this origin. "The 
word caladh, which in other parts of Ireland denotes a 
ferry or a landing-place for boats, is at present used in this 
district (Roscommon) to signify a low, flat district, extending 
along a lake or river, like the word strath in Ulster and 
Scotland." Hy Many, p. 74, note. Either meaning suits the 
character of this place. 

CALNAVIE or CALNIVAE. ' Penninghame.' Coill, cuil, or cul na 
bheith [vey], wood, corner, or hill-back of the birches. 

CAMBRET HILL. ' Kirkmabreck.' Ceann breac [kenn brek], 
brindled or dappled hill. 0. ERSE cend, W.B. and 0.0. pen, 
c. pedn ; ERSE and GAEL, ceann, a head, summit or point. 
Of. CAMBRICK. 

CAMBRICK HILL (2250 feet). ' Minigaff.' See under CAMBRET. 

CAMELON LANE. ' Balmaghie.' Cam linn, crooked pool. Cf. 
CAMLING, LINCOM. Several small streams in Ireland are 
called Camling and Cameline. Cameline is a river in Antrim 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 105 

which runs through a glen called Crumlin. The latter is a 
common name in Ireland ; in one instance, near Dublin, the 
Four Masters (A.D. 1595) write it Cruimghlinn [Crumhlinn], 
i.e. crum ghleann, crooked glen. Crom and cam are equivalent 
in meaning. 

CAMER [pron. Gammer]. ' Minigaff.' Cf. Pont : " Camyir-hill, a 
hill separating the shriffdome of Renfrew and the country of 
Cuninghame, wich should be callit Quamyir-hill." Cuning- 
hame, p. 111. Cf. BARHAMMER. 

CAMFORD (Charter 1578, Camquhart; P. Camfurr). ' Kirkinner.' 
Ceann phort [kenfort], chief residence, head fort. On this 
farm there is a hill formerly fortified. All traces of the 
fort have disappeared under the plough, save where a fence 
intersects the line of the ancient enclosure, but in an estate- 
map of 1777 there is given a rectangular camp marked 
" Roman camp," whereas a fort on the hill of Drumtrodden, 
not far distant, is given in the same map as circular, and 
marked " Brittish Camp " (sic). This ceann phort, then, may 
have been a Roman camp. Samian ware and bronze Roman 
vessels were found in 1863 and 1884 on the crannogs in the 
adjoining Loch of Dowalton ; and the Roman camp at 
Rispain, near Whithorn, is distant about six miles. Cean- 
annus (now Kells) in Meath, was anglicised Headfort, on 
which the Irish gloss was Kenlis (ceann lis). 

CAMLING (a pool in Pulmaddy Burn). ' Carsphairn.' See under 
CAMELON. 

CAMPBELTON (P. Kammiltoun, and near it Balmackamil, which is 
the GAEL, equivalent, i.e. baile mic Cathmail). ' Twynholm.' 
Campbell's house. 

CAMP DOUGLAS (Inq. ad Cap., Camdudzeall, i-ocatus the Maynes of 
Balmaghie). ' Balmaghie.' 

CAMRIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Camary; P. Kamary). 'New Luce.' 
Probably camrach, crooked, winding, in allusion to the wind- 
ings of the Luce, formed from cam as claonrach from clam. 
See under CLANERIE. 

CANABONY. ' Kirkbean.' 

CANEERIE. ' Parton.' Ceann iarach or iarthagh [eeragh], western 
headland. Cf. Canearagh in Ireland. See under BLAWWEARIE 
and CAMBRET. 

CANT. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 0. ERSE cend [?], a headland. See under 
CAMBRET. 



io6 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CANTIN WIEL. ' Minigaff.' 

CARDONESS (Inq. ad Cap. 1556, Cardeneis; P. Kardeness). 
' Girthon.' 

CAPENOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1572, Capanach; P. Keapanagh). 
'Kirkiuner.' Joyce (ii. 346) gives Coppauagli, a common 
name in Ulster, Connaught, and Leinster, as c&panach, full of 
dockens, adj. form of copachdn, copdn; but the pronunciation 
here points rather to ceapanach, from ceapa, a stump, full of 
stumps, where timber has been felled (see under BALLOCHA- 
KIP), or to ceapach [cappagh], a garden plot, which enters 
into many Irish names. 

CARD6ON. ' Kirkmabreck.' Carr duin, rock of the fort. " The 
word carr, though not found in the dictionaries, is understood 
in several parts of Ireland to mean a rock, and sometimes 
rocky land." Joyce, i. 419. See under AUCHENCAIRN. Per- 
haps ceathramhadh [carhow] duin, land-quarter of the fort. 

CAKD6RCAN (P. Garrowdorkan (on Pooldorken B.)). * Minigaff.' 
Ceathramhadh [carrou], the land quarter. The meaning of 
-dorcan is obscure, perhaps a man's name. See wider 
CARHOWE. 

CARDRAIN (P. Kardrain). ' Kirkmaiden.' This and the following 
name are those of places very near one another. Either would 
bear the interpretation of ceathramhadh cathair or carr draig- 
hean [drain], the land- quarter fort or rock of the blackthorns. 
See under DRANGAN. 

CARDRYNE (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Cardryne; P. Kardryin). 'Kirk- 
maiden.' See under CARDRAIN. 

CARGEN (P. Kargan). 'Loch Rutton.' Carraican or Carraigan, 
a little crag, or a rocky place, dim. of carraic. Cf. Cargan, 
Cargin, and Crarigeen, a common name in the north of Ire- 
land, from the latter of which " Carrigeen moss," an edible 
seaweed, takes its name. 

CARGBiDduN. ' Whithorn, s.c.' Carraig a' duin, crag of the fort, 
or cairge duin, the crags of the fort. Carraig, plur. cairge, in 
Mod. Gael, invariably means a sea-cliff or rock, as distin- 
guished from creig, creag, an inland rock, and this distinction 
seems to be an old one. 0. ERSE carric, a stone, ERSE 
carraig + W. carrec + C. karak + B. karrek ^ CARR. See 
under AUCHENCAIRN. 

CARGHISION. ' Whithorn.' 

CARHOWE. * Twynholm.' Ceathramhadh [carhow], a quarter, a 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 107 

division of land, " a plough-land " (O'Reilly), a fourth part 
of a baile. About thirty townlands in Ireland are called 
Carhoo, and over seven hundred Cairo w (Joyce, i. 244). 
In Galloway local names it is generally worn down in com- 
position to Car-, Cur-, or Kerrie-. o. ERSE cethramad (ERSE 
ceathramhadh, GAEL, ceathramh) + w. pedwaredh, c. padzhwera, 
a fourth part, derivatives of O. ERSE cethir, cethedir, GAEL. 
ceithir, w. pedwar, C. padzhar, pezwere, B. pevar, peder, M. 
Jciare + A.S. feower (whence M.E. feowur, fower, feour, four, 
BR. so. four [pron. fow-er], E. four), o. FRIES, fiower, fiuwer, 
fior + ICEL. fjdrir + DAN. fire + SWED. fyra + DU. vier + 
GOTH, fidwor + O.H.G. fior, G. vier + LAT. guatuor + GK. 
Terrapes, rearaape^ (dialect TrtVope?) + RUSS. chetvero + 
SKT. cJiatvar, chatur, all from an original form KWATWAR 
(Skeat, s.v. Four). Mr. Ellwood has collected a list of numerals 
in different dialects and languages, which Mr. Lucas quotes 
in his Studies in Nidderdale. It includes several curious 
forms of sheep-scoring numeration still in use in various 
districts. The numeral four appears in this list under 
the following forms besides those given above : Hindu- 
stani, char ; Gipsy, star ; Knaresborough, Yorkshire (sheep- 
scoring), methera; Nidderdale, peddero; Swaledale, mether; 
Kirkby Stephen, Westmoreland, maed'ere ; Teesdale, mether ; 
Coniston, medderte; Borrowdale, methera; Millom, Cumberland, 
peddera; Eskdale, Cumberland, meddera; Wastdale Head, Cum- 
berland, anudder ; Epping, Essex, fethera ; Maine, U.S., fither ; 
Hebron, Connecticut, fedhur ; Cincinnati, feather. The last 
three are from numeration used by Eed Indians, originally 
taught them, no doubt, by earlier settlers. 

CARLAE (P. Korle). ' Dairy. 

CARLETON (Charter 1250, Karlaton ; W. P. MSS. Cairiltoun ; P. 
Kairlton, Karltoun). ' Borgue,' ' Glasserton,' ' Kirkcolm.' A 
name which is of frequent occurrence throughout A.S. districts. 
Supposing it, in this case, to be A.S., the meaning would be 
ceorla tun, the enclosure or dwelling of the husbandmen (cf. 
Dindinnie), which is, in fact, the exact form of the name in 
the charter of 1295, Karlaton. From A.S. ceorl comes M.E. 
cherl, cheorl, E. churl + A.S. carl, a male + DAN. and SWED. 
karl, a man + ICEL. karl, a male, a man + BR. so. carle, a 
fellow + O.H.G. charal, G. karl, a man. The proper name 
Charles (Carolus) is another form of TEUT. carl, karl, male. 

CARLIN BED and HOUSE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Witch's bed and 
house. See under CARLIN'S CAIRN. 



io8 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CAELINGWARK (P. Carlingworck, Carlingwoorck ; Bishop Pococke's 
Letters, Caerlwark). ' Balmaghie.' A.s. ceorla weorc, the 
work (opus) of the countrymen, or men. See under CARLE- 
TON. A.S. weorc, wore, were (whence M.E. v-erk, BR. SO. wark, 
E. work) + DU. werk + ICEL. verk + DAN. vcerk + SWED. verk 
+ O.H.G. werch, G. werk + GK. eopya, I have wrought ; ZEND. 
vareza, a working + PERS. warz-hdr, a ploughman, a labourer 
TEUT. base WARK ^WARG, to work. 

CARLIN'S CAIRN (a hill 2650 feet) (P. Karlingkairn). * Cars- 
phairn.' The old woman's cairn. Said to have been erected 
by a miller's wife, who gave shelter to Robert the Bruce by 
hiding him among some sacks of meal while the soldiers of 
Baliol searched the premises. After his subsequent success 
the king granted the lands of Polmaddie to his preserver, 
who, in gratitude, is said to have erected this cairn. (Unique 
Traditions, chiefly of the West and South of Scotland, by John 
Gordon Barbour, 1833.) " Carlin, carling, an old woman, a 
witch." Jamieson. See under CRAIGENCALLIE. 

CARLIN STONE. ' Mochrum.' Witches' stone. A monolith which 
until lately had a circle of stones round it. See under 
CARLIN'S CAIRN. 

CARLOCHAN. ' Crossmichael.' Carr, ceathramhadh [carrow], or cathair 
[caer] lochain, the rock, land-quarter, or fort of the lakelet. 

CARMINNOW (Inq. ad Cap. 1615, Kirremonnow; P. Karmunnow). 
' Carsphairn.' Ceathramhadh meadhonach [minnough], the 
middle land-quarter. Cf. Carrowmenagh in Ireland. See 
under CARHOWE. 

CARNAVEL. ' Carsphairn.' Ceathramhadh n-abhall [?] [carrow 
naval], land-quarter of the apples. ERSE abhall, w. afal 
+ LITH. obolys + O. BULG. jabliiko + E. apple. Cf. Gartnavel 
in Lanarkshire, i.e. gart n' abhall [navall], the appleyard, 
orchard (GAEL, abhallgharf). Cf. AIRIEWHILLART. 

CARNELTOCH. 'Kells.' Carr n' eilte, rock of the hind. Cf. Curr- 
na-heillte near Burrishoole, Clonelty in Limerick and Ferma- 
nagh (cluain eille), Eahelty in Kilkenny and Tipperary (rath 
eilte). ERSE eilidh, a hind, gen. eilte o. ERSE elit (ag 
allaid, a stag Cormac) -f ICEL. elgr (whence E. elk), SWED. elg, 
an elk + O.H.G. elaJw, M.H.G. elch + RUSS. oUne, a stag + DU. 
eland, an elk + LAT. alces + GK. O\KIJ. Perhaps earn ealtaidhe 
[eltahy], white cairn. "Ealtaidhe, white." O'Reilly. 

CARNINE. ' Minigaff.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 109 

CARRICKABOYS. ' "Whithorn, s.c.' Carraicdn buidJie [buie], yellow 
crag. See under CARGEN and BENBUIE. Cf. CRAIGENBOY, 
CRAIGENBUY, CRAIGENBUYS. 

CARRICKAD6YN. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' See under CARGHIDOUN. 

CARRiCKAFLi6u. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Carraicdn fluich, wet crag, 
o. ERSE fluich, GAEL, fliuiche, wet + LAT. fluxus (whence, 
through F. flux, E. flusti) + GK. <f>\veiv, to overflow + SKT. 
pluta, wet. But cf. Carrigafly near Cork, which Joyce (ii. 79) 
interprets carraig a' phlaigh, the crag of the plague ; plaigh 
LAT. plaga + GK. TT^IJJIJ, a blow, a plague. 

CARRICKAHAWKIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c/ 

CARRICKALIG. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' Carraic a' lige, crag of the flat 
stone. See under AUCHENLECK. 

CARRICKAMICKIE. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

CARRICKAMURLAN. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' (twice). Carraic a' murlain, 
crag of the rough top. " Murldn, a rough top or head." 
O'Reilly. Cf. MURLIN STRAND and KNOCKMORLAND. 

CARRICK BURN. ' New Luce.' Divides Ayrshire (Carrick) from 
Wigtonshire. 

CARRICKCAMRIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Carraic am-reidh [amrey], 
rugged crag. 0. ERSE am-reid (" bid reid riam each n-amreid," 
" everything unsmooth shall be smooth before him," Goid., 
p. 56), ERSE aimhreidh am, a negative prefix, and reidh 
[ray], smooth. Cf. CROFTANGRY, TYDAVERYS. 
CARRICKCARLIN. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

CARRiCKc6iL. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

CARRICKC6NE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Carraic con, craig of the dog. 

CARRICKC6RIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Carraic caithre [1] [caarie], crag 
of the fort, gen. of cafhair. 

CARRiCKc5w. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Carraic dhubh [oo, ow], black crag. 

Cf. CRAIGDHU. 

CARRiCKctlNDiE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

CAERICKEE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Carraic fhiadh [?] [ee], crag of 

the deer. 

CARRICKFUNDLE. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' 

CARRICKGILL. ' Kirkmaiden.' Carraic geal [?] [gal], white 

crag. O. ERSE gel. 
CARRICKGLASSEN. ' Stoneykirk.' Carraic glasain [1], crag of the 

sea-weed. " Glasdn, salad, a sort of edible sea-wrack." 



no AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 



Not, as might be supposed, from glasln, a streamlet, 

as there is no stream here. 
CARRICK KIBBERTIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Carraic thiprat [iprat], 

crag of the well, irregular gen. of tipra, one of the many 

forms of tobar, a well. See under TIBBERT. 
CARRICK POINT. ' Girthon, s.c.' Carraic, a crag. See under 

CARGHIDOUN. 
CARROCH LANE. ' Dairy.' Carroch, rough, rocky, applied to the 

land through which the " lane " or stream runs, and whence 

it takes its name. 
CARR6UCH (P. Kerroch), [pron. Carrughe]. 'Girthon.' Prob- 

ably ceathramhadh [carhow, carrow], a quarter-land. See 

under CARHOWE. 
CARRtiCHAN. 'Terregles.' Ceathramhadh ruadhdn[1] [carhooroohan], 

red land-quarter. Situated on the new red sandstone, which 

here lies unconformably on the grey Silurian rock composing 

most of Galloway, and gives the land a red hue. 

CARSE (P. Kars). 'Kirkcudbright.' Meadowland. " Carse, 
kerss, low and fertile land, generally that which is adjacent 
to a river, su. G. Jcaerr, ISL. kiar, Jcaer, a marsh." Jamieson. 
A word in common use in BR. sc. Carse land, alluvial land. 
It appears in place-names as a prefix with GAEL, qualitative, 
e.g. Carseglass, etc., and seems to have been early adopted 
into GAEL, speech as well as into BR. SC. 

CARSCREUGH (Charter 1563, Carscrue, Cascrv ; P. Karskeroch). 

' Old Luce.' 
CARSDUCHAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Carsdowgan ; P. Karssduchan; 

Charter 1513, Corsidochquhan). ' Minigaff.' 
CARSE DUNCAN. ' Minigaff.' Duncan's Carse. 

CARSEGLASS. ' Dairy.' Carse glas, green carse. See under 

BARGLASS and CARSE. 
CARSEG6WAN. ' New Abbey.' Carse gobhain [gowen], the smith's 

carse. See under ALDERGOWAN. 

CARSEG6WN. ' Kells/ ' Wigton.' See under CARSEGOWAN. 

CARSEMINNOCH (P. Carshmeanach). ' Minigaff.' Carse meadhonach 
[minnagh], middle carse. See under BALMINNOCH. 

CARSENESTOCK (P. Carsnestak). ' Penninghame.' Cf. PORT NES- 
SOCK, which Pont writes Port Nustak. 

CARSERIGGAN (P. Casriggen). ' Penninghame.' 

CARSETH6RN. ' Kirkbean.' 

CARSEVEIGE. ' Minigaff.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALL OWAY. 1 1 1 

CARSEWALLOCH (P. Karskullagach). 'Kirkmabreck.' Font's 
spelling points to a g or qu sound softened into w. 

CARSFAD (P. Karsfod). ' Dairy,' ' Kells.' Carse fada, long or far 
carse. Cf. CARSWADA. 

CARSINDARROCH. ' Minigaff.' Carse an daraich, carse of the oak 
tree. See under ARNDARROCH. 

CARSKEEL. ' Kirkmabreck.' Carse caol [keel], narrow carse. 
Gael, caol, narrow ; \v. cul. Cf. DRUMKEEL, PORT KALE ; also 
Glenkeel in Fermanagh, Cork, and Leitrim, and many places 
in Ireland called Keal, Keale, and Keel. 

CARSNAW. ' Minigaff.' Carse an atha [aha, aa], carse of the ford. 
There is here a ford on the tidal channel of the Cree. ERSE 
and GAEL, dth, gen. atha+\?. 5ats+iCEL. va$, a ford, vada, to 
wade+G. icat, a ford+LAT. uadum (vaduni) +SWED. vada+ 
O.H.G. uatan+A.S. wadan (pt. t. wdd) to wade (whence M.E. 
waden, E. wade, BR. so. wad, to wade) + SET. gddham, to move 
forward, gddha, shallow, a place where a footing may be ob- 
tained, probably from a base GADH, an extension of ,\/GA, to 
go. (See Skeat, s.v. Wade.) Cf. CRAIGNAW, LOCHNAW, 
KNOCKNAW ; and, in Ireland, Drumaa in Fermanagh. 

CARSLtliTH (P. Karsluyith). ' Kirkmabreck.' 

CARSNABR6CK. ' Minigaff.' Carse na broc, carse of the badgers ; 
a meadow beside the river Minnick. See under BROCKLACH. 

CARSPHAIRN (a village and parish in the Stewartry). ' Carsphairn.' 
Carse /earn [farii], carse of the alders. Cf. Elder Holm in 
Dairy (the next adjacent parish), which should be Alder 
Holm, the BR. SO. for " elder " being bourtree. See under 
BALFERN. 

CARSWADA. ' Loch Eutton.' Carse fhada. See under CARSEFAD. 

CARTY. ' Penninghame.' Cearda [carda], a workshop. See under 
CAIRDIE WIEL. 

CASH BAG. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' C6s leag, little hole or fissure. 
" C6s, a fissure." O'Eeilly. GAEL. " Cos, a crevice, a hole." 
Macalpine. 

CASPIN. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Cf. HESPIN, also on the sea-coast. 
CASSALANDS. ' Troqueer/ 

CASSENCARIE (P. Kassinkary). 'Kirkmabreck.' Casan caora, 
footpath of the sheep, or casan caithre [caarie], footpath of 
the fort, gen. of cathair. See under AIRYHASSAN. 

CASSENGILSHIE. * Wigton.' Casan giolchach [gilhyagh], rushy, 
reedy footpath. See under AIRIECHASSAN and AUCHENGILSHIE. 



ii2 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CASSENVEY (P. Cassinbe ; MS. 1527, Cassinvey). ' Balmaclellan.' 
Casan bheithe, footpath of the birch tree. See under AIRIE- 
HASSAN and AUCHENVEY. 

CASTLE BAN. ' Kirkcolm.' Caiseal [cashel] bdn, white fort, or 
perhaps Bann's fort. Of. Castlebane and Castlebawn in Ireland. 

CASTLE CREAVIE. ' Rerwick.' Caiseal craebhe [creevy], castle of 
the tree, or caiseal craebhach [cashel creevagh], castle of the 
wooded place. Craebhach, adjective from craebh, a branch, a 
tree, a bush. " There are more than thirty townlands called 
Creevagh, i.e. branchy or bushy land (in Ireland)." Joyce, 
i. 501. Cf. KNOCKCRAVIE, CORNCRAVIE ; also Moheracreevy 
in Leitrim (mothar na craebhe, fort of the tree). 

CASTLE BAFFIN. ' Rerwick.' 

CASTLE DOUGLAS. ' Balmaghie.' A modern name given to Car- 
lingvvark by one Douglas who built mills here. 

CASTLE FEATHER. ' Whithorn.' Caiseal PJieaduir [feddur], 
Peter's castle. Cf. KILFEATHER. 

CASTLE FERN (P. Castell Fairne). ' Dairy.' Caiseal fearn, castle 
of the alder trees. See under BALFERN. 

CASTLE GOWER (MS. 1640, Cassilgour). ' Buittle.' Caiseal gobhar, 
castle of the goats. 

CASTLE LARICK. ' Inch.' Larach, a dwelling-place, a site. See 
under LARROCH. Close by is Tripolarick. 

CASTLEMADDIE (P. Castle maddyes; MS. 1527, Castlemady). 

' Carsphairn.' Caiseal madadh [madda], castle of the dogs. 

See under BLAIRMODDIE. 
CASTLEMANOCH. ' Kelton.' Caiseal manach, castle of the monks. 

See under ARNMANNOCH. 
CASTLE MUIR. * Rerwick.' 

CASTLE NAUGHT (gutt.). ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' Caiseal nochd [?], 
naked, bare, exposed castle; o. ERSE nocht, ERSE nochd 
(O'Reilly), naked, GAEL. noekta+W. noeth, B. ndaz, c. noath+A.s. 
nacod, naked + O.F. nakad, naken + DU. naa-kt + ICEL. naktr, 
nakinn +DAN. nogen+swED. naken+G. nackt, M.H.G. nacket, 
O.H.G. nachot+GOTH. nakwatus+KUSS. nagoi +LITH. nugas-\- 
LAT. nudus (nugdus, nogdus, nagdus)+SKT. nagna, all with the 
meaning " naked, stripped." (See Skeat, s.v. Naked.) Cf. 
BARNEIGHT, AUCHEXEIGHT. 

CASTLE SHELL. ' Inch.' 

CASTLE SOD. ' Twynholm.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY, 113 

CASTLE WEARY. 'Old Luce.' Caiseal iarach [eeragh], western 
castle. See under BLAWWEARY. 

CASTRAMONT, DOUN or (Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Castraman; P. 
Karstromen; War Committee, 1646, Carstraman). 'Girthon.' 

CATEBRAID. ' Port Patrick, s. c.' Cat Iragliad []] [brahad], the 
gully (lit. the throat) of the wild-cats. See under ALWHAT 
and BRADOCK. Although the qualitative noun rarely comes 
first, still it seems to do so in this and the two following 
instances, as it does in AUCHNESS, q.v. 

CATELIG. ' Port Patrick, s. c.' Cat Hag [leeg], the stone of the 
wild-cats. See wider CATEBRAID and AIRIELICK. 

CATEVENNAN. ' Port Patrick, s. c.' Cat bhennan [vennan], the 
hillock of the wild-cats. See under BENNAN and CATEBRAID. 

CATOAK or COTTAGE. ' Troqueer.' Possibly from w. coed, a wood. 
CAUCHIE STONE. ' Kirkmaiden, s. c.' 

CAUGH Moss. ' Girthon.' 

CAULDSIDE. ' Whithorn.' Cold side or place ; probably referring 
to the soil. It is a wonder that the Ordnance Surveyors have 
not Anglicised this name, as they have Brigg-end into Bridge- 
end, Alt Water into Old Water, etc. Old Northumbrian cald= 
A.S. ceald + iCEL. kaldr-t-nu. koud + GQTH. kalds+G. Mlt + 'LAX. 
gelidus. 

CAULKERBUSH. ' Colvend.' 

CAUSEWAYEND \pron. Causend], (P. Causayend). ' Balmaghie,' 
' Penninghame.' End of the causeway. See under AIRIE- 
HASSAN. 

CAVAN. ' Kells.' Cabhdn [cavvan], " a hollow plain, a field." 
O'Beilly, Like other names for hollows this is often trans- 
ferred to the hill beside the hollow. Thus O'Donnell, in his 
Life of St. Columba, translates it collis. Cf. Cavan, which 
occurs about twenty times in Ireland. See also KEVANDS, 
COLVEND, KEVAN BRAES, etc. 

CAVENS (P. Kovenns). ' Kirkbeau.' See under CAVAN. 

CAVE 6cHTREE. ' Leswalt.' Uchtraidh [Ughtrie], Uchtred's cave ; 
the GAEL, construction, with the qualitative last. 

CAWN LANE. ' Glasserton.' 

CAWVIS HILL. ' Wigton.' Calves' hill. BR. so. cawf, a calf, 
pi. cawvies. 

H 



ii 4 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CHALLOCH (P. Chellach). Teallach [tyallagh], "a hearth" (O'Reilly}. 
GAEL. " Teallach, a smith's fire-place or forge, a hearth or 
fireplace. Occurs without adjunct as a place-name about a 
dozen times in Wigtonshire, and once at least in the 
Stewartry. In Galloway it may be assumed to mean ' a 
forge/ though not used in that sense in Ireland, where 
teallach means ' a tribe, a family.' " O'Eeilly. T, followed 
by a diphthong, is weakened nearly to E. ch. A similar change 
of sound may be observed in nation, action, etc. See under 
AUCHENGIBBERT. Mr. Skene writes : " There is a great 
hill in Wester Ross called the Challoch, as the word is there 
pronounced, and the popular meaning in the district is the 
Furnace Hill, which the people as frequently call it." 

CHALLOCHBLEWN (P. Chellachblawis ; W. P. MSS. Challochbhel- 
lin). ' Glasserton.' 

CHALLOCHGLASS [pron. Chillass], (P. Shellachglass). ' Mochrum.' 
Tealach glas, green forge (hill). The hill seems to have 
derived its name Challoch from the forge, and subsequently 
to have received the qualitative suffix which applies to the 
hill and not to the forge. Had the old spelling not survived 
the change in pronunciation, the etymology of Challochglass, 
as now pronounced, might have been sought in vain. 

CflALLOCHMtlNN (P. Challachmun). 'Old Luce.' Tulach [tyallagh], 
Munna [?]. Munna's hill. Cf. Kilmun in Argyllshire, 
Munna's (or Fintan's) church, Taghmon in Wexford (teach 
Munna), Munna's house. See under KNOCKIEFOUNTAIN. 

CHANG (Inq. ad Cap. 1636, Schaing; P. Chang). 'Mochrum.' 
Teanga [tyanga], a tongue or strip of land. For change of t 
to ch, cf. CHALLOCH and CHIPPERFINIAN. o. ERSE tenge, 
ERSE and GAEL, teanga + GOTH, tuggo (=tungo)-{-o.n.G. 
zunga, G. zunge-\- DAN. tunge -\-ICEI.. and SWED. tunga+DV. 
tong-\-A..S. tunge (whence M.E. tunge, tonge, E. tongue) + o. LAT. 
dingua, LAT. lingua, FR. langue. Cf., however, ICEL. tangi, a 
spit or projection of land, which has a different origin from 
ERSE teanga, being allied to E. tangi and tongs. (See Skeat on 
these words.) The form as well as the sense of these words 
run together. Thus in the Prompt. Pan. we read, " Tongge of 
a bee, Aculeus ; Tongge of a knife, Pirasmus" 

CHAPEL FINIAN. ' Mochrum.' See CHIPPERFINIAN. 

CHAPELERNE. ' Crossmichael.' Perhaps a dedication to St. Ernan, 
one of St. Columcille's twelve companions in his mission to 
Alban. Cf. Killearn in Stirlingshire, and Killearn or Kiler- 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GAL LOW AY. 115 

nadale, formerly a parish ~in Jura. On the other hand, the 
name may be A.S., signifying the (ern, place or dwelling of 
the chapel. 

CHAPELHERON. 'Whithorn.' See CHIPPERHERON. 

CHAPELR6SSAN. ' Kirkmaiden, s. c.' Caipeal rosain, chapel of the 
promontory. GAEL, caipeal (Reeves's Adamnan, 426) L. LAT. 
capella (whence O.F. chapelle, E. chapel). The word took its 
origin from the shrine wherein was preserved the cappa or 
cope of St. Martin (Skeat, s.v. Chapel). It is one of the words 
introduced into Erse speech with Christianity. That this is 
an old word, and not merely E. chapel prefixed to Rossan, the 
name of the promontory, seems to be shown by the name of 
the adjacent hill, Knocktaggart, the priest's hill. Rosdn, 
dim. of ros, see under Ross. Cf. Ardrossan in Ayrshire, " so 
named," says Pont, "in respecte it is situated on a suelling 
knope of a rock runing frome a toung of land advancing from 
ye maine land in ye sea, and almost environed vith ye same, 
for Ross in ye ancient Brittich tounge signifies a Biland or 
peninsula." Cuninghame, p. 56. 

CHAPMAN. ' Kirkinner.' See under CHAPMANLEYS. 

CHAPMANLEYS. 'Troqueer.' The merchant's fields. A.S. cedp- 
man (cf. ICEL. JcaupmaZr, G. kaufmann, a merchant), whence 
M.E. and E. chapman (of which E. chap, a fellow, is a familiar 
abbreviation) A.S. cedp, price, sale, bargain, business {Bos- 
worth), whence M.E. chep, cheap, cheep (subst.), barter, price, 
becoming in modern E. an adjective, cheap -\-D\J. koop, a pur- 
chase + ICEL. kaup, a bargain + S WED. kop, price, purchase + 
DAN. kio'b, purchase + GOTH, kaupon, to traffic + O.H.G. couftin, 
G. kaufen, kaiif, to buy, a purchase. " B. Curtius (i. 174) 
affirms that all these words, however widely spread in 
Teutonic tongues, must be borrowed from Latin. Indeed we 
find O.H.G. choufo, a huckster, which is merely LAT. caupo. 
The further related words are capa, a barmaid, caupona, an 
inn ; GK. KaTrrfKo^, a pedlar ; RUSS. htpite, to buy." (Skeat, 
s.v. Cheap). A.S. ledh, led, a field, a place. See under BRAN- 

DEDLEYS. 

CHAPMANTON (P. Chapmantoun). * Crossmichael.' The mer- 
chant's house. See under CHAPMANLEYS and BALDOON. 

CHERRY CRAIG. ' Dairy.' 

CHILCARROCH (P. Chalkarroch). ' Mochrum.' 



n6 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CHINCOUGH WELL. ' Glasserton.' Whooping-cough well. A 
spring in the rocks just above high-water mark at Kirk- 
maiden in Glasserton (see under KIRKMAIDEN), the water of 
which is said to be a remedy for whooping-cough. BR. SO. 
kink-cough or kink-hoast. " To kink, to labour for breath in a 
severe fit of coughing." Jamieson. " Kink is a nasalised form 
of a root kik, to choke " (Skeai) + DU. kinkhoest, o. DU. kiech- 
hoest + swEV. kikhosta, whooping-cough, kikna, to gasp, to be- 
come choked + DAN. kighoste, whooping-cough + G. keichen, to 
pant + E. chincough. Choke is another form of the root KIK, 
which is imitative. 

CHIPPERDINGAN WELL. ' Kirkmaiden.' Tiobar Dingain, Dingan's or 

Ninian's well. See under TIBBERT. The form " Dingan," as well 

as " Ninan," occurs in Geoffrey Gaimar's Estorie des Engles, 

written about the middle of the twelfth century, line 967 : 

" Ninan aveit ainz baptizg 

Les altres Pictes del regne" : 

Ce sunt les Westtnaringiens 

Ki done esteient Pictiens. 

A Witernen gist Saint Dinan 

Long tens vint devant Columban." 

The change of t to ch and k in this word tiobar is a common 
one. See under CHALLOCH and KIBBERTIE KITE WELL. 

CHIPPERFINIAN (P. Chappel finian). ' Mochrum.' Tiobar Finnain, 
(St.) Finnan's well. There is a ruined chapel here. St. 
Finnan was elected Bishop of Lindisfarne in A.D. 652. 

CHIPPERHERON or CHAPELHERON (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Tibert- 
quharaine ; W. P. MSS. Schippirquharraine). * Whithorn.' 
Tiobar Chiarain [heeran], St. Kieran's or Ciaran's well. There 
are several individuals called Ciardn in the Irish hagiology 
and hierarchy. The most celebrated of these, founder of 
Clonmacnoise, died A.D. 548; but miracles were imputed to 
him as late as 1018. See Four Masters under that year: 
" Serin Ciardin do or gain do Domhnall mac Taidhg, agus a mar- 
bhadhfein a cceand seachtmhaine triafiortaibh De agus Ciardin" 
i.e. " The shrine of Ciaran was plundered by Domhnall, son 
of Tadhg, and he himself was killed at the end of a week, 
through the miracles of God and Ciaran." The following 
places, among others, are also dedicated to St. Ciaran (whose 
name is rendered in Latin Queranus or Kyranus, and in 
Cornish Piran) Kilkerran in Kintyre, Kilkerran and Dal- 
quharran in Ayrshire, Kilcheran or Kilkeran in Islay, and 
St. Kieran's well in Glenbervie. Ciardn (from ciar, black) 
means the dark man. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 117 

CHIPPERKYLE. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Tiobar. 

CHIPPERM6RE (P. Chippertmoir). ' Mochrum.' Tiobar m6r, the 
great well. Probably the land got the name Tipper or 
Chipper from Chipperfinian (which is on this farm), and mdr 
was added subsequently as a distinctive name of part of the 
land. 

CLACHAN. Clachan, stones. A word of very frequent occurrence 
and of varying meaning. Generally it means a hamlet, from 
the stone foundations of circular huts or wigwams in pre- 
historic times, or, later, from the stones of which walls were 
built ; but it also is used to designate a church or churchyard. 
Pagan places of worship (see under CLACHANARRIE) consisting 
of monoliths, either solitary or in groups or circles, were 
adopted by Christian missionaries as sites for churches and 
cells, hence clachan, the stones, became synonymous for the 
church or churchyard. O. ERSE and ERSE cloch, GAEL, clack. 
The name is common in Ireland as Cloghan, Cloghane, and 
Cloghaun. 

CLACHANAMtrcK. ' Kirkinner.' Clachan na muc, the swine's 
stones. 

CLACHANARRIE. ' Mochrum.' Clachan aoraidh [aray], stones of 
worship. In Perthshire, on Findowie Hill, Strathbraan, there 
is a circle of stones called Clachan Aoradh, or the worshipping 
stones (Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. 1884-5, p. 42). 

CLACHANEASY. ' Penninghame.' Clachan losa [?] [eesa], the 
hamlet of Jesus. A hamlet near St. Ninian's chapel of the 
Cruives. See under ALLANEASY. 

CLACHANHEAD. ' New Abbey.' Head of the clachan or hamlet. 
CLACHANLAUKES. ' Whithorn.' 

CLACHANM6RE. ' Stoneykirk.' Clachan m6r, the great stones, or 
big village. There is no village here now. 

CLACH ANPLUCK. ' Inch.' Lauriston, in Girthon parish, formerly 
bore this name also. 

CLACHRAWER. ' Dairy.' Of. STRANRAER. 

CLACHRUM (P. Clachrum). ' Kells,' ' Penninghame.' Clacherin, 
a stony place, deriv. of clach. Cf. CLAUCHTREM, and, in 
Ireland, Cloghereen near Killarney. 

CLACK HILL. ' Balmaghie.' Clach, a stone. Cf. TOOMCLACK HILL. 

CLAUCHRIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1599, Clauchreid; P. Clachory, Clachary, 

and Clachred). 'Kirkinner,' 'Minigaff,' 'Wigton.' Clach- 



n8 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

arach or doichreach, a stony place. See under CLACHRUM. 
Cf. Clogliera in Clare and Kerry. 

CLAUCHTREM. ' Carsphairn.' See under CLACHRUM. 

CLAWBELLY (P. Clabelly). ' Kirkgunzeon.' Clack baile [claw 
bally], stone town, enclosure, or house. Cf. Cloghbally and 
Cloghvalley, frequent names of Irish townlands. 

CLADDiOCHDdw. ' Kirkcolm, s. c.' Claddach dubh [doo], black beach. 
Claddach is still in use in the speech of the country folk in its 
original sense of a stony or shingly beach. " Cladach, a flat, 
stony shore." O'Don., Appendix to O'fieilly. Cf. CLADF 
HOUSE, and, in Ireland, Clady in Tyrone, Antrim, and 
Armagh ; Clydagh, Cloydach, Clodagh, Cleedach, Clodragh, 
Cleady, Clodiagh, Clyda, all forms of the same word ; 
also Claddagh, a river running into Loch Erne, and 
Claddagh, part of the town of Galway. Clady in Tyrone is 
written Claideach by the Four Masters. " Clidyoch, Clydyoch, 
the gravel bed of a river, Dumfr." Jamieson. 

CLADY HOUSE. ' Inch.' The beach house. A house on the 
shore of Loch Ryan. See under CLADDIOCHDOW. 

CLAFAEAS. 'Penninghame.' Clack farraich [?], the stone of 
meeting. See under BORGAN FERRACH. 

CLAINGE (P. Kloyintz). ' Kirkmabreck.' See under CLAUNCH. 
Pont writes it very nearly according to the old pronunciation. 

CLAIRBRAND (Inq. ad Cap. 1628, Clairbrand ; P. Clarckbraind). 
{ Crossmichael.' 

CLAMDALLY. ' Berwick.' Claon dealg, the slope of the thorny 
thicket. Claon (adj.), sloping ; see under CLENE. For the 
change of n to m in this word see Font's spelling of Clan- 
noch, Klemmeock. Dealg (o. ERSE delg) occurs in Irish 
names, as Moneydollog in Antrim (muine dealg), Kildellig in 
Queen's County. Delliga in Cork is given by the Four Masters 
(A.D. 1580) as Deilge, the plur. of dealg. Cf. DALLY, DAILLY, 
DRUMDALLY. 

CLAMDISH. ' Parton.' Claon dess, southern slope, o. ERSE dess, 
the right hand, or south. 

CLANERIE (P. Cloynary). ' Kirkmabreck.' Claonrach, sloping. 
Cf. CLENARIE, CLENDRIE, forms of the same word. Cleenrah 
in Longford and Cleenrath in Cork are referred (Joyce,\i. 4 2 2) to 
claen rath [cleen raw], sloping fort. " Is aire is claen an Us," 
this is why the fort slopes (Cormac). See under CLAMDALLY. 



THE TOPO GRAPHY OF GALL OWAY. 119 

CLANGHIE POINT [pron. Clanzie]. 'Kirkmaiden, s. c.' Claona, the 
slopes. Cf. Cleeny, near Killarney. 

CLANNOCH (P. Klemmeock). ' Minigaff.' Claonach, sloping. Of. 
CLENNOCH, and, in Ireland, Clenagh and Cleenagh in Donegal, 
Fermanagh, and Clare. 

CLANTIBUIES (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Clontagboy.) 'Kirkinner.' 
Cluainte buidhe [cloonty buie], yellow meadows. Plur. of 
cluain (see under CLONE), E. plur. added. Cf. Cloontabonniv, 
Cloontakillow, Cloonboy, Clonboy, etc., in Ireland. See under 
BENBUIE and CLONE. 

CLAN YARD (P. Cloynard, Kloynard; Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Cloinzeard). 
' Kirkmaiden.' Cluain ard, high meadow, or claondrd, " an 
inclining steep" (0' Re illy). Cf. Clonyard. In Ireland the 
name occurs several times as Clonard, Cloonard. See under 
AIRD, CLAMDALLY, and CLONE. 

CLARE HILL. ' Kirkcowan.' Cldr, a level place, a plain (lit. a table 
or board), a name transferred from the level ground to the hill. 
" The county of Clare was so called from a village of the 
same name ; and the tradition of the people is that it was 
called Clare from a board formerly placed across the river 
Fergus to serve as a bridge." Joyce, i. 428. This village, 
however, is called Cldr-m6r by the Four Masters, which looks 
rather as if it took its name from flat land. Clarehill in 
Derry and Clarkill in Armagh, Down, and Tipperary are cor- 
ruptions of cldr choill [hill], level wood. 

CLARY (P. Clary), anciently the Bishop of Galloway's palace. 
' Penninghame.' Clerech, a clerk or priest (clericus). See 
under BARNYCLEARY. 

CLARY PARK (a field on the farm of Prestrie, i.e. Priest-ery). 
' Whithorn.' See under CLARY. 

CLASH. ' Borgue,' ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Leswalt.' Clais [clash], a 
trench, ditch, or pit ; a cleft in a hill. The name of many 
townlands in Ireland. " Clash, claisch, a cavity of consider- 
able extent in the acclivity of a hill." Jamieson. 

CLASHBR6CK. ' Carsphairn.' Clais [clash] broc, the badger's pit 
or den. Cf. Clashnamrock [dais-nambroc\ near Lismore. 
See under BROCKLACH and CLASH. 

CLASHDAN. ' Minigaff.' 

CLASHD60KIE. ' Minigaff.' 



120 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CLASH HILL. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under CLASH. 
CLASHMAHEW. ' Inch.' Cf. Kilmahew in Argyllshire. 

ClASHMURRAY. ' Kirkcolm.' Clais Muireadhaich [clash Murragh], 
Murray's or Murphy's trench or grave. See under BAL- 
MURRIE. 

CLASHNARROCH. ' Leswalt.' 

CLASHNEACH, NICK OF. 'Minigaff.' Clais n-ech, the trench or 
cleft of the horses. Clais and Nick here express the same 
idea, i.e. a cleft in the hill. See under AUCHNESS. 

CLASHWHANNON WELL. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

CLASH WOOD. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under CLASH. 

CLATTERINSHAWS (P. Clattranshawes). 'Kells.' The echoing 
'shaws' or woods. A.S. clatrung, anything that makes a clatter- 
ing, a drum, a rattle, cleadur, a rattle. See under SHAW BRAE. 

CLAUCHAN. ' Girthon.' See under CLACHAN. 

CLAUCHANDdLLY. ' Borgue.' Clachan dealg [dallig], stones or houses 
of the thorns. Cf. AUCHENDOLLY, CLAMDALLY. 

CLAUCHAN WELL (beside the ruins of Kirkchrist). ' Old Luce.' 
Clauchan here bears the meaning of a church, i.e. clachan, the 
stones ; the memorial or pagan worshipping stones (see under 
CLACHANARRIE), on the site of which the Christian churches 
were often erected. 

CLAUCHL6UDOUN. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

CLAUNCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1631, Clonsche; P. Cloyinsh ; W. P. MSS. 
Clonche). 'Sorbie.' Cladh innse [claw inshe], bank or ditch 
of the river-meadow. Cf. CLAINGE, also Clawinch, an island 
in Loch Eee, Ireland, where innis bears the alternative mean- 
ing of " island." 

CLAYCR6FT. 'Buittle,' 'Minigaff.' The croft or small farm of 
clay land. Croft A.S. croft, a field + DU. kroft, a hillock, 
o. DU. krochte, crocht, a field on the downs, high, dry land + 
GAEL, croit, a hillock, a croft, whence the guttural (which is pre- 
served in cruach, a hill) has disappeared. Skeat suggests that 
croft may have come from ERSE cruachd before the disappearance 
of the guttural. Not akin to crypt as some philologers have 
suggested from being shut in, for crofts are not fenced like 
farms, at least in their primitive condition, but cattle, etc., 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 121 

are herded off them. Before the adoption of draining, the 
croit, cruach, hillock, being naturally drained, was the only 
part of the land that would bear a crop. 

CLAYCR6P. ' Kirkinner.' See under CLAYCROFT. 

CLAYGRANE. * Carsphairn.' Cladh greane [claw graney], the 
mound or ditch of the gravel, or possibly in the sense of a 
grave, cladh greine, Grian's grave (see under CAIRN-NA-GREEN). 
Grean, gravel + B. grouan + c. grow, gravel + W. gro + SKT. 
grdvan, a stone, a rock. Not, as suggested by some, con- 
nected with LAT. granum, which is from /^/GAR, to grind. 

CLAYGUGAN. 'New Luce.' Cladh Geoghagain or Eochagain []], 
Geachan's grave. 

CLAYHILTS. Balmaclellan.' 

CLAYM6DDIE (P. Clymady ; W. P. MSS. Glenmaddie). ' Glasserton.' 
Cladh madadh [claw maddie], the mound of the dogs ; but the 
name as it appears in the "Whithorn Priory rental points to 
gleann madadh, the dog's glen. Cf. Glennamaddy in Gal way. 

CLAYSHANT (formerly a parish), (P. Klachshant). ' Stoneykirk.' 
C ach seant [shant], holy stone LAT. sanctus, 0. ERSE sanct. 

"Ni bu Sanct Brigit suanach." 

Broccan's Hymn, line 21. 
and 

" Ateoch e"rlam Sanct Brigte 
Co sanctaib Cille dara." Ibid., line 95. 

CLAYSHEEN. ' Inch.' Cladh sidheain [claw shean], mound of the 
fairies' house (cf. FAIRY KNOWE) ; or perhaps from sian 
[sheen], foxglove (called also in E. fairy-finger, fairy-thimble). 

CLAYS OF CHANG (the site of an ancient village). ' MinigaflV 
Clays [pron. Clies], is not an uncommon name for a deserted 
site, where the foundations of houses remain as grassy mounds. 
From cladh [claw, cly], a mound, with E. plural added. 
See under CHANG. 

CLAYS OF CuLNdAG (the site of an ancient village). ' Sorbie.' 

See under CULNOAG. 
CLAYWHARNIES. ' Inch.' 

CLAYWHIPPART. 'Whithorn.' Cladh [claw] or clack thiprat 

[ippart], mound or stone of the well. See under TIBBERT. 
CLENARIE (P. Cloynary). ' Glasserton.' See under CLANERIE. 

CLENDRIE (P. Kloynary and Clonary). 'Inch,' 'Kirkbean,' 
' Old Luce,' ' Kirkcolm.' See under CLANERIE. 



122 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CLENE. ' Girthon.' Claon [clane] or claen [cleenj (adj.), sloping. 
Used as a substantive in place-names. See under CLAMDALLY, 
CLAMDISH. Cf. Cleen in Fermanagh, Leitrim, and Eos- 
common. 

CLENNOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1642, Clannoch). ' Carspliairn,' * Inch.' 
Claenach, sloping. See under CLANNOCH. 

CLERKSBURN. * Glasserton.' The clerk's or priest's burn ; close 
to Kirkmaiden. Cf. ALTAGGART, CLARY. 

CLEUGH \gutt."\ (P. Kleugh). * Kirkmaiden, s. c.' " Clench, cleugh. 
1 . A precipice, a rugged ascent. 2. A straight hollow between 
precipitous banks, or a hollow descent on the side of a hill." 
Jamieson. From A.S. dough, " a cleft of a rock, or down the 
side of a hill " (Bosworth). 

CLEUGHBRAE. ' Terregles.' The brow of the cleugh. See under 
BRAE and CLEUGH. 

CLEUGH HEAD (from estate map of Cuil). ' Kirkmabreck.' The 
head of the cleugh. See under CLEUGH. 

CLEUGH OF THE EGLIN. ' Girthon.' See EGLIN LANE. 

CLIES OF CHANG, etc. ' Mochrum,' * Sorbie.' See under CLAYS OF 
CHANG, etc. 

CLINKING HAVEN. ' Twynholm.' " Clinking Go's, caverns which 
make a tinkling noise when stones are thrown into them." 
Mactaggart. 

CLINT MAELUN. 'Kells.' "Clint, a hard or flinty rock." 
Jamieson. Cf. Clint, the name of a place in Yorkshire. 
" DAN. and SWED. klint, the brow of a hill, promontory." 
Lucas. Maelun possibly = maolain; maoldn, a beacon 
(CfReilly); but Maelan and Maeleoin are names of several 
personages mentioned by the Four Masters. Cf. Letter Maelain 
in Clare, written Leitir Maoilin by the Four Masters. " Maelan 
was, I believe, a leguminous plant, and not a cereal one, as 
is shown by the maelan milce being applied to the tuberous 
bitter vetch, Orobus tuberosus, the tuberous roots of which were 
formerly much prized for making a kind of drink by the 
Highlanders, and used in times of scarcity as food. The 
Orobus niger, or black bitter vetch, which is said by some to 
have supported the Britons when driven into the forests and 
fastnesses by the Emperor Severus, was also called Maelan." 
Sullivan's Intr. to O'Curry, ccclxiii. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WAY. 123 

GLINTS OF DRUHORE. ' Minigaff.' " Glints, limited to the shelves 
at the side of a river." Jamieson. This limitation is not 
observed in Galloway, and certainly does not apply in this 
case, for these Glints are far from a river. " Glints, little 
awkward-lying rocks." Madaggart. Neither is this a suitable 
definition, for these Glints are bold precipitous cliffs on high 
ground. Cf. Cleut Hills in Staffordshire. See under CLINT 
and DRUMORE. 

GLINTS OF THE Buss. ' Minigaff.' See under Buss. 

GLINTS OF THE SPOUT [pron. spoot]. 'Minigaff.' "Spout, a 
boggy spring in ground." Jamieson. But it also means a 
waterfall. Spout (M.E. spouten SWED. sputa, the sound of 
which is well preserved in BR. SO. spSSf) has lost the r, and 
was originally from the same root as sprout, just as speak 
stands for spreak (Skeai). 

CLOAK HILL. 'Carsphairn.' Cloch, a stone [?]. See under 
CLACHAN. 

CLOCHCLUAIN. ' Kirkcolm.' Clacli dua'm [cloon], stone of the 
meadow. See under CLACHAN and CLONE. 

CLONE (P. Cloyin). ' Buittle,' ' Kells,' ' Mochrum.' Cluain [cloon], 
a meadow. Clone in Mochrum appears in Inq. ad Cap. 1600 
as Clontrunnaight, i.e. cluan traona [trana], or the longer form 
tradhnach [trannagh], meadow of the corncrakes. Cf. Cloon- 
atreane in Fermanagh, with the same meaning, Lugatryna in 
Wicklow, etc. " Cluan, a lawn, a retired or sequestered place." 
O'Reilly. Cluan or duain enters into many names both 
in Ireland and Scotland. 

CLONE FELL (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Clone ; P. Klon). ' Kells.' The 
hill above the duain, or great meadow at the head of Loch 
Ken. See under CLONE. 



' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Cluain caoin [cloonkeen], fine 
or beautiful meadow. Cloonkin and Clonkin is a common 
name in Ireland, and Clonkeen in Galway is given in Hy 
Many, Cluain-cain-Cairill, Cairill's fair field. 

CLONSHANK. ' Buittle.' 

CLONYARD (Inq. ad Cap. 1628, Clonzeard). ' Buittle,' ' Carsphairn.' 
See under CLANYARD. Cf. Clonard in several places in Ire- 
land ; but Clonard in Meath is Cluain Eraird, Erard's meadow. 

CLOSING. ' Minigaff.' 



i24 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAWHEL. 

CLOSS HILL. ' New Luce.' " Close. 3. An area beside a farm- 
house in which cattle are fed, and where straw, etc., are 
deposited. 4. An enclosure, a place fenced in." Jamieson. 
It is pronounced doss in BR. so. 

CLOVEN CRAIG. ' Old Luce.' Cf. CRAIGBIRNOCH. 
CLOWNSTANE. ' Kirkcudbright.' 

CLOY POINT. 'Kells.' Cladh [claw, cly], a mound. See under 
CLY. 

CLUDEN WATER. ' Troqueer.' 

CLUGGIE LINN. ' Minigaff.' 

CLtlGSTON (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Clugistoun). ' Kirkcowan.' 

CLtfNiE HILL. * Terregles.' Cluain [cloon], a meadow. See under 
CLONE. 

CLtiTAG (Inq. ad Cap. 1681, Clontage ; P. Cloutaig). ' Kirkinner.' 

CLY. * Penninghame.' Cladh [claw, cly], a mound, ditch, or 
grave, o. ERSE clad + w. clawdd, cloddian. " An artificial 
mound, dyke, or rampart of any kind, . . . pronounced cly or 
dee in the south half of Ireland, and dee or daw in the north. 
The word is also applied to the raised fences, so universal 
in Ireland, separating field from field." Joyce, ii. 219. It 
occurs in the sense of a grave in Compert Conculaind, 2, L. V. 
(fFindisch, 425). 

COCKLEATH (pron. Cocklay). ' Buittle.' 0. NORSE, hlatha, a barn. 

COCKLICK (Charter 1532, Cockleiks ; Charter 1634, Cocklex). 
' Urr.' 

COCKPLAY (a hill of 950 feet). Dairy.' 

CocKRdssEN. ' Tungland.' 

C6CKTRIES HILL. < Urr.' 

C6GARTH (P. Kogart; Eetour 1616, Cowgairth). 'Parton.' 
A.S. cu geard [cow garth], cow-pen. 

C6GERSHAW. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' The " shaw " or wood of 
Cogarth. 

COLDSIDE. 'Sorbie.' Cf. CAULDSIDE. 

C6LFIN. ' Port Patrick.' Cuil fionn [finn], white nook or corner. 
Cf. Coolfin and Coolfune in Ireland, the latter representing 
the pronunciation ofjionn in the south. Joyce, ii. 272. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 125 

C6LLEGE GLEN and HILL (1175 feet). 'Dairy.' 

C6LLIN (P. Colynn). 'Berwick.' Cuileann, holly. See unde)' 
ALWHILLAN and KNOCKWHILLAN. Cf. Cullane, Cullaun, 
Collon, and Cullan in various parts of Ireland. 

C6LLIN HILL. ' Buittle.' Close by is Knockwhillan. See under 
COLLIN. 

COLLIN ISLAND (in the Dee). 'Dairy.' See under COLLIN. A 
little further down the stream is Holly Island. 

C6LLOCHAN. ' Terregles.' Cam lochan, crooked lakelet. See under 
CAMELON. 

COLVEND (a parish in the Stewartry), (P. Covenn, Cawenn ; Inq. 
ad Cap. 1560, Colven ; 1610, Culwen). Cabhdn [cavan], a 
hollow. See under CAVAN. 

COMPSTONE (P. Kumstoun, Cumston). ' Twynholm.' 

C6NCHIETOWN (Inq. ad Cap. 1603, Conquhiton ; 1605, Conquech- 
toun). ' Borgue.' Conkie's house. M'Conchie is a common 
surname in Galloway. The Four Masters record the death of 
Conchadh [Conchie, gutt.], son of Cuanacli, in A.D. 732, and of 
Dermot Mac Conchagadh, a priest, in A.D. 1488. 

CONGEITH. ' Kirkgunzeon.' 

CONHUITH. ' Terregles.' 

CONNIVEN. 'Kirkgunzeon.' 

Coo LOCHANS. ' Minigaff.' 

C60RAN LANE (part of the head waters of the Dee), (P. Sawchs of 
Kowring). ' Minigaff.' 

COPIN KNOWE. 'Minigaff.' The hill of bargaining. " To cowp, coup, 
cope. 1. To exchange, to barter. 2. To expose to sale. 3. To 
buy and sell, to traffic ; commonly used in this sense, but only 
of an inferior kind of trade." Jamieson. E. to cope, to vie 
with, originally meant to chaffer. It was introduced into 
England, says Skeat, by Dutch and Flemish traders Dtr. 
koopen, to buy. For the connection with E. cheap, chapman, 
chafer, see under CHAPMANLEYS. 

C6RAN or PORTMARK. ' Carsphairn.' Cordn, dim. of cor, a round 
hill (O'Don. Suppl. to O'Reilly) + coir, a snout, bill, beak 
(O'Reilly). Cf. Corann in Connaught, where, in A.M. 4532, 
the Four Masters record a great battle to have taken place. 



iz6 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGA1DHEL. 

CoRANSCLtlE (P. Kornsleu H.). ' Carsphairn.' Cor an sleibhe 
[slewie], hill of the moor. See under SLACARNACHAN. 

CORBELLY (P. Carbelly, Corbyilly). ' Kirkbean.' 

C6RBIETON (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Corbertoun; P. Corbettoun). 
'Buittle.' Corbet's house. David I. granted the lands of 
Barschain in this parish to Kobert Corbet (M'Kerlie). 

COREHILL. ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Stoneykirk ' (twee). Cathair [caer], 
a fort, or perhaps cor, a round hill. 

COREHOLM. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

C6RKET. ' Kirkmaiden, s. c.' Corcur, red ; a lichen called in BR. SC. 
staneraw, used for dyeing red. See under BARNCORKRIE. 

CORNARROCH. ' MinigafF.' Cordn charroch [harrogh], rough hill. 
Cf. CORNHARROW, EOUGH GIBE. See under GORAN. 

CORNCRAVIE. 'Stoneykirk.' Cordn craebhach [cravagh], wooded 
hill. See under CASTLE CREAVTE and GORAN. 

CORNERS GALE. ' Minigaff.' 

CORNHARROW. ' Dairy.' See under CORNARROCH. 

CORNHlJLLOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Corhallachill vel Corrach hill; 
1636, Carhallow; P. Karhalloch, Kerihalloch). 'Mochrum.' 
Cor na chullach or cordn chullach [hullagh], hill of the boars, 
o. ERSE cullach, caullach, a boar ; ERSE " Cullach, callach, a boar, 
a yearling calf " (O'Reilly). 

CORNLEE (a hill 1175 feet). 'Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Goran 
liath [lee], grey hill. See under GORAN and BARLAE. 

C6RRA, ' Buittle.' Currach, " a marsh, a bog, a fen ; a course, a 
level plain." O'Reilly. Cf. the Curragh of Kildare, Cur- 
raghmore, and many other places called Curragh, Curra, and 
Curry in Ireland. 

C6RRA HILL. ' Balmaghie,' ' Berwick.' See under CORRA. 

C6RRA POOL (on the Dee). ' Kirkcudbright.' Coradh [corrah], 
a weir. Cf. Corrofin in Clare, written Coradh Finne, Finna's 
weir (Four Masters, 1573), and Corofin in Galway, Coradh 
finne, white weir (Four Masters, 1451). 

CORRAFECKLOCH. ' Minigaff.' 

C6RSBY (P. Korsbuy). ' Penninghame.' Cf. Corsbie or Crosbie 
in Ayrshire. 



THE TOPO GRAPH Y OF GALL OWAY. 127 

CORSE o' SLAKES. ' Kirkmabreck.' The crossing of the passes. 
" Slak, slake, an opening in the higher part of a hill or 
mountain, where it becomes less steep and forms a sort of 
pass." Jamieson. " In Galloway there are no roads so wild 
as the one which leads over the celebrated pass of the above 
name between Cairnsmoor and Cairnhattie. It is a perfect 
Alpine pass, and was a haunt of Billy Marshall and his gang 
in days of yore." Mactaggart. 

CORSEHILL (the place of this name in Dairy is on Kirkl&nd). 
'Dairy,' 'Kirkpatrick Durham.' The cross hill, the place 
whereon probably stood a memorial cross. 

C6RSELAND. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

CORSEMALZIE (P. Corsmaille). ' MinigaftV Cross Malzie, i.e. a 
ford over the Malzie. 

CORSEMARTIN. ' Balmaghie.' Crois Martainn, (St.) Martin's 
cross. See under BALNACROSS. Dedicated, no doubt, like 
Crois Mhartain, the great cross opposite the west front of 
lona Cathedral, to St. Martin, Bishop of Tours, who died 
A.D. 397, and to whom Ninian dedicated Candida Casa, and 
Fergus, Lord of Galloway, subsequently dedicated the Priory 
Church there in 1143. 

C6RSEWALL. ' Kirkcolm.' The cross well, well of the cross. 
There is here a well dedicated to St. Columba. " Corse, 
cors. 1. The cross or rood. 2. A crucifix. 3. Market-place, 
from the cross being formerly erected there." Jamieson. 

CORSERiNE. ' Kells.' 

CORSEWOOD. ' Balmaghie.' 

CORSEYARD. ' Balmaghie,' ' Borgue.' 

C6RSOCK (Inq. ad Cap. 1607, Corsak; MS. 1527, Karsok; P. 
Corsock). ' New Abbey,' ' Parton.' 

CORVISEL (P. Kerivishel) [pron. Corveesel]. ' Penninghame.' 
Coire iseal [kirrie eeshal], low pool (caldron). There is a 
swirling pool here in the Cree, into the foot of which high 
tides flow; the lowest pool in the river, i.e. the one next 
the sea. Cf. Agheeshal in Monaghan (ath iseal, low ford), 
Athassel, with the same meaning, on the Suir in Tipperary, 
Gorteeshall in Tipperary ; Meeshall, Myshall, Mishells (magh 



1 28 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

{seal, low field), and Dunishel (dun, {seal). ERSE {seal, GAEL. 
{osal o. ERSE {ssel+w. isel, low, inferior. Cf. DRUMMIE- 
HISLIK 

C6RWALL. Mochrum.' 

C6RWAR (P. Korwar ; TV. P. MSS., Corver). ' Penninghame,' 
' Sorbie.' 

COTTACH. * Troqueer.' See CATOAK. 

C6UNAN [pron. Coonan]. 'Glasserton, s. c.' Cuaindn, a landing- 
place, a haven. " It '11 be bad weather, for I hear Counan 
roaring ; " said when the surf breaks on Glasserton shore in 
calm weather. 

C6\VAN HILL. ' Kirkinner.' Cabhan, a hollow. See under 
CAVAN. 

COWANS. ' Kirkmaiden.' Cabhan, a hollow E. plural added. 
See under CAVAN. 

C6WEND. ' Port Patrick.' Cabhan, a hollow. See under CAVAN. 
COWLOOT. 'Partou.' 

CRABBEN POINT. ' Kirkcolm, s. c.' 

CRACHAN. ' Kirkcowan.' Cruachdn, a hill ; dim. of cruach, a stack. 
Cf. Croaghan, Croaghaun, Croghan, and Crohan in Ireland. 
See under CROACH. 

CRAE (P. Krae). ' Balmaghie.' Craebh [crave], a tree. 

CRAICHIE (P. Krachy). 'Parton.' Cruacliach, hilly, deriv. of 
cruach. See under CROACH. Cf. CROACHIE, which also Pont 
spells Krachy. 

CRAICHM6RE (P. Kroochmoir). 'Leswalt.' Cruach mdr, great 
stack or hill. Cf. CROCHMORE. See under CROACH. 

CRAIG. In many places. Creag, a rock or inland cliff, w. craig 
(whence M.E. crag, cragge). " The original form is clearly car, 
a rock ; whence, with suffixed t, the Irish ceart, a pebble, and 
E. chert, also with suffixed n the GAEL, earn." Skeat. A 
contracted form of carraic. See under CARRICK. 

CRAIGADAM. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

CRAIGALCARIE. ' Balrnaclellan.' Creag an caora (carey), rock of 
the sheep. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 129 

CRAIGAMMIX. ' Inch.' 

CRAIGANALLY. ' Crossmichael.' * Mochrum.' Creagdn ailich 
[elligh], crag of the stone fort. Aileach, deriv. of ail, a 
stone (ail-thcach, stone house, according to Michael O'Clery), 
enters into many Irish names, such as Greenan-Ely, the 
ancient palace of the northern kings in Deny, always referred 
to as Aileach by the old writers ; Caherelly in Limerick, 
Cahernally in Galway, Ardelly, Ellagh, and Elagh, etc. The 
stones of which these forts were made have generally been 
removed for dyke-building. The name might also signify 
creagdn eilidh [elly], crag of the hinds (cf. CARNELTOCH, 
CRAIGNELDER), but the former meaning is perhaps the more 
probable. Cf. CRAIGEXELLIE. 

CRAIG ANTHONY. ' Port Patrick.' 

CRAIGANTYRE. 'Stoneykirk, s. c.' Creagdn t-iar [tear], west 
craig. See under BALTIER. 

CRAIGARIE (P. Kraigary). ' ' Kirkcowan.' Creag airidh [airey], 
crag of the shieling, or creag aedhaire [airey], shepherd's crag. 

CRAIGBELL. 'Kirkcolm.' 

CRAIGBENNOCH. 'Minigaff.' Creag beannaich, crag of the hilly 
ground ; an adjectival form of beann often used as a sub- 
stantive, e.g. Bannaghbane and Bannaghroe in Monaghan, the 
white and red hilly ground. 

CRAIGBERNOCH (P. Kraigbyrronach). 'New Luce.' Creag 
bearnach, cloven crag. Cf. CLOVEN CRAIG; also Caherbar- 
nagh in Cork, Clare, and Kerry, Rathbarna in Roscommon. 
" Eearnach, gapped, full of gaps." O'Reilly. See under 
BARNEYWATER. 

CRAIGBILL (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Craigbull). 'Terregles.' 

CRAIGBITTERN. ' New Abbey.' 

CRAIGB6NNY. ' Balmaclellan. ' Creag banbh [bonniv], crag of the 
young pigs. See under AUCHNABONY. 

CRAIGBRACK. ' Girthon.' Creag breac, spotted, variegated crag. 
CRAIGBREX. ' New Abbey.' See under CRAIGBRACK. 

CRAJGBR6cK. 'Inch.' Creag broc, badgers' crag. See under 
BROCKLACH. 

CRAIGBUIE. ' Mochrum.' Creag buidhe [buie], yellow crag. 

CRAIGBURDIE. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

i 



i 3 o AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CRAIGCAFFIE (Charter K. Rob. Bruce, Kellechaffe; Inq. ad Cap. 
1600, Nether Craigie, a/Jos Craigcaffie; P. Karkophy). 'Inch.' 

CRAIGCHESSIE. ' Carsphairn.' See under BARCHESSIE. 

CRAIGCR6CKET. ' Carsphairn.' Creag crochaid, crag of the hanging. 
See under AUCHENROCHER. 

CRAIGCR60N. ' Penninghame.' The syllable cron or crun is 
difficult to identify, as it represents several different "words. 
In this case it may represent either creag crdn, brown crag, 
creag cruan [croon], red crag (O'Reilly), or creag cruain [croon], 
crag of the copper (O'Reilly and Windisch). Copper has 
in recent times been mined for, though with indifferent 
success, in the immediate neighbourhood of Craigcroon. 

CRAIGCRUN. ' Inch.' See under CRAIGCROON. 

CRAIGDARROCH. 'Kirkinner.' Creag daraich, oak-tree crag; 
perhaps creag dearg, red crag; the two words assume the 
same form in composition. See under ARNDARROCH. 

CRAIGDEWS (P. Kraigdewhous). 'Minigaff.' See under CRAIG- 
DHU. 

CRAIGDHU or CRAIGDOW (P. Kraigdow, Kreigdow ; W. P. MSS., 
Craigdow). ' Glasserton,' ' Kirkcowan.' Creag dubh [doo], 
black crag. Cf. CARRICKCOW, CRAIGDEWS, CRAIGDUFF, 
CRAIGENDOUS, and, in Ireland, Cregduff. 

CRAIGDISTANT. * Minigaff.' 

CRAIGDUFF. ' New Abbey.' See under CRAIGDHU. 

CRAIGEACH (P. Kraigailch). ' Minigaff.' Creag eich [egh], "gen. 
of each, crag of the horse. Cf. Carriganegh in Antrim. See 
under AUCHNESS. 

CRAIGEAFF. ' Inch.' Probably the same as Craigeach. 
CRAIGEAZLE. 'Inch.' Creag {seal [eeshal], low crag. See under 

CORVTSEL. 

CRAiGELLiVN. ' Urr.' Creag alluin [?], crag of the hind. Or 
perhaps creag dlluinn, beautiful crag, which is the meaning 
Joyce gives to Carrigallen in Leitrim. Alluin, a hind, a 
fawn (O'Reilly), akin to eilidh. See under CARNELTOCH. 

CRAIGENBARROCH. ' Kirkmaiden.' Cf. BARNBARROCH. 
CRAIGENB!Y. ' Kells.' Creagdn beith [bey], crag of the birches. 
CRAIGENBEN. ' Inch.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WAY. 131 

CRAIGENB6Y. ' Kirkmabreck.' Creagdn buidhe [buie, buy], 
yellow crag. Cf. CARRICKABOYS, CRAIGENBUY, CRAIGEN- 
BUYS ; and, in Ireland, Craigenboy. 

CRAIGENBUY (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Craiginbay). 'Inch.' See 
under CRAIGENBOY. 

CRAIGENBUYS. ' Penninghame.' See under CRAIGENBOY. 

CRAIGENCAILLIE (P. Kraiginkailly Hill). Minigaff.' Creagdn 
cailleaich, crag of the old woman. Said to have been named 
from the woman who gave shelter to Robert the Bruce the 
night before the battle of Eaploch Moss. See under CARLIN'S 
CAIRN. 

CRAIGENCARSE. ' Dairy.' 

CRAIGENC6LON. ' Carsphairn.' 

CRAIGENC6R (P. Kragincor). ' Dairy,' ' New Luce.' 

CRAIGENCR6SH. ' New Luce,' ' Stoneykirk.' Creagdn crois [crosh], 
crag of the cross, or of the gallows. See under BALNACROSS. 
Cf. Carrickmacross in Ireland. 

CRAiGENCRdss. ' Port Patrick.' See under CRAIGENCROSH. 
CRAiGENCRdY. * Stoneykirk.' 

CRAIGEND6US [pron. dooze]. 'Minigaff.' Creagdn dubli [doo], 
black crags ; E. plural added. Cf. CRAIGDEWS. 

CRAIGENELLIE. ' Balmaghie.' See under CRAIGANALLY. 

CRAIGENGALE. ' Inch,' ' Kirkmaiden.' Creagdn geal [gal], white 
crag. 

CRAIGENGASHEL (P. Kragingasheel H.). ' Minigaff.' Creag an 
g-caiseail [gashel], crag of the castle. See under AUCHEN- 

GASHELL. 

CRAIGENGEARY. ' Carsphairn.' Creagdn g-caora [gairey], crag of 
the sheep. 

CRAIGENGERROCH. ' Kirkcolm.' 

CRAIGENGILLAN (P. Kragingullan H.). 'Carsphairn,' 'Kirkpatrick 
Durham.' Creag an g-cuileainn [guillan], crag of the holly. Or 
perhaps creagdn Guillin, Guillin's crag. " Guillin, alias Cualan, 
from whom so many of our mountains are named, was the 
tutelar deity of blacksmiths, and called Cuilean-gabJia, vulgarly 
Gabhlun-go." O'Reilly, s. v. Giollaguillin. 



132 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CRAIGENG6WER. ' Balmaclellan,' ' Glasserton/ ' New Abbey.' 
Greagdn gobhar [gower], crag of the goats. Cf. Carrignagower 
and Carricknagore in Ireland. 

CRAIGENH6LLY. ' Old Luce.' 

CRAIGENJIG. ' Minigaff.' 

CRAIGENKEELIE. ' Minigaff.' 

CRAIGENLEE (P. Kraigenluy). ' Port Patrick.' Creagdn liath [lee], 

grey crag. 

CRAIGENLEES. ' Inch.' See under CRAIGENLEE. 
CRAIGENLIE. * New Luce.' See under CRAIGENLEE. 

CRAIGENLIGGIE. ' New Luce.' Creagdn ligce [leeggie], crag of the 
flat stone or tomb. See under AIRIELICK. 

CRAIGENRINE (a shoulder of Cairnsmore). ' Carsphairn.' 
CRAIGENR6Y. ' Minigaff.' Creagdn ruadh [TOO], ruddy crag. 

CRAIGENS. ' Inch,' * Kirkcudbright,' ' Minigaff.' Creagdn, the 
crags ; E. plural superadded. 

CRAIGENSALLIARD. * Minigaff.' 

CRAiGENSKtiLK. ' Minigaff.' Creag an scoloic, the crag of the 
" scoloc," or small farmer. " Scoltig, a petty farmer." CfReilly. 
The original meaning of scholar or clerk has been lost ERSE 
scol LAT. schola. "The Scolocs seem to have been the 
lowest order of the ecclesiastical community, and to have been 
clerics who were undergoing a course of training and instruc- 
tion to fit them for performing the service of the church. 
Their Pictish name was Scolofthes, as we learn from Reginald 
of Durham, who mentions the clerics of the church (of Kirkcud- 
bright), 'the Scolofthes, as they are called in the Pictish speech,' 
and gives ' Scholasticus, a scholar,' as its Latin equivalent. We 
find them under the name of Scolocs in three of the churches 
belonging to St. Andrews. . . . In 1387 the church lands of 
Ellon are called the Scolog lands, and were hereditary in the 
families of the Scologs who possessed them. ... In an 
inquest regarding the lands of the Kirkton of Arbuthnot, in the 
Mearns, held in the year 1206, we find the ecclesiastical terri- 
tory held by certain tenants called parsons, who had sub- 
tenants under them, having houses of their own and cattle 
which they pastured on the common ; and the tenants of these 
lands are termed by several of the witnesses Scolocs, and are 
also termed the bishop's men. . . . The name of Scoloc is also 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 133 

found in connection with one of the Columban monasteries 
in Ireland ; for in one of the charters preserved in the Book 
of Kells, which must have been granted between the years 
1128 and 1138, we find that among the functionaries of the 
monastery, after the Coarb of Columcille, or the abbot, the 
Sacart or priest, the Ferleiginn or lecturer, the Aircennech 
or Erenach of the house of guests, and the Fosaircennech 
or vice-Erenach, appears the Toisech na Scoloc, or Chief of the 
Scologs." Skene, Celt. Scot. ii. 446. 

" There is an unfortunate class of men known under the 
name of Scallags. The Scallag, whether male or female, is a 
poor being, who, for mere subsistence, becomes a feudal slave 
to another, whether a sub-tenant, a tacksman, or a laird. 
The Scallag builds his own hut with sods and boughs of 
trees. Five days in the week he works for his master ; the 
sixth is allowed to himself for the cultivation of some scrap 
of land on the edge of some moss or moor, on which he raises 
a little kale or coleworts, barley, and potatoes." Buchanan's 
Travels in the Western Hebrides from 1782 to 1790. So that 
what originally meant " a scholar," has come to mean a cottar 
or squatter. 

CRAIGENTEASY. Cf. BARCHESSIE. 'Minigaff.' 

CRAIGENVEOCH. ' Old Luce.' Creagdn bhfiaich or bhfithich [veeagh], 
crag of the raven. See under BENNAVEOCH and KNOCKNAVAR. 
Macdonald of Glengarry displays as his crest a raven perch- 
ing on a crag, with the motto, " Creagdn an fithich" i.e. 
"Kock of the raven." 

CRAIGENV6LLEY. ' Balmaclellan.' Creag an bhaile [valley], crag 
of the house. Cf. SHANVOLLEY. See under BAILIE HILL. 

CRAIGENWALLIE. ' Carsphairn.' Cf. CRAIGENVOLLEY. 

CRAIGFAD. ' Carsphairn.' Creag fada, long, or far crag. Cf. 
Carraig-fada in lona ; Craigfad and Carrigfadda in Ireland. 

CRAIGFINNIE. ' New Abbey.' Creag mhuine [?] [vinny], crag of 

the thicket. Cf. CRAIGWHINNIE, and, in Ireland, Leaffony in 

Sligo (liath mhuine, grey thicket). 

CRAIGF6LLY. ' New Luce.' 

CRAIG GILBERT (P. Kraigilbert). ' Kells.' 

CRAIGGORK. ' New Luce.' Creag ore [1] [ork], crag of the pigs. 

"Oc.i.muc" (O'Davoran, p. 109) = forc, thorc, a pig + w. 

porch, to'c/i+LAT. porcus (whence F. pore, E. pork) + LITE. 

parszas, a pig + A.s. fearh (whence E. to farrow). 



134 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CRAiGGtiBBLE. ' Inch.' Creag gcapuil, crag of the horse. See 
under BARHAPPLE. 

CRAIGHALLOCK. 'Mochrum.' Creag challoch [fj [hallogh], 'crag 
of the boar. See under CORNHULLOCH. 

CRAIGHANDLE 'Minigaff.' Creag Fhingaill [?] [hingal], the 
Norseman's Crag. See under CARRICKFUNDLE, in Addenda. 

CRAIGHAR. ' Buittle.' Creag ghar [1] [har], near crag. 

CRAIGHARDY. ' Kirkcolm.' Creag chearda [harda], crag of the 
workshop. See under CAIRDIE WIEL. 

CRAIG HELEN. ' Penninghame.' 

CRAIGHERRON. 'Buittle/ 'Girthon.' Creag chaerthinn [1] 
[heerinn], crag of the rowan-tree. " Cairthainn, a mountain 
ash." Joyce, i. 513. 

CRAIG HEX. ' New Luce ' (twice). Creag chuit [hit], crag of the 
wild-cat, cat's craig. 

CRAIGHIT. ' Carsphairn.' See under CRAIG HET. 

CRAIGHLAW (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Crauchlaw M'Kie, alias Drum- 
buie ; P. Craichlaw). * Kirkcowan.' 

CRAIGH6RE. ' Kirkcowan.' 

CRAIGHORN. ' Carsphairn.' 

CRAIG IE (P. Kraigoch). 'Penninghame.' Creagach, craggy, a 
rocky place. 

CRAIGIECALLEN. ' Kirkcowan.' 

CRAiGiECboL. ' New Luce.' 

CRAIGIEDALZELL. ' Tungland.' 

CRAiGiEG6wER. ' New Luce.' See under CRAIGENGOWER. 
CRAIGIE LINN. ' Dairy.' See under CRAIGIE and CRAIG LINN. 
CRAIGIEWHINNIE. ' Kirkcowan.' 

CRAIGINC6RE. ' Leswalt.' See under CRAIGENCOR. 

CRAIGINNEE. ' Stoneykirk.' Creag anfhiaidh [ee], crag of the deer. 
Cf. DRUMANEE, LAROCHANEA; and, in Ireland, Drumanee 
in Derry, Knockanee in Limerick and Westmeath, Clonea in 
Waterford, meaning the ridge, the hill, and the meadow of 
the deer. " The word fiadh [fee] originally meant any wild 
animal, but its meaning has been gradually narrowed, and in 
Irish writings it is almost universally applied to a deer." 
Joyce, i. 476. 

CRAIGKNIJCKLE. ' Inch.' Cf. CRAIGNEUKALD. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 135 

CRAIGLARIE (P. Kraiglary). ' Mochrum.' Creag laira, the 
mare's crag ; a hill, part of which is called Craignagapple, 
which means the same thing. See under AUCHENLARIE. 

CRAIGLAUKIE. ' Kirkmaiden.' Cf. CLACHANLAUKES and KNOCK- 
MI LAUK. 

CRAIGLEARIE. ' Glasserton.' See under CRAIGLARIE. 
CRAIGLEBBOCK. ' Kirkbean.' 

CRAIGLEE (P. Kraigly hil). 'Minigaff.' Creag liath [lee], grey 
crag. Cf. CRAIGENLEE, etc., also, in Ireland, Craglea, Carrick- 
leagh, Carriglea, etc. 

CRAIGLEMINE [pron. Craiglmine] (W. P. MSS. Craigilmayne). 
'Glasserton.' 

CRAIGLETEMON. 'Mochrum.' 

CRAIGLEWHAN. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

CRAIGLEY. ' Urr.' 

CRAIGLINGAT. ' Carsphairn.' 

CRAIGLINN (on the Ken). 'Dairy.' Creag and linn, a pool, both 
being adopted into BR. so. are here used, the former qualifying 
the latter, i.e. the linn or pool of the crag. 

CRAIGL6CHAN. ' Inch.' Creag lochain, crag of the tarn or lakelet. 

CRAIGLOFT. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

CRAIGL60M. 'Minigaff.' 

CRAIGL6SK. ' Balmaclellan.' Creag loisg [lusk], burnt crag. Cf. 
Bally lusk in Leinster. "Loisg, loisgthe, burnt" (O'Reilly). 
+ w. llosg, a burn, c. and B. /OSC + ICEL. log, a flame (whence 
M.E. logjie, BR. SO. low), akin to LAT. lux, lumen, luna, etc. 
y'RUK, to shine. 

CRAIGLOUR HAWSE \jpron. Craigloor]. ' Dairy.' Creag lolhair 
[loor], crag of the cripple or sick man. Cf. Craiglure in 
Ayrshire. See under BARLURE. " Hawse. 1 . The neck. 
2. The throat. 3. Any narrow passage. 4. It is used to 
denote a defile ; a narrow passage between hills."' Jamieson. 

CRAIGL,6\VRIE. ' Girthon.' Creag labhairadh [lowra], speaking 
crag (probably from an echo). Cf. Cloghlowrish in Water- 
ford, and Clolourish in Wexford. 

CRAIGMABRANCHIE. ' Penninghame.' Creag ma Branclm [?], 
Branchu's crag. The Four Masters relate the death of 
Branchu, son of Bran, at a great battle in Ulster in 728. 
For the use of the prefix ma, expressing affection or venera- 
tion, see under HILL MABREEDIA. 



136 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CRAIGMAHARB. ' Inch.' 

CRAIGMATH. * Urr.' 

CRAIG MICHAEL [pron. meelmll] (P. Kraigmichel). ' Kells.' 
Creag Michaeil, Michael's crag. 

CRAIGMINE. ' Dairy.' Cf. CRAIGLEMINE and CRAIGMINN. 
CRAIGMINN. 'Minigaff.' Creag meadhon [meun], middle crag. 
CRAIGMITCHELL. ' Carsphairn.' See under CRAIG MICHAEL. 

CRAIGM6DDIE (P. Kraigmaddie). ' Kirkcowan.' Creag madadh 
[maddy], the dog's or wolfs crag. See under BLAIRMODDIE. 
Cf. Carricknaniaddry, Carrignamaddy, and Craignamaddy, in 
Ireland. 

CRAIGM6RE. ' Girthon,' ' Glasserton/ ' Loch Eutton,' ' Parton.' 
Creag m6r, great crag. Occurs both as Craigmore and Greg- 
more in Ireland. 

CRAIGMULE. ' Kirkmabreck.' Creag maol [meul], bald crag. 
See tinder MEAUL. 

CRAIGMULLEN. 'Berwick.' Creag muileain [meullan], crag of 
the mill. 

CRAIGMULLOCH. ' Dairy.' Creag mullawh, crag of the summit. 
See under MULLACH. 

CRAIGMURCHIE. 'Minigaff.' Creag Murchaidh [Murchie], Mur- 
chadh's crag. Murchadh is an ancient Erse name (modern- 
ised Morrough), the first of that name mentioned by the 
Four Masters being the son of Diarmaid, Lord of Leinster, 
A.D. 713. 

CRAIGNACRADDOCH. 'Minigaff.' Creag na craideach [?], crag of 
the scald crows (O'Reilly). 

CRAIGNAGAPPLE. ' Mochrum.' Creag na gcapul [gappul], crag 
of the horses. Part of this hill is called Craiglarie, which is 
synonymous. Cf. CRAIGGUBBLE. 

CRAIGNAHERRIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s. c.' 

CRAIGNAIR. ' Balmaclellan,' 'Whithorn.' Creag an air, crag of 
the slaughter. 

CRAIGNALLY. ' Kirkcolm.' See under CRAIGENALLY. 

CRAIGNALTIE. 'Inch.' Creag na elite [1] [elty], crag of the hind. 
See under CARNELTOCH. 

CRAIGNANE. ' Carsphairn.' Creag n-en [nane], crag of the birds. 
See under BARNEAN. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 137 

CRAIGNAQUARROCH [qu hard] (P. Korynahowarach). 'Port 
Patrick.' 

CRAIGNARBIE. ' Kirkcowan.' Creag an earbuil [?], crag of the 
point. See under DARNARBEL. 

CRAIGNARGET (P. Kraiginargit). 'Minigaff' (twice), ' Old Luce,' 
' Penninghame.' Creag an airgid, crag of the silver. Cf. 
SILVER CRAIG. In Minigaff the name occurs twice among 
the lead mines, where the ore is rich in silver. o. ERSE 
argot, ERSE airgiod, W. arian, C. argan, B. arghant + LAT. argen- 
tum-\-GK. apyvpos, connected with 0/3709, white + SKT. rajata, 
white, silver (from rdj, to shine), and arjuna, white V ARG > 
to shine. 

CRAIGNAW (P. Kraigna). 'Minigaff.' Creag an atha [?] [aha, 
awe], crag of the ford, or of the kiln (O'Reilly}. See under 
CARSENAW. 

CRAIGNAWACHEL. ' Kirkcolm.' Creag na bhuachail [?] [vooghal], 
crag of the boys or herd-boys. See under BOWHILL. 

CRAIGNELDER. ' Minigaff.' Creag na eilte [?], the hind's crag. 
See under CARNELTOCH. 

CRAIGNELDRICKEN. ' Minigaff.' 

CRAIGNELL (P. Kraignall H.). * Minigaff.' 

CRAIGNESKET, an island in Fleet Bay (P. Kraigneskan). ' Girthon.' 
Creag fheusgan [essgan], rock of the mussels (cf. Mussel 
Clauchan in Colvend). Both in this name and in Stran- 
fasket (q. v.) the final t is written n by Pont. " Fasgan, feus- 
gdn, the shell- fish called the muscle " (O'Reilly). 

CRAIGNEUK. ' New Abbey.' Creag niuic [nook], crag of the nook 
or corner ; ERSE nine, whence E. nook, BR. SO. neuk. 

CRAIGNEUKALD. 'Minigaff.' Cf. CRAIGKNUCKLE. 

CRAIGNIE. ' New Luce.' 

CRAIGNIEBAY. 'New Luce.' Creag na beith [bey], crag of the 
birches. Cf. CRAIGENBAY. 

CRAIGNIEG6WRIE. ' New Luce.' Creag na goibhre [gowrie], crag 
of the she-goat : gen. sing, of gobJiar. Cf. CRAIGENGOWER. 

CRAIGNIEVALLEY. ' New Luce.' Creagdn a' bhaile [vallie], crag 
of the house, or creagdn a bheallaich [vallagh], crag of the 
pass or roadway. See under BAILIE, BALLOCH, and SHIN- 
VALLEY. 



138 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGA1DHEL. 

CRAIGNINE (P. Kraignym). ' Kirkmabreck,' ' Minigaff.' 

CRAIGOCH (P. Kraigoes). ' Kirkcolm.' See under CRAIGIE. 

CRAIG6NERY. ' Penninghame.' Creag fhainre [?] [anry], uneven, 
sloping crag. See under CROFTANGRY. 

CRAIG-ON-RICKETS. ' New Luce.' 

CRAIGOWER. ' Inch,' ' Kells.' Creag odJiar [owr], grey crag, or 
creag gobhar [gowr], goat's crag. 

CRAIGRAPLOCH. 'Eerwick.' There is a large fort here. The 
village at the foot of the rock on which Stirling Castle stands 
is called the Eaploch. Cf. EAPLOCH Moss. 

CRAIGRARIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

CRAIGRINE, a hill of 1075 feet. < Kells.' 

CRAIGR6AN. ' Eerwick.' 

CRAIGR6CKALL. ' Kirkbean.' 

CRAIGR6NALD. ' Girthon.' Creag Raonuill or Baghnaffl, Eonald's 
crag. 

CRAIGR6UNAL (P. Kraig Eandell). ' Minigaff.' See under CRAIG- 
RONALD. 

CRAiGR6w [pron. TOO]. ' Eerwick, s.c.' Creag rudha [roo], crag 
of the point. See under Eow. 

CRAIGSHINGING. ' Girthon.' 

CRAIGSHINNIE (P. Kraigsindy). ' Kells.' Creag sionach [shin- 
nagh], crag of the foxes. Pont shows the d of the older form 
sindach. See under AUCHENSHINNOCH. 

CRAlGSHtiNDiE (P. Kraigsunday hil). ' Borgue.' Creag sindach 
[shindy], crag of the foxes. Sindach, an old form of sinnach, 
sionnach (Windisch, s.v.). 

CRAIGSKIMMING. ' Sorbie.' 

CRAIGSLAVE. ' Port Patrick.' Creag sleamh [1] [slav], crag of the 
elm-trees. See under CRAIGSLOUAN. 

CRAIGSL6UAN. ' New Luce.' Creag sleamhan [f] [slavan, slawan], 
crag of the elm - trees. Cf. Carrickslavan in Leitrim. 
" Leamhan (is) used in the south, and sleamhan in the north." 
Joyce, i. .507. See under BARLUELL. 

CRAIG SPIER. ' Inch.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 139 

CRAIGSTRUEL. ' Kirkcolm.' Creag sruthair [sruhar], crag of the 
stream. The final r is frequently and systematically changed 
into I, and t as frequently inserted after s. Struell, near 
Downpatrick, is written Tirestruther in a charter circa 1178 
(Joyce, i. 458). Sroolane and Srooleen are names of streams 
in the south of Ireland. Of. STROOL BAY. " The original root 
(of stream) VSRU, to flow ; cf. SKT. sru, to flow, GK. peeiv (put 
for a-pe-eiv), to flow, IRISH sroth, a stream, LITH. srowe, a 
stream. The t seems to have been inserted for greater ease 
of pronunciation, not only in Teutonic, but in Slavonic ; cf. 
RUSS. struia, a stream. The putting of sr for sir occurs con- 
trariwise in IRISH srdid, a street, from LA.T. strata" Skeat, 
s.v. Stream. 

CRAIGTAPPOCK. ' New Abbey.' 

CRAIGTARSON. ' Carsphairn.' Creag tarsuinn, thwart crag. See 
under BALTERSOX. 

CRAIGTERRA. ' Buittle.' Creag t-searrach [terragh], crag of the 
foals. Cf. Aghaterry and Clonterry in Queen's County. See 
under BARSHERRY. 

CEAIGTERSAN. ' Minigaff.' See under CRAIGTARSON. 

CRAIGVEY (P. Kraginbae). ' Kells.' Creag bheith [vey], crag of 
the birches. See under CRAIGENBAY, CRAIGNIEBAY. 

CRAIGWELL. ' Urr.' 

CRAIGWHAR. ' Carsphairn.' See under CRAIGHAR. 

CRAIGWHILL. ' Dairy.' Creag chuill [hwill], crag of the hazel. 
See under BARWHILL. 

CRAIGWHINNIE. Girthon,' ' Kirkmaiden, s. c.' See under CRAIG- 
FINXIE. 

CRAiGw6uGHiE. ' Stoneykirk.' 

CRAIGY THORN. Dairy.' See under CRAIGIE. 

CRAIKNESS. 'Kirkcudbright.' M.E. crag ness, the "ness" or 
point of the crag. 

CRAILLOCH (P. Krellach). 'Mochrum,' 'Port Patrick.' Crithlach 
[creelagh], a shaking bog, from crith, to shake, with 
suffix -loch. Cf. Creelogh in Galway, Creelagh in Queen's 
County, and Crylough in Wexford. 



MO AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CRAHMAG [pron. Crummogh]. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Crumog, a sloping 
place ; deriv. of crom or crum. " Cromane and Cromoge, two 
diminutives, signify anything bending or sloping, and give 
names to many places (in Ireland) : whether they are applied 
to glens, hills, fields, etc., must be determined by the char- 
acter of the particular spot in each case." Joyce, ii. 422. 
In this case it is the name of a sea-cliff with an old fort 
on it. 

CRAMONERY. * Minigaff.' 

CRANCREE. ' Inch.' Crann cricJie [?] [cree], tree of the boundary. 
Crann, a tree + w. pren, B. prenn. See under CREECH. 

GRAN Moss. ' Kirkmaiden.' Crann [?], a tree. Cf. Cran and 
Crann in Armagh, Cavan, and Fermanagh. 

CRANNOCH ISLE (on the Dee). ' Girthon.' Crannach, wooded ; 
cf. many places in Ireland called Crannagh ; or " Crannog, a 
boat " (O'Reilly), the boat island. From crann, a tree. Cran- 
nog was also applied to artificial islands or lake-dwellings 
made of timber, and appears in BR. sc. as cranok. Eegist. 
Secreti Condlii, A.D. 1608. See under CRANCREE. 

CRAWAR. Kirkmaiden, s. c.' 

CRAWHENGAN. < Balmaghie.' 

CRAW STANE. ' Inch.' The crow stone. The BR, sc. here pre- 
serves the spelling, and probably the exact pronunciation of 
the A.S. craw stdn. " Crow is allied to crake, croak, and even 
to crane ^GAR, to cry out." Skeat. A.s. stdn has become 
E. stone, just as A.S. bdn (BR. sc. bane) has become bone + ~DV. 
sfeew+iCEL. steinn + DAN. and SWED. sten+G. stein -{-GOTH. 
stains, all-TEUT. base STATNA, a stone. The base is STI, 
appearing in GK. aria, a stone, a pebble (Skeat). 

CREARY HILL. ' Loch Button.' Criathrach [crearach], " waste- 
land " (O'Reilly). " Tri laiU an Criathraigh, the three town- 
lauds of Criathrach." Hy Fiachrach, p. 203. " In Carra," 
says the editor of the Hy Fiachrach, " the term criathrach is 
applied to a flat piece of land intermixed with arable, bogs, 
sedgy quagmires, and brushwood." 

CREE, the river dividing Wigtonshire from the Stewartry. 
(Charter, 1363, Aqua de Creth). This river formed Ptolemy's 
lena dEstuarium. The old spelling indicates a lost guttural 
or aspirated dental. Cricli [1] [cree], a boundary. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 141 

CREECH (gutt.) ( W. P. MSS. Creiche). ' Sorbie.' Crioch, a bound- 
ary, a territory (O'Eeilly), a field (O'Don. Suppl.) o. ERSE 
crick. Cf. Creagh, the name of many townlands in Ireland, 
also Cree and Creea in Cavan and King's County. 

CREECHAN (gutt.) (Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Creicher). ' Kirkmaiden.' 
Cruachan- p], a hillock. See under CRACHAN. Or criochdn, the 
boundary. Cf. Creaghaun in Gal way. 

CREETOWN (P. Ferrytown). * Kirkmabreck.' Town on the Cree 
Eiver. 

CREM6N. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Stoneykirk, s. c.' 

CREOGHS (Inq. ad Cap. 1611, Meikle Creochis). ' Balmaghie.' 
Cruach, a stack or hill. See under CROACH. 

CRERROCH. ' Balmaclellan.' 

CREWHOLE. 'Minigaff.' Craebh choill [1] [crew hill], branchy 
wood. Cf. Crewhill in Kildare (Joyce, i. 501). 

CRIFFEL (a hill of 1850 feet). (Map in Bodleian Library, circ. 
1330, Mons Crefel ; P. Crafel). ' Kirkbean.' 

CR6ACH (gutt.} ' Inch.' Cruach, a stack, a hill. w. crug, c. cruc 
+A.S. croft. See under CLAYCROFT. Croagh or Crogh is 
a common name in Ireland. 

CROACH HILL (gutt.) ' Kelton.' See under CROACH. 

CROACHIE (P. Krachy). ' Kells.' Cruachach, hilly. Cf. CRAICHIE. 

CR6CHAN. 'Borgue.' Cruachdn, dim. of cruach, a hill. Cf. 
CRACHAN and CREECHAN. 

CROCHM6RE. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' ' Urr.' See under CRAICH- 
MORE. 

CROCKENCALLY, 'Kirkbean.' Crocdn cailleaich, hillock of the 
nun. This was church land of old, and Ladyland is close by. 
Cnoc and Cnocdn are often altered to croc and crocdn, both in 
Ireland and Scotland. 

CROCKETFORD (P. Crocofurd). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

CROFTANGRY. ' Wigtown.' Croft fhainre [anry], sloping croft. 
The popular derivation is Croft an righ [?] [ree], the king's 
croft; but the accent would in that case fall on the last 
syllable, and the n of the article is generally dropped in Irish 
names containing this word, such Monaree (moine a' righ, the 
king's bog), Dunaree, etc. " Sloping croft " exactly expresses 
the character of the ground, which is steep. 



1 42 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGA1DHEL. 

CROFTR6Y. 'Kirkmabreck.' Croft ruadh [roo], red croft. See 
under BENROACH and CLAYCROFT. 

CROFT CAPENOCH. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under CAPENOCH and 

CLAYCROFT. 

CR6GO. ' Balmaclellan.' 

CRONIE. ' Urr.' 

CROOK (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Cruik). ' Kirkinner.' A.S. cruce, a 

cross. 
CROOK, FELL OF. ' Mochrum.' Probably cruach, a hill. See 

under CROACH. 

CROOKS HILL. ' Dairy.' Probably cruach, a hill. See under 
CROACH. 

CROOKS (Pow). 'Terregles.' See under CROOK. "Pow, a slow- 
moving rivulet in flat lands " (Jamieson) A.S. pol, a pool, just 
as BR. sc. fu' A.s. full, and ha' A.s. heal, hal, a hall. 

CR6SHERIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1596, Crosvrie ; 1598, Crosherie, 
M'Kie ; P. Kroshari and Croishare). ' Kirkcowan.' Crosra, 
croissaire [croshary], cross-roads, deriv. of crois. Cf. Crossera 
and Crussera, two townlands in Waterford. 

CROSSMICHAEL [pron. meeghil] (Inq. ad Cap. 1607, Crocemichael; 
Charter 3 Rob. n., Corsmychell ; P. Korsmichel). A parish in 
the Stewartry. Cros Michil [meeghil], St. Michael's cross. 

CR6TTEAGH HILL. ' Kirkcowan.' Croiteach [cruttyagh], lumpy, 
humpy, from " croit, a hump on the back ; a small eminence " 
(O'Reilly). Cf. Crotta and Crutta in Kerry, Tipperary, and 
Cork, from the plural crotta. w. crwt, a round, dumpy fellow, 
crwth, fern, croth + GK. Kvpros, curved, humped. See under 
CLAYCROFT. 

CROWS [pron. Crowze]. 'Kirkinner.' Cruadhas [crooas], hard 
land, deriv. of cruadh. Cf. Croase in Wexford. o. ERSE 
cruaid, probably cognate with ICEL. hardr -f- SWED. hard + 
DAN. haard + DU. hard + A.s. heard (whence E. hard) + GOTH. 
hardus + G. hart + GK. /cparos, strong, Kparepos, fcaprepos, 
valiant, all from a base KART /V/KAR, to make. Skeat says 
there is a little doubt about the connection with GK. tcparvs ; 
he does not mention the o. ERSE cruaid, which seems a link 
in the connection. 

CROW'S NEST. ' Old Luce.' 

CROW WHIT'S WELL. ' Balmaghie.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 143 

CROYS. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' See under CROWS. 

CRUGGLETON (P. Cruggeltoun ; Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Crugiltoun- 
Cavenis ; W.P. HSS. Crugiltonn). ' Sorbie.' 

CRUISE. ' Old Luce.' See under CROWS. Of. CROYS. 

CRUISY. ' Penninghame.' 

CRUMMIE. ' Kells.' Cromadh or crumadh [crumma], the side of a 
hill (O'Eeilly), from crom, crooked, sloping. Of. CRAMMAG. 

CRUMQUHIL. ' Tungland.' Crom choill [hwill], crooked, i.e. slop- 
ing wood. Cf. Cromkill in Ireland. Crom, W. crwm, fem. 
crom, curved, bent. 

CRUNGIE. ' Penninghame.' 

CRUNLAE FELL. ' Kirkcowan.' 

CUBBOX. ' Balmaclellan.' 

CUBBY FATJLDS. ' Minigaif.' 

CUCALLA. ' Minigaff.' 

CUFF. ' Kirkmaiden, s. c.' 

CuiL (P. Kool, Keul ; Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Cuill). 'Buittle,' ' Kirkma- 
breck.' Cuil, a corner, a nook. Cf. Coole, a barony in Fermanagh, 
name from a point or corner of land running into Lough Erne. 
Coleraine is translated by Colgan Cuil-rathinn, secessus filicis, 
or the corner of the ferns. It is difficult, however, to distin- 
guish between this word in composition and ctil, a back. 

CUIL HILL. ' Anwoth,' ' Colvend.' See under CUIL. 

CULBAE (P. Coulbee). ' Kirkinner.' Cuil or cul beith [bey], corner 
or hill-back of the birches. Cf. Coolavehy in Limerick (cuil 
an bJieithe). 

CULBEE. ' Kirkcolm.' See under CULBAE. 

CULBRATTEN. ' Penninghame.' Cuil or cill Breatain [?], Bretan's 
corner or church. Cf. Kilbritton in Cork, which the 
Four Masters (1430) write Gill-Britain. Or cuil Bretain, 
the Briton's or Welshman's corner, as Dumbarton, formerly 
Dunbretan, was the fort of the Britons. Cf. DRUMBREDDAN. 

CULCAIGRIE (P. Koulghagary). 'TWynholm.' Cuil coigriche, 
stranger's corner. See under DRUMCAGERIE. 

CULCALDIE. * Inch.' Cuil or ail calldtin, corner or hill-back of 
the hazel. See under CALDONS. 

CULCHINTIE. ' Kirkcolm.' 



144 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CULCRAE or CULCREE. * Tungland.' Cuil craebhe [crew], corner 
of the tree. 

CULCREUCHIE (gutt.) (P. Coulcreochy). ' Penninghame.' Cut 
croiche, hill-back of the gallows. The old name of Penning- 
hame House. Close by is Galla Hill, q. v. ; the gallows being 
probably an appanage of Castle Stewart in Glenraazie. 
Croich, a gallows, W. crog-bren, a gallows, i.e. a hanging-tree + 
LAT. crux. 

CuLCRbNCHiE (P. Kilwhronchy). ' Kirkmabreck.' 

CULDERRY (P. Couldury). ' Sorbie.' Cut doire [dirry], hill-back 
of the oak wood. Cf. Coolderry in Ireland. 

CULD6cH (P. Kouldowoch). ' Twynholm.' The back of the weir, 
a hybrid word, ERSE cul, the back, and BR. so. doach or doagh 
(gutt.), a weir or cruive. See under DOACH. 

CULDRAIN (P. Couldrein). ' Kirkgunzeon.' Cuil draighean [drain], 
corner of the blackthorns. See under DRANGAN. 

CULFAD (Inq. ad Cap. 1640, Culfad). ' Kirkinner,' ' Kirkpatrick 
Durham.' Cuil or cul fada, long or far corner, or back. 

CULGARIE (P. Coulghary). ' Glasserton,' 'Kirkinner.' Cuil or 
cul g . caera [gairey], corner or hill-back of the sheep. Cf. Cal- 
gary in Argyllshire. 

CULGHIE (P. Koulgaw). ' Minigaff.' Cuil gaeth [gee], corner of 
the winds, windy corner. 

CULGRANGE. ' Inch.' 

CuLGRdAT (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Cullingrott; 1675, Cullingrott ; 
P. Coulgrawit). ' Stoneykirk.' 

CULGRtiFF (P. Coulgruiff). ' Crossmichael.' Cuil creamha [i] 
[gravva], corner of the wild garlic. Cf. Clooncraff in Eos- 
common (recorded in the Irish Annals as Cluain-creamha), 
Inishcraff in Loch Corrib, which is written in the same Annals 
Inis-creamha. The eclipse of c by g in this word may be 
noted in Drumgramph in Fermanagh. Joyce (ii. 349) says, 
" It appears probable that the correct form of this word is 
cneamh [knav], and that this has been corrupted to creamh 
like cnoc to croc." 

CULH6RN (P. Coulhorn ; Charter 1647, Culquhorne). * Inch.' Cuil 
edrna [orna], corner of the barley. Cf. Coolnahorna in 
Wexford and Waterford ; also Craignahorn in Deny, Taona- 
horna in Antrim, Mulnahorn in Fermanagh and Tyrone, 
Glennyhorn (Cluain na edrna) in Monaghan, Cappaghnahoran 
in Queen's County. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 145 

CULKAE (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Culcay; W. P. MSS. Culcay; P. Coulka). 
' Sorbie.' Cuil or cul caedhe [kaey], corner or back of the 
quagmire. Cf. Coolquoy in Dublin, another form of the 
same name. 

CULKIEST (P. Coulkist). ' Kirkgunzeon.' Cf. DALKEST. 

CULLACH (P. Coulclach). ' Penninghame.' Cuil or cul clack [1], 
stony corner or hill-back. 

CULLACHIE (HEIGH and LAIGH), (two fields in Glasnick). ' Pen- 
ninghame.' Cul achadh, back field. 

CULLEARY RIG (P. Koulkery). 'Kells.' Coill [kil], cuil or cul 
iarach [eeragh], western wood, corner, or hill-back. Pont's 
rendering is probably a misprint. See under BLAW WEARY. 

CULLENDEUGH (MS. 1527, Culindaich). ' New Abbey.' See under 
CULLENOCH. Perhaps the d is intrusive here ; if it is 
regarded as organic, then the meaning would be cuileann 
dabhoch [davogh, daagh], the farm or land of the hollies. 
" Dabhoch, a farm that keeps sixty cows." O'Reilly. 

CULLENDOCH (P. Cullendach ; Inq. ad Cap. 1608, Culleindoch). 
' Girthon,' ' Kirkmabreck.' 

CULLENOCH (War Committee, 1646, Cullenoch, callit Clauchane- 
pluck). ' Balmaghie.' Cuileannach. a place of hollies ; from 
cuileann. Cf. Cullenagh, a frequent name in Ireland. See 
under ALWHILLAN. 

CULLINAW. * Buittle.' Cul an atha [?] [aha], back of the ford. 
CULLOCH (P. Culloch). ' Urr.' 

CULLURPATTIE FELL (P. Coulurpetty ; Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Killur- 
patie). ' Inch.' 

CULMAIN (P. Coulmeinn). ' Urr.' 

CULMALZIE (P. Coullmalzie). ' Kirkinner.' Cul or cuil Malzie, the 
back, or the corner or angle of the Malzie burn. See under 
CORSEMALZIE and MALZIE. Cf. Kilmalie, a parish in Argyll- 
shire, written also Kilmailze and Kilmalzie. 

CULMARK (P. Gulmark, Gulmarck). ' Dairy.' A hybrid name ; 
cul, the back, and A.s. mearc, a boundary (E. and BR. SO. 
march), the back march. See under MARK. 

CULMICK (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Culmuk ; 1691, Kilmick; P. 
Culmuck). Cuil muic [mick], the pig's corner. Cf. Coolna- 
muck in Ireland. 

K 



146 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CULM6RE (P. Culmoir). ' Stoneykirk.' Coill m6r, the big wood. 
Of. Kilmore in Cork (written by the Annalists coill mohr) ; 
Kylemore in Connemara, etc., also Cuilmore. See under 
KILLIEMORE. 

CULNAUGHTRIE (P. Colnachtyr). ' Berwick.' Uachdarach, upper 
(see under AUCHNOTTEROCH) ; prefix uncertain. 

CULN6AG (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Culnog; W. P. MSS. Culnoik ; P. 
Culnowack). ' Sorbie.' Kesembles Cullenoge in "Wexford, 
which Joyce derives from culeaindg, a place of hollies ; but the 
accent would, in that case, probably be as in CULLENOCH. 

CULQTTHA [pron. Culhwa] (Inq. ad Cap. 1601, Culquha; P. 
Koulwha). ' Twynholm.' See under CULKAE. 

CULQUHASEN [pron. Culhwasen] (P. Coulwhoisen). ' Old Luce.' 

CULQUHIRK [pron. Culhwirk] (Barnbarroch Papers, 1583, Cowl- 
quhork). ' Wigton.' Cuil choirce [hurkie], corner of the 
oats. Cf. Coolacork in Wicklow, Gortachurk in Cavan. See 
under AWHIRK. 

[pron. Culroigh] (P. Culreoch). ' Inch.' Cuil riabhach 
[reeagh], grey corner. Cf. Coolreagh in Ireland. 

' Old Luce.' Cuil ruadh [rooa, roy], red corner. Cf. 
Coolroe in Ireland. 

CULSCADDEN (P. Coulskadden). ' Sorbie.' Cuil sgadan, corner 
of the herrings. On the shore of Wigton Bay; named, 
probably, from being a landing-place for fishing-boats. Cf. 
Coolscadden in Dublin County, a place where herring were 
sold. See also LOCHANSCADDAN. o. ERSE scatdn. The word 
seems akin to names of other fish, as ICEL. skata, a skate -f- 
ljA.T.squatits + ERSE and GAEL, sgat, a skate +A.S. sceadda, a shad. 

CULSHABBEN. Mochrum.' 

CULSHAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Culscheinchane ; 1607, Culzeane 
[?]). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

CULSHARG. ' Minigaflf.' Cuil dearg [dyarg], red corner. Dearg 
is frequently softened into jarg, whence the transition is easy 
to sharg. 

CULTAM HILL. ' Crossmichael.' 

CULTIEMORE. ' Minigafi 7 .' Coillte m6r, big woods. Cf. Kiltybegs, in 

Longford and Monaghan, in the opposite sense, i.e. little woods. 

CULTS (W. P. MSS. Cultis). 'Inch,' 'Sorbie.' Coillte [kilty, 
culty], woods ; plur. of coill. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 147 

CULVENNAN (P. Coulvennan). ' Crossmichael/ ' Kirkcowan.' 
Cul bhennain [vennan], back of the hill. The place of this 
name in Crossmichael was named by the Gordons after their 
lands in Kirkcowan. 

CUML6DEN. 'Minigaff.' 

CUMNOCK KNOWES. ' Carsphairn.' Cam cnoc, crooked or sloping 
hill. Cf. KNOCKCAM. 

CUNDEE (three hills, Near, Mid, and Far). ' Penninghame.' 
Ceann dubh [ken doo or dew], black head. Cf. KINDEE. 

CtiNNOCH. ' Whithorn, s. c.' Cuinne6g, "a churn, a pail" (O'Reilly), 
i.e. where the waves are churned. Cf. KUMMLEKIRN. GAEL. 
cuinneag, w. cynnog, a pail or pitcher. 

CUPAR'S CAIRN (a hill 2000 feet). ' Minigaff.' Said to be named 
from Coupar, Bishop of Galloway, who, with Archbishop 
Maxwell, was the principal reviser of the prayer-book sub- 
mitted to King James in 1616. 

CURATE'S NEUK. ' Kirkcolm.' BR. sc. neuk, a nook or corner (of 
land), M.E. nok. From ERSE nine, a nook. 

CURCHIEHILL [pron. kurchie, as in church]. ' Minigaff.' 

CURDEN. ' Balmaghie.' 

CURGHIE [pi-on. Curgee, g hard] (Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Corghie ; P. 
Karghy). ' Kirkmaiden.' Cor or cathair [caer] gaeth [gee, 
gwee], hill or fort of the wind. Cf. (with the latter meaning) 
Cahernageeha and Dungeeha in Ireland (cathair na gaeithe, dun- 
gaeithe, windy fort), and from the plural (as in the present 
instance) gaeth or gaoth, Tonderghie, Drumagee, Mullingee, 
in Longford, i.e. muileann gaeith, wind-mill. 0. ERSE gdeth, 
gdeth, gen. gdithe, ERSE gaeth, gaoth + w. gwynt, C. guenz, LAT. 
uentus, cognate with TEUT. base WENDA or WENTHA, wind, 
whence GOTH, winds, winths + o.'K.G. wint, G. wind-}- DAN. and 
SWED. wind+iCEL. vindr+vu. wind+A.s. wind, (whence M.E. 
wind, wynd, E. wind). The LAT. uentus (says Skeat) was origin- 
ally a pres. participle, meaning " blowing," from ^AW or 
WA, to blow, from the latter of which is the SKT. vd, to blow. 
The ERSE gdeth, has either lost the n, or has travelled by a 
different road from the root WA, which it has nearly 
approached in pronunciation again. Cf. CURLEYWEE. 

CuRLEYG6wER (a hill). ' Minigaff.' Cor na gabJiur [1], the goat's 
peak. 



i 4 8 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

CURLEYWEE (a hill of 2405 feet). Minigaff.' Cor na gaeth [?] 
[gee], peak of the winds, by usual change of g to w. See under 
CURGHIE, WINDY HILL, WINDY STANDARD, etc. 

CURLUCKIE (a shoulder of Cairnsmore of Dee). ' Kells.' 

CURNELLOCH. ' Kells.' Corr n-eilidh [?] [elleh], peak of the hinds 
(see under CARNELTOCH) ; or perhaps cathair [caher], or coir 
n-ailich, as Caherelly in Limerick, written in Irish cathair 
ailigh. " A union of two synonymous terms, the caher of the 
stone fort. So also in Cahernally in Galway, which is called 
Cathair-na-hailighi in an ancient document quoted by Hardi- 
man." Joyce, i. 293. See under CRAIGANALLY. 

CURRAFIN \jrron. Corriefeen]. ' New Luce.' Coire fionn [fin], 
white pool (caldron), a salmon pool on the Luce. Coire is 
applied to both deep, swirling pools in a river, and also to 
contracted, pot-like dells, o. ERSE core + w. callor, also (by 
change of c to p) pair + c. caudarn -\- o.F. caldaru + LAT. calda- 
rium ( caldus, calidus, hot) whence M.E. caldron, caudron, E. 
caldron. Cf. SKT. era, to boil. Cf. CURRYDOW. 

CURRIE RIG. ' Carsphairn.' Coire [currie], a caldron, a glen, 
and A.S. hric, hrycg, or BR. sc. rig, a ridge. 

CURRIESTANES (P. Creustoun). ' Troqueer.' 

CURROCHTRIE (P. Korrachty). ' Kirkmaiden.' This farm is 
situated next to Garrochtrie; their juxta-position and the 
similarity of the names suggest that the two last syllables in 
each may represent respectively uachdar [ougher], upper, and 
iochdar [eighder], lower. This would agree with the relative 
position of the farms, and if this be a correct supposition, 
then Currochtrie would represent ceathramhaidh [carhoo] ioch- 
darach, the lower land-quarter, and Garrochtrie ceathramhaidh 
uachdarach, the upper land-quarter. Cf. Curry eighter and Curry- 
oughter in Ireland, from currach, a marsh or moor, Moyeightrach 
(rnach iochdar, lower plain) near Killarney, and Moyletra (inael 
iochdar, lower hill) in Deny. But into these Galloway names 
it is hard to say whether Ochtraidh [Ochtrie] does not enter. 
The lands have long been held by the Macdouall family, in 
which Ochtraidh or Uthred is of very ancient and frequent 
occurrence. Cf. KIRROUCHTRIE and GARROCHTRIE. 

CuRRYT)6w (P. Corydow), a glen on Garpel Burn. Coire dubh 
[currie doo], the black caldron (pool or glen). See under 
CURRAFIN. 

CUSHIEMAY. ' Buittle.' Cos a' maighe [?] [cush a' maye], foot of 
the field. Cf. Cushaling in Tyrone (cos a' linne, foot of the 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 149 

pool) ; Cushendun and Cushendall in Antrim (the foot of the 
river Dun and of the river Dall), Coshquin in Londonderry, 
Coshlea in Limerick, etc., etc. (Joyce, i. 527). o. ERSE coss, 

ERSE COS, GAEL. CdS + LAT. pes -\-GK. 7TOU<? + GOTH, fotus + G. /UBS 

-f SWED. fot + DAN. fod + ICEL. fdtr + DTI. voet + A.s. fot, pi. fit 
(whence M.E. fot, foot, BR. so. fut, fit, E. foot) + SKT. pad, pad 
VPAD, to go. Magli, see under MAY. 

CUTCL6Y [pron. Cuckloy] (Inq. ad Cap. 1585, Cutcloy ; P. Cot- 
cloy ; W. P. MSS. Cottcloye). ' Whithorn.' 

CuTRE6cH [pron. Cuttroghe] (P. Cettreoch; W. P. MSS. Coit- 
rioche). ' Whithorn.' 

CUTTYM6RE BURN. ' Minigaff.' Ceide mfo [?], great hill. See 
under KITTYSHALLOCH. 

JJlFFIN. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

DAILEYBRACKEN. ' Inch.' 

DAILLY. ' Urr.' Dealghe, the thorns. See under CLAMDALLY. 
Cf. Dailly in Ayrshire. 

DALANE or DELEEN (a pool in the Minnick). ' Minigaff.' 

DALARRAN. 'Balmaclellan.' 

DALBEATTIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1599, Dalbatie ; 1604, Dalbaittie; P. 
Dalbety). ' Urr.' 

DALB6NNITON. ' Carsphairn.' 

DALHAMMEN. ' Kirkcowan.' 

DALKEST (P. Dalchist). ' Kirkcolm.' 

DALL!SH (P. Dallash). ' Minigaff.' Cf. Dallas, a parish in Moray, 
which Shaw translates dal uis, watered plain. 

DALLY. ' Kirkcolm.' Dealghe, the thorns. See under CLAMDALLY 
and DAILLY. 

DALMALIN BURN. ' Girthon.' 

DALMANNOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Croftmannoch prope burgum de 
Innermessan). ' Inch.' Dal manach, the field or land-portion 
of the monks. Dal has two significations, the principal and 
(in Celtic) original being " a portion, a share ;" the other, prob- 
ably borrowed from the Scandinavian, being " a dale, a low 
place between hills." " Dal i . rand (a portion), inde dicitur 
Dal Eiata." Corm. p. 47. The E. deal is cognate in origin 



150 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

and sense, its primary meaning being a share, a division, 
hence, a quantity ; and, further, a thin board of timber, from 
the slicing or dividing of the tree (Skeat). Cf. E. share (A.S. 
land scearu, a portion or share of land), from the idea of 
shearing or cutting. ERSE ddl, a portion + DU. deel, a share 
+ A.S. del, a share (whence M.E. deel, del, E. dm/) + DAN. deel, 
a portion + SWED. del, a part, a share + ICEL. deild, deil-s, a 
dole, a share + GOTH, dails, a part + O.H.G. teil, G. theils. In 
the other and, probably, later sense of a dale between hills, 
" the original sense was ' cleft ' or ' separation ' " (Skeaf), and 
from the same base as ' deal ' come E. dale dell A.S. del 
(plur. dalu), a valley + ICEL. dalr, a dale + DAN. dal + SWED. 
eW+DU. dal+o. FRIER, del+o. SAX. dal+GOiH. dal+G. thai. 
As a prefix dal in place-names is not always to be dis- 
tinguished from dur, i.e. dobhar, water, owing to the inter- 
change of / and r. See under DARGALGAL. 

DALM6NEY. ' Urr.' Ddl muine [minnie], field of the thicket, or 
ddl mdnadh [munnie], of the moor or peat. M6in, gen. mdnadh, 
a mountain, an extensive common ; a bog, moss, turf, peat. 
w. mawn, peat, mynydd, micnt, a mountain, GAEL, monadh, a 
moor+B. and C. monedh + A.S. munt+lAT. mons, gen. mont-is 
>\/MAN, to project ; cf. LAT. e-min-ere, to project. 

DALNADER. MinigaflF.' 

DALNAW (P. Dalna). ' Minigaff/ Ddl an atha [aha, awe], field 
of the ford. 

DALNIGAP, DOLNIGAP, or DARNIGAP (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Dalna- 
gap). ' New Luce.' 

DALQUHAIRN (P. Dalwharn, Dalahorn, Dalwhairns). ' Carsphairn,' 
' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Ddl chairn, field of the cairn. 
See under AUCHENCAIRN. 

DALREAGLE [pron. Darregal]. * Kirkinner.' Deargail [?], a red 
place, red land. Cf. Dargle in Wicklow, Darrigil in Mayo, 
Darrigal in Waterford. Deriv. of dearg (Joyce, ii. 39). 

DALRY (a town and parish in the Stewartry). ' Dairy.' The 
same name occurs in Ayrshire. 

DALSCAIRTH (P. Dalskairth). ' Troqueer.' Ddl sceirach [?], rocky 
field. See under BARSCARROW. 

DALSH!NGAN (P. Dalchangan). 'Carsphairn,' 'Minigaff/ 'New 
Luce.' Ddl seangan, field of the ants. See under BARNSHANGAN. 



THE TOPO GRAPHY OF GALL OWAY. 151 

DALSHINNIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Dalschynnie). ' Terregles.' Ddl 
sionach [shinnagh], the field of the foxes. Sionagh was a 
common name of men in Celtic times, just as Fox in England 
and Ireland, and Todd in Scotland, are now. Thus O'Carthar- 
naigh, Lord of Teffia, took the name of Sinnach ; and from 
the O'Caharneys are descended Fox of Foxville in Meath, 
and Fox of Foxhall in Longford. Dalshinnie, therefore, may 
be the portion of a man called Shinnach (ffDon. Top. Poem, 
ix. (35)). Of. AUCHENSHINNOCH, BLAIRSHINNOCH, etc. 
See page 33, note. 

DALTALLOCHAN (P. Lein of Daltallachan). ' Carsphairn.' 

DALTAMIE. ' Minigaff.' 

DALTORAE. ' Minigaff.' DAI tdruidhe [?] [tory], the hunter's field. 
Cf. Ballytory in Wexford, Ratory in Tyrone. Tdruidhe, from 
toir, pursuit, t6r, a pursuer, came to mean an outlaw or tory ; 
thus becoming a term of reproach, as it is still among the 
lower orders in Scotland and North Ireland. As such it was 
applied to a political party by their opponents, and the Tories 
in return dubbed their foes the Whigs, a term of contempt 
having its origin in the sour milk or whey (whig), which was 
an ordinary article of diet among the " hill folk." 

DALVAIRD. ' Minigaff.' Ddl bhaird [vaird], the rhymer's field. 
Cf. Dalnavaird in Forfar and Kincardine, and Dalnavert in 
Inverness-shire. Cf. also DERVAIRD. See under BARNBOARD. 

DALVADIE [pron. Dalvaddy]. ' Kirkmaiden.' Ddl mhadaidh 
[vaddie], the dog's field. See under BLAIRMODDIE. 

DALWHAT. ' Balmaclellan.' Ddl chat [haat], the wild cat's field. 
See under ALWHAT. 

DAMLOCH STRAND. ' Kirkcowan.' 

DAMNAGLAUR. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

DAMNAH6LLY. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

DANEVALE. ' Crossmichael.' 

BANNERS. See FOUNTAIN DANNERS. 
DARACHANS. ' Minigaff.' Darachean, the oaks, E. plur. added. 

DARG!LGAL. ' Penninghame.' Dobhar gall Gaidheal [?] [dour gall 
gael]. the water of the stranger Gaels. See under GALLOWAY. 
The prefix is evident, but the remainder is purely speculative, 
suggested by the proximity of the place to the Deil's Dyke, 
the ancient rampart separating Gallgaidhel, or Galloway, 



152 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

from the kingdom of Strathclyde. o. ERSE dobur (i . uisce, 
unde dicitur dobar-chu i.dobran Corm. p. 15), ERSE dur 
(O'Reilly) + w. dwfr, dwr, B. dour, C. dour, douar, dower, water. 
Cf. "Drow, an indefinable quantity of water." Madaggart. 
This word occurs as the prefix dar, der, dir, dur, and some- 
times dal, principally in the moorland and uncultivated 
districts of Galloway. 

DARGALL LANE. ' Minigaff.' Dobhar [dour] gall [?], water of the 
foreigners or standing stones. See under DERGALL. 

DARG6ALS (P. Dyrgaals; Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Dirgoills). 'New 
Luce.' 

DARH6MINY. ' MinigafF.' 

DARL.6SKINE (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Dirloskane). ' Kirkcowan.' 
Dobhar [dour] loscain or losgan, water of the frogs. Cf. LiN- 
LOSKIN. The old northern English equivalent to these 
names appears in Dumfriesshire as Paddockhole. 

DARNAGIE [pron. gee, hard~\. 'New Luce.' Dobhar na gdeth 
[gee], water of the winds. 

DARNARBEL. ' Minigaff.' Dobhar an earbil [dour-an-arbil], water 
of the point, i.e. a tail or extremity of land. " Often applied 
to the extremity of any natural feature, such as a long, low 
hill, or to any long strip of land." Cf. DRUMMINARBEL ; also 
in Ireland, Urbal, the name of several townlands in North 
Ireland, Urbalkirk in Monaghan, Urbalshinny in Donegal 
(i.e. fox's brush), and Warbleshinny in Derry, etc. etc. " Ear- 
bull, a tail, i.e. iar ball, hind ward member." O'Reilly. 

DARNAW BURN. ' Minigaff.' Dobhar [dour] an atha [aha, awe], 
water of the ford. Cf. DALNAW. 

DARNCREE. ' Girthon. ' Dobhar [dour] na criche [creehie], water 
of the boundary, or perhaps dobJuir na craebh [crave, creev], 
water of the trees, wooded stream. Cf. CREE, POLCREE, etc. 

DARNGARROCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Daruegarroch ; P. Darnghey- 
rach). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

DARNIM6w (P. Dyrnamow). ' New Luce.' Dobhar na mbo [dur- 
namoe], water of the cows. Cf. Annamoe in "Wicklow (ath- 
na-mbo, the cows' ford), Carrigeennamoe in Cork (carraigan-na 
mbo, the cows' crag). 

DARNSHAW (a tributary of the Water of Deugh). ' Carsphairn.' 
DAROW BURN. ' Girthon.' Dobhar dhubh [?] [oo], black water. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 153 

DARROCH. ' Stoneykirk.' Daracli, a place of oaks. Cf. Darragh 
in Limerick, and Derragh in Cork, Longford, Mayo, Down, 
and Clare. Adjective from dair (o. ERSE daur), an oak. 

DARROW (a hill of 1500 feet) (P. Dairy). 'Kells.' Probably 
from darach or doire, an oak wood. See under DERRY. 

DARSALLOCH (P. Darsalloch). ' Kells.' Dobliar saileach, water of 
the willows. See under BARNSALLIE. 

DARSNAG. ' Mochrum.' 

DARWOOD. 'Kells.' Seems to be a compound from dair, an 
oak, with E. wood added. 

DAVENHOLM. ' New Luce.' 

DEE, a river in the Stewartry (Ptolemy, Deva). Probably from the 
base dub, dubh, black, the dark water; the aspirated labial 
being shown in the Latin form Deva. 

DEER'S DEN. ' Carsphairn,' ' Dairy,' ' Minigaff.' " Den, a hollow, 
a dingle " (Jamieson). A.S. denu, dene, den, a valley, a plain ; 
M.E. dene. This word commonly occurs in English names, e.g. 
Tenterden, Hazeldean, etc. 

DELHABIECH (P. Dalchappock; Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Dalcopokc). 
' Inch.' 

DENDOW or DiSD6w. ' Girthon.' 

DENDOWNIES. ' New Luce.' 

DENNiEMfrLK. 'Minigaff.' 

DENXOT. ' Leswalt.' See LONG DENNOT. 

DERGALL. ' Kirkmabreck. ' The existence here of megalithic 
circles suggest the origin dobJiar gall, water of the standing 
stones, but this is pure conjecture (see under DERGALGAL). 
Gall, literally a foreigner, is also a name for a standing stone ; 
given, if we are to believe Cormac, because they were first 
erected in Ireland by the Galli, or primitive inhabitants of 
France. This, however, is, to say the least, improbable ; and 
if gall, a standing stone, is the same word as gall, a foreigner, 
it was probably applied figuratively. See under BOWHILL. 
Gall, a Gaul, Gallicus. " This word was first applied by the 
Irish Annalists to the Danes or Scandinavians from their first 
arrival in the eighth century to the twelfth, when it was 
transferred to the English." O'Don. Suppl Gall, foreign + 
O.H.G. walah + A.s. wealh (E. walnut = A.s. wealh knut, foreign 



154 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

nut), from " Teutonic type WALHA, a stranger, a name given 
by Teutonic tribes to their Celtic and Roman neighbours " 
(Skeaf). Of. A.S. Wealhas, the Welsh, whence E. Wales. 

DERHAGIE. ' Old Luce.' 

DERL6CHLIN. ' Old Luce.' Dobhar [dour] Lochlinn [1], Lauchlan's 
stream. See under BARLAUCHLINE. 

DERL6NGAN. ' Old Luce.' 

DERNACISSOCK [c soft]. ' Kirkcowan.' Dobhar na' siosg [?] [shisk], 
water of the sedges or reeds. " Siosg, a sedge, reed grass, 
sheer grass ; carex." O'Reilly. GAEL, seasg + LOW G. segge 
+ A.s. secg (whence M. E. segge, BR. so. seg, E. sedge). " The 
lit. sense is ' cutter,' i.e. sword-grass, from the sharp edge or 
sword-like appearance ; cf. LAT. gladiolus, a small sword, 
sword-lily, flag. From the Teut. base SAG, to cut= /N /SAK, 
to cut." Skeat. LAT. sec-are, etc. Cf. DRUMACISSOCK ; and 
in Ireland, Cornashesk in Tyrone and Cavan, Cornashesko, 
in Fermanagh, Glenshesk in Antrim, Glenshisk in Waterford, 
etc. See under SEG HILL and STARRY HEUGH. 

DERNAFRANIE. ' Old Luce.' 

DERNAFITEL. ' Old Luce.' 

DERNAGLAUR. ' Old Luce.' Cf. DAMNAGLAUR. 

DERNAIN (P. Derneen). ' Old Luce.' Dobhar [dour] n-en [?] 
[ane], water of the birds. See under BARNEAN. 

DERNEMULLIE. ' New Luce.' 

DERNIEM6RE (P. Lein of Dyrgonmoir). ' Old Luce.' 

DERRisc6AL. ' New Luce.' 

DERRY (P. Dyrry). ' Kirkcowan,' ' Mochrum,' ' Penninghame.' 
Doire [dirrie], a wood, especially an oak wood. Londonderry 
was anciently Doire Calgaich, rendered by Adamnan Roboretum 
Calgachi, Calgach's oakwood, it then got the name of Doire- 
Columcille, from the monastery which St. Columba founded 
there in 546, and, finally, when James I. gave a charter 
thereof to a company of London merchants it was called 
Londonderry. 

DERRYG6WAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1680, Darregoun). ' Balmaghie.' 
Doire gobhain [gowan], the smith's wood. See under ALDER- 
GOWAN. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 155 

DERRYS, THE. ' Penninghame.' Doire, an oak wood (see under 
DERRY), E. plur. added. This is often done to express the 
Gaelic plural, but in this case it has probably happened in 
some such way as this : a house or farm gets the name of 
Deny, then another house is built, or the farm is subdivided, 
when the group would be called collectively the Derrys, with 
perhaps, further definition as High Derry, Low Derry, etc. 
There is, however, prevalent an indiscriminate use of the 
plural in country speech : thus the Earl of Stair is commonly 
spoken of as Lord Stairs. 

DERVAIRD (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Dirvairdis; 1668, Dirwardie; P. 
Dwrboird). 'Old Luce.' Dobhar bhaird [dour vaird], the 
water of the rhyme. Cf. DALVAIRD. See under BARN- 
BOARD. Pont gives the unaspirated form. 

DERWHILLAN. ' Old Luce.' Dobhar chuillain [dour hillan], water 
of the hollies. 

DERWINDLE. ' New Luce.' Cf. DRUMFUNDLE. See under CARRICK- 
FITNDLE in Addenda. 

DEUGH, WATER OF (Inq. ad Cap. 1550, Ottroduscan (i.e. Water o' 
Duskan)). ' Carsphairn.' Dubh uisce [doo iskie], black water. 
The old spelling retains the s. Cf. Dusk Water in Ayrshire. 

DIAMOND LAGGAN. ' Parton.' See under LAGGAN. 

DIAN, EAST. ' Kirkcowan.' Daingean, a stronghold. " In the 
north of Ireland the ng in the middle of this word is pro- 
nounced as a soft guttural, which, as it is very faint and quite 
incapable of being represented by English letters, is suppressed 
in modern spelling, thereby changing daingean to dian, or 
some such form." Joyce, i. 307. Cf. Dian and Dyan in 
Tyrone and Monaghan. 

DIBBIN CRAIG and LANE. ' Dairy.' 

DIDDLE'S HILL. ' Inch.' 

DILDAWN (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Daldawen; MS. 1527, Daldawane). 
' Kelton.' 

DILENOCH. ' Kirkmaiden, s. c.' 

DINCHINPON. ' Buittle.' Dun tiompain, fort of the hillock : by 
the common change of ti to ch (see under CHALLOCH). " Tiom- 
pan, a hillock (Antrim)." O'Don. Suppl. to O'Reilly. Cf. 
DUNJUMPIN ; and in Ireland, Timpan in Antrim, Timpaun 
in Roscommon, Reanadimpaun in Waterford (reidh na dtiom- 



156 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

pan, to which Joyce gives the meaning of the mountain-flat of 
the standing stones), Tempanroe in Tyrone, Craigatempin in 
Antrim, etc. Tiompdn also means a harp or drum, hence 
Dunchimpon may mean the fort of the harps, from some 
long-forgotten incident. 

DINDINNIE (P. Doundunny). ' Leswalt.' Dun duine [dinny], fort 
of the men, the folk's fort. ERSE duine, a man, a person + 
W. dyn + C. den, B. den. 

DiNDtiFF (Inq. ad Cap. 1616,Dunduff ; P. Dunduff). 'Kirkcolm.' 
Dun dubh [duv], black fort. 

DIN HILL. ' Twynholm.' Dun, a fort. 

DINNANS (W. P. MSS. Dunnance; P. Dounen). ' Whithorn.' 
Dunan, a fort, dim. of dun, E. plural added. Cf. Doonans 
in Antrim ; Dooneens and Downings the names of many 
townlands in Ireland. 

DINNINS (a hill of 1050 feet). ' Carsphairn.' See under DINNANS. 

DlNViN (P. Duntin (misprint) ; Inq. ad Cap. Dunevin). ' Port 
Patrick.' Dun fionn [fin], white fort. 

DERCLAUCH. ' Carsphairn.' Dobhar [dour] clach, water of the 

stones. 
DIRLETON. ' Kirkinner.' 

DIRNEARK [pron. Durnyark] (P. Dyrnairp ; Inq. ad Cap. 1698, 
Darnyerk). 'Kirkcowan.' 

DiRN6w [pron. Durnoo] (P. Dyrnagrow). ' Kirkcowan.' 

DIRSKELPIN or DIRSKELVIN (Barnbarroch 1563, Dyrreskylben, Inq. 
ad Cap. 1668, Dirsculvyne ; P. Dyrskilby). 'Old Luce.' 

DIRVACHLIE (P. Dyrvachlie ; Inq. ad Cap. 1698, Darvachlan). 
' Kirkcowan.' 

DIRVANANIE (P. Dwrrymannany, Dyrrymannany). ' Kirkcowan.' 
.The prefix here seems to be, not dobhar but doire. See. under 
DERRY. 

DISDOW (Charter, 1664, Duirsdow). ' Girthon.' 

DIVOT, THE (a salmon pool in the Dee). ' Kirkcudbright.' See 
under DIVOT HILL. 

DIVOT HILL. ' Dairy.' The hill of the sods. "Divot, divet, diffat : 
a thin, flat, oblong turf, used for covering cottages, and also 
for fuel." Jamieson. Cf. Knockascree, Nogniescree. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 157 

DOACH, MEIKLE, and PRIORY DOACH (on the Dee near Tungland 
Abbey). ' Kirkcudbright.' " Doach, doagh, a weir or cruive." 
Jamieson. Cf. CULDOCH. 

DOACH STEPS (across Pulharrow Burn). ' Kells.' See under 
DOACH. 

DOAMS. ' Tungland.' 

D6CHIES. 'Kirkcolm.' Dubh ais [1], black hill. Cf. Divis in 
Down County, Divish in Mayo, Dooish in Donegal (Joyce, ii. 
270). Cf., however, Duffus, a parish in Moray, which Shaw 
interprets dubh uisg, black water. 

DODD HILL. ' Carsphairn ' (thrice), ' Dairy.' Dodd appears 
locally as a hill name. Meaning uncertain. Perhaps related 
to " Doddy, doddit. 1. Without horns. 2. Bald, without 
hair." Jamieson. In this sense it would=moeZ, bald, so 
common as a hill name. See under MEAUL, MULL. 

DODD or TROQUHAIN [pron. Trohwane], (a hill of 1139 feet). 
' Balmaclellan.' 

DOGSTONE HILL. ' Kirkcolm.' 

DOGTAIL CROFT. ' Mochrum.' 

DOGTUMMOCK (a hill of 1631 feet). ' Colvend.' See under DODD, 
of which this is probably a corruption. " Tummock. A tuft, 
or small spot of elevated ground." Jamieson. 

DOLT. ' Kirkmaiden, s. c.' Dubh alt [?] [doo alt], black height or 
glen. 

DOMINS. ' Girthon.' 

DONALDBUIE. ' Kells.' Dunach or dunadh buidhe [buie], yellow 
fort. Cf. Doonachboy in Clare. Dunach, a derivation of dun 
(Joyce, ii. 5), or dunadh (O'Reilly), is liable to confusion with 
domhnach, a church. 

D6NNAN HILL. ' Stoneykirk.' Dunan, a fort. Cf. DINNANS, 
DOONEND, DOUNAN ; and, in Ireland, Dooneen, Downing, 
and Downeen. 

DOON, DOON CASTLE, HILL, etc., of frequent occurrence through- 
out the district. Dun, a fort. Doon and Down are equally 
common names in Ireland and Scotland. 0. ERSE dun-\-W. 
din, a hill-fort or fortified hill + A.S. dun, a hill (whence M.E. 
dun, doun, E. down, a hill), cognate with A.S. tun (M.E. toun, E. 
town). The original idea is " a fence " + DU. tuin, a fence + 



158 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

ICEL. tun, an enclosure, a homestead + G. zaun, O.H.G. zun, a 
hedge. The Celtic dun " is conspicuous in many old place- 
names, such as Augusto-dunum, Camelo-dunum, etc." (Skeat), 
just as the Teutonic tun in such names as Brighton, Hampton, 
Brigton, etc. 

DOONAMUCK. ' Minigaff.' Dun na muc, fort of the swine. Cf. 

DUNMUCK. 

DOONEND (P. Dounens). ' Colvend.' Dunan, a fort. See under 

DONNAN. 

DORNELL LOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1576, Dornall; P. Dornell). ' Bal- 
maghie.' Dobhar [dour], water. Cf. LOCH DORNAL. 

DOUGARIES. * New Luce.' 

DOULOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1624, Dewlache; P. Dowloch). 'Kirk- 
colm.' Dubh loch, black lake. Cf. DOWLOCH, DOWLOCHS and 
DUBLOCH ; also frequently in Ireland, Doolough. 

DOUNAN. ' Stoneykirk.' See under DONNAN. Cf. Doonan and 
Doonane in many counties in Ireland. 

D6URIE (P. Dowry). ' Mochrum.' Durach, i.e. dobharach, watery, 
pi ashy, deriv. of dobJiar, dur, water. Cf. Doory, in Antrim, 
Kerry, King's County, and Longford ; Doora in Clare and 
Dooragh in Tyrone. 

DOVEWELL. ' Loch Eutton.' Cf. DOWELL. 

D6WALTON [pron. Dooalton] (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Dowellstoun; 
W. P. MSS. Dowaltoun). ' Sorbie.' Doual's homestead. 
Tradition connects this place with the M'Doualls, lords of 
Galloway. 

Dow CRAIG. ' Twynholm.' It is uncertain whether this is ERSE 
dubh creag, black crag (see under CRAIGDOW), or BR. sc. doo 
craig, crag of the pigeons. 

DOWELL. 'Troqueer.' Cf. DOVEWELL. 

D6WIES [pron. Dooies]. ' Glasserton.' Dubh uisc [dooh isk], black 
water. A stream here runs dark through peaty ground, 
being, in the rest of its course, clear, on a hard bed. This 
name becomes " Dusk," in Dairy, Ayrshire, and is thus anno- 
tated by Pont, " Dow-visck, flu. : black watter, for so it is." 
Cunninghame, p. 124. 

D6WLOCH (P. Douloch). ' Minigaff.' See under DOULOCH. 
D6WLOCHS. ' Minigaff.' See under DOULOCH. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 159 

DRANGAN. ' Kirkcolm.' Draigheanan [drannan], blackthorns, 
o. ERSE droigen (Cormac), ERSE draighean, GAEL, draigh, a 
thorn-tree +w. drain, thorns, drain duon, blackthorns, c. drain 
+ DU. doorn, a thorn + ICEL. Jx/ni + DAN. tiorn-{-swED. torne + 
G. dorn + GOTH. tJiaurnus, a thorn ( + RUSS. terne, blackthorns 
+ POLISH tarn, a thorn) + A.S. por/i (whence M.E. ]>orn, E. 
thorn) ; from the base THAR = /^/TAR, to bore or pierce (Skeat). 
This word enters into many name of places in Scotland and 
Ireland. Cf. CARDRAIN, DRANGOWER, DRANIEMANNER, DRAN- 
NANDOW, DRONNAN, DRONNANS, DRUNGAN, etc.; and, in 
Ireland, Dreenan, Drinane, Dreenaun, Drinan, Dreen, Drain, 
Drains, Dreenagh, Drinagh, Driny, and Drinachan, besides 
composite names. 

DRANGdwER (P. Drongangour). ' New Luce.' Draigheanan gobhar, 
blackthorn thicket of the goats. See under ALGOWER and 
DRANGAN. 

DRANIEMANNER. ' Minigaff. 

DRANNANDOW (Inq. ad Cap. 1572, Drongandow ; P. Drongandow) 
' Minigaff.' Draigheanan dubli [drannan doo], dark black 
thorns. Cf. w. drain duon (see under DRANGAN). Perhaps, 
however, dronndn dubh, black ridge (see under DRONNAN). 

DEIGM6RN (a hill of 2000 feet) (P. Dyrrickmoirn ; MS. 1666, 
Drumockmoirne). 'Minigaff.' Cf. GREYMORN. 

DROCHF6RE. ' Parton.' 

DROCH HEAD (an insulated rock in the sea). ' Kirkcolm, s. c.' 
Drochaid, a bridge. Cf. the DEVIL'S BRIDGE, a similar rock 
on Whithorn coast. See under BARDROCHWOOD. 

DRONAN HILL. 'Penninghame.' See under DRANGAN and 
DRONNAN. 

DR6NNAN, THE. ' Minigaff.' Dronndn, a back, a ridge, akin to 
druim or else draigheanan [dranan], blackthorns (see under 
DRANGAN). The two words assume the same form in com- 
position. 

DR6NNANS (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Dronganis). ' Kirkinner.' Dron- 
ndn, a ridge, or draigheanan, blackthorns. See under DRANGAN 
and DRONNAN. 

DROUGHANDRUIE. ' Minigaff.' Drochaidh an druidhe [1] [drog- 
handreehy], the druid's or magician's bridge. There is a 
stream here. 

DROUGHDOOL (P. Drochduil). ' Old Luce.' 



160 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

DRtlCHTAG (Ing. ad Cap. 1582, Dreuchdag ; P. Dreugtak). 
' Mochrum.' 

DRUM (P. Druym). ' Loch Rutton/ ' New Abbey.' Druim, a 
ridge, lit. a back, corresponding exactly in meaning and 
application to BR. SC. rig A.S. hrycg, a back, and to the w. 
cefn. Druimm, druim, a back, a ridge + w. trum -\-~LAT. dorsum 
+ GK. Beipds, a mountain-ridge, Beiprj, Septf, a neck, a ridge. 
Of extremely frequent occurrence in Scotland and Ireland, 
both separately and as a prefix. 

DRUMABRENNAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1638, Drumalbreinan). 'Kirk- 
cowan.' Druim Ui Braenain [?], O'Brennan's ridge. The 
O'Brennans or Brennans of Ireland are descended from 
one named after Brendan of Birr, the patron saint of Kerry. 

DRUMACARDIE. ' Old Luce.' Druim a' cearda [cairda], ridge of 
the forge or workshop. Cf. CAIRDIE WIEL, CARTY ; and, in 
Ireland, Farranacardy in Sligo, Tullynagarda in Down. 

DRUMACARIE (P. Druymnachory). ' Kirkcowan.' Names ending 
in carie are very common and may have various origins. 
Pont preserves the n of the plur. article, and his writing 
would accord with druim-na-caera, ridge of the sheep (see 
under CULGARIE); but the name might as probably come 
from druim na cairthe [carha], ridge of the pillar stones, 
which Joyce assigns as the derivation of Drumnacarra in Louth. 

DRUMACISSOCK. ' Inch.' Druim na 1 siosg [shissug], ridge of the 
sedges, sedgy hill. See under DERNACISSOCK. 

DRUMACL6WN. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim na cluain [cloon, clone], 
ridge of the meadows. See under CLONE. 

DRUMACRAE. ' Whithorn.' 

DRUMADRYLAND. 'Inch.' Druim na dredlan [?], ridge of the 
wrens. Cf. Gorteenadrolane in Cork, Curradrolan in Tyrone, 
Mulladrillen in Louth, which Joyce (ii. 296) refers to drdoldn, 
. a wren. 

DRUMAGEE. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim na gaeth [gee], windy ridge. 
Cf. Drumnagee in Antrim. Cf. also WINDY HILL. See 
under CURGHIE. Of course, like BALMAGHIE, the name may 
signify M'Ghie's ridge. 

DRUMAGERDY. ' Inch.' Druim a' g-cearda, hill of the forge. Cf. 
Tullynagardy in Down. See under DRUMACARDY. 

DRUMAGIBBEN. ' Old Luce.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 161 

DRUMAGILLOCH. ' Glasserton.' Druim a' g-coilleaich [gillach], hill 
of the cock (] grouse or blackcock). Cf., in Ireland, Cornagil- 
lach in Leitrim, Longford, and Monaghan, Coumnagillach 
in Tipperary, Knocknagulliaghin in Wicklow and Down, and 
Glannagilliagh in Kerry. +\v. ceiliog, B. quillocq, C. kuileog. 

DRUMAHAMMIE. ' Old Luce.' 

DRUMAHERN. ' New Luce.' Druim a' chuirn [f] [hirn], ridge of 
the cairn. Cf. DRUMAWHERN. 

DRUMAHOWEN. ' Leswalt.' 

DRUMAKIBBEN. ' Kirkcowan.' 

DRUMALIG. 'Stoneykirk.' Perhaps like Dromaleague in Cork, 
which is druim dha Hag [drum-a-leeg], ridge of the two 
stones ; or like Dromanallig in Cork, from druim an ailigh, 
ridge of the stone fort. See under AIRIELIG and CRAIGA- 

NALLY. 

DRUMALLOCH (P. Drummaloch ; Inq. ad Cap. 1624, Drummalocht). 
' Kirkcowan.' Druim shalach [?] [hallagh], miry ridge. Cf. 
Drumhallagh in Ireland. See under BARSALLOCH. 

DRUMAL6NE. ' Dairy.' Druim na luan []] [lone], ridge of the 
lambs. Cf. Maloon and Malone (magh luan), and Gortmaloon 
in Ireland. 

DRUMAMOSS. ' Kirkcudbright.' 

DRUMANARY. ' Port Patrick.' Druim an airidh [airy], the ridge 
of the shieling ; or druim an aedhaire [airy], the shepherd's 
ridge. Cf. CRAIGARIE, and (in the latter sense) Drumaneary 
in Donegal, and Drumary in Fermanagh and Monaghan. 

DRUMANEE. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim an fhiaidh [ee], the ridge of 
the deer. Cf. Drumanee in Derry. See under CRAIGINEE. 

DRUMANOGHAN. ' "Wigtown.' Druim manachan, ridge of the 
monks, dim. of manach. Cf. Drummany and Drumavanagh 
in Cavan (the latter = druim a' mhanaigh). 

DRUMANTRAE. ' Stoneykirk.' Druim an traigh, ridge of the 
shore. This is a long low ridge, a raised beach, running for 
half a mile along the shore at Ardwell. Cf. KILLANTRAE ; 
also Fintray in Stirlingshire, Ballantrae in Ayrshire ; and, in 
Ireland, Baltray, Ballynatray, Monatray, Ventry (fionn traigh), 
Fintra, and Fintragh. 

L 



1 62 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

DRUMASKIMMING. ' Penninghame.' 

DRUMASLIG. ' Port Patrick.' Druim isle [issly], low ridge. See 
under CORVISEL ; cf. DRUMMAHISLIE, DRUMWHISLEY. 

DRUMASTUBBIN. * Kirkcowan.' 

DRUMATIER. ' Penninghame.' Druim a t-saeir [?] [teer], ridge of 
the wright or carpenter ; s eclipsed by t (see under BALTIER 
and BARTAGGART). Cf. Ballinteer, near Dublin, and again in 
Londonderry (baile an t-saeir). " Ar thai in t-sceir do gabail" 
"because he took the wright's adze." Felire, p. ci. 31. 

0. ERSE sder, ERSE saor, gen. saoire (O'ReiUy) + w. saer, c. sair. 

DRUMATWOODIE. ' Kirkcowan.' 

DRUMATYE. ' Glasserton.' Druim a' tighe, ridge of the house. 
The name of a singular ridge of rock on the summit of Carle- 
ton Fell, formed like the steeply-pitched roof of a house. It 
also goes by the name of the " Pratie Pit," from its resem- 
blance to a pit or ridge of stored potatoes. Cf. Drumatihugh 
in Ireland, i.e. the ridge of Hugh's house. 0. ERSE tech, 
ERSE teach, also Ugh + \V. ty, a house, tsi, to thatch, B. ty, C. 
tshyi, a house + DU. dak, thatch (whence E. deck) + ICEL. yak 
+ DAN. tag + SWED. tak + G. dach, thatch + A.S. ]>cec (whence 
M.E. ]>ak, BR. so. tJiack, E. thatch), all from TEUT. base THAKA, 
a thatch, from TEUT. base THAK, to cover, which, having 
lost initial s, stands for STHAG = /^/STAG, to cover : cf. GK. 
reyos = areyos, a roof. From the same root comes SKT. sthmj, 
to cover + GK. areyeiv + LAT. tegere (for stegere) + LITH. 
stegti + FR. toit + M.E. tigel, E. tile ( LAT. tegula). 

DRUMAWA. ' Kirkcowan,' ' New Luce ' (twice). 

DRUMAWAN. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim Shamlmin [1] [liawan]. " The 
first of November was called Samhuin (savin or sowan), 
which is commonly explained samh-fhuin, i.e. the end of 
summer, and, like Bealltaine, it was a day devoted by the 
pagan Irish to religious and festive ceremonials." Joyce, 

1. 202. The word occurs in many Irish names, e.g. Knocksouna 
in Limerick (called by the Four Masters Samhuin, and in the 
Book of Lismore Cnoc-Samhna), Mullasawney in Donegal, 
Drumsamney, Drumsawna, etc., in all of which the s is 
retained ; but in Drumhaven or Drumhaman in Monaghan, 
in Carrickhawna in Sligo, and (nearest of all to the name 
under consideration) Drumhawan in Monaghan, the s is lost 
by aspiration. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 163 

DRUMAWANTY. ' Penninghame.' This name resembles Dingina- 
vanty in Cavan, translated Daingean-a-MJiantaigh (Joyce, 
i. 307), Mantagh's stronghold. 

DRUMAWHERN. ' Leswalt.' See under DRUMAHERN. 

DRUMBAE. ' Balmaclellan.' Druim beith [bey], ridge of the 
birches. See under ALLANBAY. 

DRUMBAIN. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim bdn, white ridge. A hill 
covered with light-coloured grass in a moorland would 
naturally get this name, while one covered with heather 
would be called Drumdon or Drumdovv. Cf. Drumbane and 
Drumbawn in Ireland. 

DRUMBAWN. ' Stoneykirk.' See under DRUMBAIN. Possibly 
druim badhuin (bawn), ridge of the cattle-pen. See under 
BlAWN. 

DRUMBECK. ' Balmaghie.' Druim becc, little ridge, o. ERSE 
becc, little, ERSE beag. See under DRUMBEG. 

DRUMBEG. ' Glasserton,' 'Kirkcowan.' Druim beag [beg], little 
ridge. Cf. Drombeg and Drumbeg in Ireland. O. ERSE bee, 
becc ; ERSE beag + w. bach, bychan, small, and by, a diminutive 
prefix ; c. bum, bihan, B. bihan. 

DRUMBLAIR (Inq. ad Cap. 1598, Dirreblair; P. Drumblair). 
' Mochrum.' Druim bldra, ridge of the plain or of the battle. 
See under BLAIR. The charter of 1598 gives a form from 
doire bldra, oakwood of the plain or of the battle. 

DRUMB6w. ' Twynholm.' Druim bo, ridge of the cows. See 
under BIAWN. Cf. Drumbo in Down, written by the Four 
Masters (A.D. 1003), druim-bo, and Drumbo in Donegal 
(A.D. 1490), the same. Adamnan (Fit. Col., ii. 13) writes 
of the monastery which is called in Latin Campulus bovis, but 
in the Irish Achadboe. 

DRUMB6Y. ' Stoneykirk.' See under DRUMBUIE. 

DRUMBREACH [pron. breeagh] (Estate Map 1777, Drumgreacli 
(? misprint)). Druim breagh [?], ridge of the wolves. Cf., 
in Ireland, Caherbreagh, near Tralee. 

DRUMBREDDAN. ' Old Luce,' ' Stoneykirk.' Druim Breadtain 
[Breddan], Bretan's ridge, or the Welshman's ridge. See 
under CULBRATTEN. 



164 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

DRUMBR6CHANIE. ' MinigafF.' Druim breachnaich [braghnagh], 
ridge of the broken, variegated land. See under BRACKENI- 
CALLIE. 

DRUMBtliE. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Kirkcowan.' Druim buidhe [buie], 
yellow ridge. Cf. DRUMBOY ; also Drumbuy in Beith parish, 
Ayrshire, which Pont explains " Druym-buy, the zellow 
backe." Cuninghame, p. 125. 

DRUMBURN. ' Colveud.' 

DRUMCAGERIE. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim coigeriche, ridge of the 
strangers. Cf. STRANGER'S KNOWE. Coigeriche, a stranger, 
whence the surname MacCon-Cogry, MacCogry, which was 
changed to L'Estrange in consequence of legislation of 
Edward IV., by which the use of Irish surnames within the 
Pale was prohibited (O'Don., Top. Poems, Intr. 26). 

DRUMCANNOCH. ' Minigaff.' Druim ceannaich [?] [cennogh], ridge 
of the purchase, of the bargaining. Ceannaich also means 
" strife " (Shaw). Cf. DRUMTRODDAN, STRIFE EIG, etc. 

DRUMCAPENOCH. ' Glasserton.' Druim ceapanach p], ridge of 
the stumps ; deriv. of ceapdn, a stump. See under CAPE- 
NOCH. 

DRUMCARRICK. ' Old Luce.' Druim carric, ridge of the crag. 
DRUMCAUCHLIE. ' Penninghame.' 

DRUMCHALLOCH. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim tealaich [tyallach], ridge 
of the forge. See under CHALLOCH. 

DRUMCHEATE. ' Urr.' 

DRUMCHESNIK ' Minigaff.' Cf. BARCHESNIE. 

DRUMCLEIGH. * MinigafF.' Druim cliabh [?] [cleeve], ridge of the 
baskets. Cf. Drumcliff, near Sligo, which is always written 
in Irish MSS. Druim-chliabh (Four Masters, A.D. 871, 1011, 
1239, etc.); also Drumcliff in Clare and Donegal, Drum- 
cleave in Tipperary, and Lisdrumcleve in Monaghan. Cf. 
DRUMCLEUGH. 

DRUMCLEUGH. ' Girthon.' Cf. DRUMCLEIGH. 

DRUMCL6Y. ' Balmaclellan.' Druim cloicJie, ridge of the stone, or 
druim cladha [cly, claw], ridge of the mound or grave. 

DRUMCLYOR. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 165 

DRUMC6LTRAN (P. Drumcauran). ' Kirkgunzeon.' Druim Cultrain, 
the ridge of Cultran. In the 1 2th and 1 3th centuries this 
land belonged to the Abbey of Holm Cultran in Cumberland. 
The old tower, now a farmhouse, bears over the doorway the 
following inscription : 

CELA . SECRETA . LOQVERE 
PAVCA . VERAX . ESTO. 
AVARO . CAVE . MEMEXTO 
MORI . MISERICORS . ESTO. 

DRUMCUW. ' Colvend.' 

DRUMCRAICHIE. 'Balmaclellan.' 

DRUMCR6Y. ' Kirkcudbright.' Druim cruadh [croo], hard ridge. 
DRUMCUIL. ' MinigaflF.' Druim cul, back ridge. 

DRUMDALLY. ' Stoneykirk.' Druim dealg [dallig], ridge of the 
thorns. See under CLAMDALLY. 

DRUMDARRACHY. ' New Luce/ See under DRUMDARROCH. 

DRUMDARROCH. ' Mochrum.' Druim darach, ridge of the oaks. 
See under DARROCH. 

DRUMDELLY. ' Dairy.' See under DRUMDALLY. 

DRUMDENNEL. ' Penninghame.' Dnilm d-tenneall [1] [dennal]. 
ridge of the bonfire. Of. KNOCKTINKLE, KNOCKTINNEL. 
Tenneal (Joyce), a bonfire, deriv. of 0. ERSE ten, fire ; ERSE 
teine, w. tan, B. and C. tdn. 

DRUJIDOAN. ' Old Luce.' See under DRUMDON. 

DRUMDOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1623, Drumdooche). 'Inch.' Druim 
dubh [doov, doo], dark ridge. Cf. Dromduff and Drumduff 
in Ireland. 

DRUMD6N. ' Glasserton.' Druim donn, brown ridge. 
DRUMDOXNIES. ' Mochrum.' 

DRUMD6w. ' Glasserton,' ' Kirkcolm,' ' Kirkcowan,' ' Mochrum.' 
See under DRUMDOCH. 

DROID6WN. ' New Luce ' (thrice), ' Old Luce,' ' Penninghame.' 
See under DRUMDON. 

DRUMDROCHAT. ' Minigaff.' Druim droicheaid, the ridge of the 
bridge, bridge-hill (near the bridge over the Penkiln). Cf. 
Drumnadrochat on the Highland railway, Drumadried in 
Antrim, Drumadrehid in Clare. See under BARDROCHWOOD. 



166 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAWHEL. 

DRUMFAD (P. Drumfad). ' Minigaff,' ' Terregles.' Druim fada, 

long, or far ridge. This form and Drumfada occur frequently 

in Ireland. See under DRTJMMODDIE. 
DRUMFARNACHAN. ' Kirkcolm.' Druim fearnachdn, alder ridge. 

Cf. Mullafernaghan in Down, Carrowfarnaghan in Cavan. 

See under BALFERN. 

DRUMFEATHERIN. ' Penninghame.' 

DRUMFERN. ' Kirkgunzeon,' ' Minigaff.' Druim fearn, ridge of 

the alders. See under BALFERN. Cf. DRUMFARNACHAN and 

DRUMFERNIE. 
DRTJMFERNIE. ' Parton.' Druim fearna, ridge of the alder-tree. 

See under BALFERN. 
DRUMFLEICH. ' New Luce.' Druim fliuch, wet ridge. Cf. Drum- 

flugh in Ireland. See under CARRICKAFLIOU. 

DRUMFL6WER [pron. Drumflure]. 'Penninghame.' Druim 
lobhair [?] [louwer], the leper's, sick, or infirm man's ridge. 
Cf. Dromalour in Cork, and Drumalure in Cavan. Knocka- 
lower, in Sligo, is called in English Flowerhill, a similar change 
to that which it is suggested has taken place in Drumflower. 
See under BARLURE. 

DRUMF6RK. ' Dairy.' 

DRUMFRIEL (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Drumfrid (misprint}). ' Inch.' 

DRUMFUNDLE. ' Inch.' Druim Finngael [?], the Norseman's ridge. 
Cf. CARRICKFUNDLE (in Addenda) and DERWHINDLE. 

DRUMGALDER. ' Old Luce/ 

DRUMGLASS (P. Drumglash). ' Balmaghie,' ' Minigaff.' Druim 
glas, green ridge. 

DRUMGILL. ' New Abbey.' Druim goill [?], the foreigner's ridge. 
See under INCHIGUILE. 

DRUMG6RTH (P. Barnagoirt). ' Kirkcowan.' Druim guirt [?], 
ridge of the enclosure or garden, o. ERSE gort, gart, a garden 
or cultivated field (gloss hortus, Zeuss MSS. prsedium, Colgan), 
more common in Irish names than in Scotch + w. gardd + 
ICEL. garZr (whence BR. sc. garth) + DAN. gaard + sw. gard 
+ O.H.G. garto, G. garten + RUSS. gorod", a town -f LAT. hortus 
+ GK. ^opro?, an enclosure + A.s. geard, an enclosure, a 
court (whence M.E. yerd, E. yard). (The M.E. gardin, E. garden, 
O.F. gardin, F. jardin come from the genitive of O.H.G. garto, a 
garden.) From Teut. base GARDA = Aryan GHARTA, " a place 
surrounded " ^/GHAR, to seize, hence to surround ; cf. SKT. 
kvi, to seize, Mrna, the hand, GK. %etp, the hand (Skeat). 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 167 

DnUMG6\VAN. ' Penninghame.' Druim gobhan [gowan], the 
smith's hill ; or druim gamhan [gowan], the calves' hill (cf. 
CAWVIS HILL). It is impossible to distinguish between 
goblian, gen. sing, of gobJia, and gamhan, gen. plur, of gamhan, 
a calf, o. ERSE gamuin (Cormac). Clonygowan in King's 
County is written by the Four Masters (A.D. 1576) Cluain- 
na-ngamhan, meadow of the calves. Cf. Drumgoon, also in 
Ireland. 

DRUMGRILLIE. ' Kells.' Dniim greallach [1], dirty ridge, ridge of 
the clay. ERSE greallach, clay, adj. dirty + ERSE criadh, clay, 
earth + \v. pridd, earth, priddgalch, calcareous earth, fuller's 
clay ; c. and B. pri, clay. 

DRUMHANEY. ' Old Luce.' 

DRUMHASTIE. ' Borgue.' 

DRUMHIGH. ' New Abbey.' 

DRUMHOIPHREY (P. Drumhunchra). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

DRUMIEMAY. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim a' magha, ridge of the plain. 
See under MAY. 

DRTJMJ ARGON (Inq.ad Cap. 1584, Drumgorgan; P. Druymjargan). 
' Kirkinner,' ' Penninghame.' Druim deargdn [dyargan], red 
ridge. (For use of terminal an see under CARRICKGLASSEN.) 
Cf. Drumderg in Ireland. Or, possibly, druim Deargain, the 
ridge of Deargan, or the red man. Cf. Drumyarkin in 
Fermanagh, i.e. Yarkin's or O'Harkin's ridge. O'Harkin 
= O'Dheargan. 

] ) RU^IJ KXNING. ' Kirkcowan.' 

DRUMJIN. ' Glasserton.' 

DRU^IJOHN (P. Drumjowan, Drumjoan). ' Carsphairn,' ' Kirk- 
gunzeon,' ' Minigaff.' 

DRUMKARE. ' New.Luce.' Druim caer [?] [kaer], ridge of the 
berries. Cf. Dromkeare in Kerry, Knockcoolkeare in 
Limerick, etc. etc. (Joyce ii. 323). 

DRUMKEEL. ' Balmaclellan,' ' Parton.' Druim caol [keel], narrow 
ridge. See under CARSKEEL. 

DRUMLAD. ' Rerwick.' Close to Drumlass and Old Man, show- 
ing that the names have been corrupted to suit a spurious 
meanins. 



1 68 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

DRUMLANE. 'Wigtown.' Druim hathan [lahan, laan], broad 
ridge. See under AUCHLEAND. 

DRUMLASS. 'Berwick' Druim leasa [lassa], ridge of the fort, 
irregular genitive of less, which is the old form of lios, " a 
house, habitation ; a palace, court ; a fortified place ; en- 
closures or stalls for cattle " (O'ReiUy). The regular genitive of 
less is liss, but Joyce mentions an irregular genitive leasa [lassa], 
to which he refers Gortalassa, Knockalassa, Ballinlass, Ballin- 
lassa, and Ballinlassy ; while Drumlish, Moylish, and others, 
are from the form liss. Cf. Drumlease in Leitrim, which is 
mentioned in an early MS. (Zeuss, Gram. Celt. 2 6 9) as " Druim //>- 
lias, i.e. jugum tuguriorum" the ridge of the huts, lias being 
another form of lios. 

DRUMLAWANTIE. ' Minigaff.' Cf. DRUMAWANTIE. 

DRUMLAWHINNIE. ' MinigafF.' Druim na mhuine [vinnie], ridge 
of the thicket or of the mountain. 

DRUMLEICHT. 'Kirkcolm.' Druim leacht, ridge of the graves. 
See under LAIGHT. 

DRUMLEY. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim Hath [lea]; grey ridge. Cf. 
Drumlea, Drumleagh, in Ireland. 

DRUMLIEBUIE. ' Kirkcowan.' 

DRUML6CHLINN. * Mochrum.' Druim Lochlinn, Lauchlan's ridge. 
See under BARLAUCHLINE. 

DRUML6CKHART. ' New Luce.' Druim Ifiaehair []], ridge of the 
rushes. Cf. BARLOCKHART, GLENLOCHAR ; also Drum- 
lougher, Drumloughra, Letterlougher, Gortlogher, and Lougher 
in various parts of Ireland. 

DRUML6SKIE. ' Penninghame.' Druim loisgthe [luskie], burnt 
ridge. See under CRAIGLOSK. 

DRUMMACdNNEL. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim ink Connuil, ridge of the 
son of Connel, M'Connel's ridge. 

DRUMMANISTER (P. Drummannister). ' Balmaclellan.' Druim 
mainisdir, ridge of the monastery. See under AUCHMANISTER. 

DRUMMANOCH. 'Buittle.' Druim manach, ridge of the monks. 
See under ARNMANNOCH. Cf. DRUMANOGHAN. 

DRUMMARGIE. 'Kells.' Druim airgidh [?] [argie], ridge of the 
silver. See under CRAIGNARGET. 

DRUMMARGUS. ' MinigafF.' See under DRUMMARGIE. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 169 

DRUMMARTIN. ' Balmaclellan.' Druim Martinn, Martin's ridge. 
DRUMMASTON (W. P. MSS. Drummastoun). ' Whithorn.' 

DRUMMATRANE. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim a' traona [trana], ridge of 
the corncrake. See under CLONE. 

DRUMMIEHERON. ' Colvend.' See under DRUMAHERN. 

DRUMMIEHISLIE. ' New Luce.' Druimin isle [isslie], lower ridge. 
See under CORVISEL. Cf. DRUMWHISLEY. 

DRUMMIEMICKIE. ' Kirkcowan.' 

DRUMMIENELLAN. ' New Luce.' 

DRUMMIENEZER. ' New Luce.' 

DRUMMIERAUD. ' New Luce.' Druim a' rathaid [?] [raud], ridge of 
the road. Cf. KNOCKAROD ; and, in Ireland, Drumaroad, Bal- 
linroad, Lisnarode, etc. o. ERSE rot (Cormox), ERSE rdd, GAEL. 
rathad -f- B. rut. Cognate with E. road (which is from A.s. 
rdd, a journey, from rdd, past tense of ridan, to ride), but not 
derived from it, as it occurs in the oldest Irish MSS. 

DRUMMIESUE. ' Old Luce.' Druim a' suidhe [1] [suie], ridge of 
the seat. 

DRUMMILLAN (Pow) (P. Drummillem). Druim muileain [mullen], 
ridge of the mill. See under BARMULLIN. Cf. DRUMMOLLAN, 
DRUMMULLAN, DRUMMULLIN, and DRUMMILLAN. "Pow, a 
slow-moving rivulet in flat lands " (Jamieson) A.S. pol, a pool, 
like la for ball, ha' for hall, etc. 

DRUMMINARBEL. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim an earbuil [arbil], ridge 
of the point or extremity. See under DARNARBEL. 

DRUMMINNOCH. ' Inch.' Druim meadhonach [minnogh], middle 
ridge. See under BALMINNOCH. Cf. Drummenagh in Armagh, 
Tyrone, and Fermanagh. 

DRUMMODDIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1643, Drummadie ; P. Drummady, 
Drummaddy ; W. P. MSS. Drummaddie). Druim fliada [adda], 
long or far ridge. Cf. Dromada and Dromadda in various 
parts of Ireland ; also Banada, which the Four Masters 
(A.D. 1265) write Beannada and (A.D. 1439) Beann-fhoda ; 
and Creewood which is given in a charter of King John as 
Craebh-fhoda. It may, however, be druim madadh [madda], 
the dog's ridge. See under CLAYMODDIE. 



170 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

DRUMM6LLAN. ' Whithorn.' See under DRUMMILLAN. 
DRUMM6NACHAN. * Glasserton.' See under DRUMANOGHAN. 

DRUMMOND HILL. 'Whithorn.' Dromainn, deriv. ofdruim, with the 
same meaning, a ridge. Cf. Dromin, Drummin, and Drumans 
in Ireland ; and in Ulster about twenty townlands are called 
Drummond. 

DRUMM6NEY. ' Kirkcowan,' ' New Luce.' Dmim monadh [money], 
ridge of the moor, or of the peat. See under DALMONEY. 

DRUMM6NIE. ' Kirkcowan.' See under DRUMMONEY and DAL- 
MONEY. 

DRUMM6RAL. ' Whithorn.' 

DRUMM6RE (P. Druimmoir). ' Kirkmaiden.' Druim m6r, great 
ridge. Cf. DRUMORE, and, in Ireland, Dromore. 

DRUMMUCKLOCH (Inq. ad Cap.lQQ2, Drummukloch). 'Inch.' Druim 
muclaich, ridge of the swine pasture. " Muclach, a herd of 
swine" (O'Reilly), deriv. of muc. 

DRUMMtiDDiOCH. 'Dairy.' Dmim m-bodach [muddagh], ridge 
of the clowns or countrymen. Cf. Ballynamuddagh, now 
called Clownstown, and Rathnamuddagh, both in West 
Meath. ERSE and GAEL, bodach, a churl, a rustic, an old 
man + A.S. bodig, body (M.E. bodi, E. lady, that which confines 
the soul, a person) + o.H.G. potach + SKT. bandJia, the body, 
bondage /^/BHADH, to bind. The ERSE bodach has come to 
be used in a familiar or somewhat contemptuous sense, just 
as BR. so. body or " buddie." 

DRUMMULLAN. ' Twynholm.' See under DRUMMILLAN. 

DRUMMIJLLIN. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Leswalt,' ' Stoneykirk,' ' Whithorn.' 
See under DRUMMILLAN. 

DRUMMURRIE. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim Muireadhaicli [murragh], 
Murphy's or Murray's ridge. Cf. Drummurrie in Ireland. 
See under BALMURRIE. 

DRUMNAIL. ' Kirkgunzeon.' Cf. DRUMNEIL. 

DRUMNAMINSHOCH. 'Minigaff.' Druim nam fhuinnseog [unshog], 
ridge of the ash-trees. The initial letter of fuinnsedg is often 
obliterated by aspiration, especially in the northern part of 
Ireland; and corresponding to Funshion, Funshin, Funshinagh, 
and Funchoge in the south and west, we find Unshinagh, 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 171 

Inshinagh, Unchog, and Hinchoge in the north, also Drumna- 
nunshin. Of. INSHANKS and KNOCKNINSHOCK. ERSttfuinnse, 
fuinnsedn, fuinmedg + W. on, ijn, B. onn. 

DRUMNARBUCK. 'New Luce.' 

DRUMNAW. ' Urr.' Druim an atha [aa, awe], ridge of the ford. 
See under CARSNAW. 

DRUMNEIL. ' Minigaff.' Druim Niaill (Neel), Niel's ridge. See 
under AUCHNEAL. 

DRUMNERLIE. ' Old Luce. 

DRUMNESCAT (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Drumniscart; P. Druimneskart) 
'Mochrum.' Druimin dheisceart [?] [drumminescart], south 
ridge. Cf. Drumhuskert in Mayo, i.e. druim thuaisceart, 
northern ridge ; formed in the same way by aspiration and 
silence of the initial consonant. 

DRUMNESS (P. Drumness). ' Carsphairn.' Druim an easa [essa], 
ridge of the cascade. There is a waterfall here on Pulmaddy. 
See under Ass OF THE GILL. Cf. Dunass on the Shannon, 
Caherass in Limerick, Owenass, Pollanass, and Poulauassy, 
elsewhere in Ireland. 

DRUMORAWHERN. ' Inch.' Druim mdr a' chuirn [hirn], great 
ridge of the cairn. 

DRUM6RE (P. Drummoir (' Kirkmabreck ')). ' Kirkcowan,' ' Kirk- 
mabreck.' See under DRUMMORE. 

DRUM6URS. ' New Luce.' Druim odhar [owr], grey ridge. 
DRUMOWRE. 'Minigaff.' See under DRUMOURS. 

DRUMPAIL (P. Drumpail). ' Old Luce.' Druim pell [?], ridge of 
the horses, o. ERSE pell, GAEL, peall. 

DRUMPARK. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Druim pairc [park], ridge 
of the fields. ERSE and GAEL, pairc + \v. park, parwg, B. park 
+ O.F. pare. The Celtic forms are probably borrowed from 
the Teutonic. E. park A.s. pearroc (M.E. parrok, now spelt 
paddock} + ~D\J. perk+swvD. and DAN. park + G. pferch, an en- 
closure + IT. parco + SP. parque. 

DRUMQUHAN [pron. Drumwhan). ' Penuinghame.' 

DRUMRAE (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Drumroy ; W. P. MSS. Drumra). 
' Glasserton.' Druim reidh [?] [ray], smooth ridge, or druim 
ratha [raa], ridge of the rath or fort. Cf., in the latter sense, 
Drumragh in Tyrone, spelt Drumrathe in the Inquisitions. 

DRUMRAKE. ' Kirkmabreck.' 



172 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

DRUMRANNIE. ' New Luce.' Druim raiihne [rahnie], ridge of the 
ferns. See under BLAWRANNIE. Cf. DRUMREXNIE ; and, in 
Ireland, Dromrahnee, Drumrainy, and Drumrane. 

DRUMRASH (P. Druymcaash (misprint)'). ' Parton.' Druim ras, 
ridge of the bushes. Cf. RASHXACH. Probably akin to ros. 
See tinder Ross. 

DRUMREARIE. ' Kells.' 

DRUMRENNIE. ' Balmaclellan.' See under DRUMRANNIE. 
DRUMR6BBIN. ' Twynholm.' 

DRUMRUCK (Inq. ad Cap. 1625, Drumruckalie ; P. Drumruck). 
' Girthon.' 

DRUMSCALLAN. ' Mochrum.' Druim sgeaUain [1] [sgallan], ridge 
of the wild mustard. 

DRUMSHALLOCH. ' Kirkcowan,' ' Penninghame ' (the two places are 
within a mile of each other). Druim sealg [1] [shallug], the 
ridge of the chase, of the hunting. Cf. Drumnashaloge in 
Tyrone, Drumashellig in Queen's County, Derrynashallog in 
Monaghan, and Ballynashallog in Londonderry. It is quite 
possible, however, that this may be a softened form of 
Drumchalloch (q. v.\ or even a corruption of setleach, willows, 
or of salach, dirty (see under BARSALLOCH). 

DRUMSHANGAN. ' Girthon.' Druim seangan [shangan], ridge of 

the ants. See under BARNASHAXGAN 
DRUMSHUNE. ' Parton.' 

DRUMSKELLY. ' Crossmichael.' Druim sceilig, ridge of the rocks. 
See under BALSCALLOCH. 

DRUMSKEdG [pron. skioghe] (P. Drumskioch). ' Mochrum.' Druim 
sceithiog [skeyog], ridge of the hawthorns. Cf. Drumskea, 
in Ireland. See under AUCHENSKEOG. 

DRUMSLEET. ' Troqueer.' 

DRUMSOUL. ' Old Luce.' Druim sabhuil [sowl], ridge of the barn 
or granary. 

DRUMSTIXCHALL (P. Drumstinchar). ' Col vend.' 

DRUMSTINCHAR. ' Crossmichael.' 

DRUMT6WL. ' Glasserton.' GAEL, druim tuaitheal [tooall], north 
ridge (literally, left-handed). Perhaps Tuathail, Tuathal's or 
Doual's ridge. 

DRUMTUTOR. ' Dairy.' Druim t-sudaire [toodery], ridge of the 
tanner. Cf. LAGTUTOR. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALL OWAY. 173 

DRUMTR6DDAN (P. Drumtrodden). ' Mochrum.' Druim trodain, 
ridge of the quarrel. Three large standing stones here perhaps 
commemorate the event which is perpetuated in the name. 
There was also a circular fort, marked in estate survey of 
1777, which has now disappeared. Cf. Bally troddan and 
Carricktroddan in Armagh. 

DRUMVERGES. ' New Luce.' 

DRUMV6GIL. ' New Luce.' 

DRUMWALL. ' Girthon.' Druim gall [1], ridge of the foreigners, 
the strangers, or of the standing stones. 

DRUMWALT. ' Mochrum.' 

DRUMWAVE. ' Kirkcowan.' 

DRUMWHAR. 'Minigaff.' Druim ghearr [har], short ridge, or 
druim ghar, near ridge. Cf. Drumgar in Ireland. 

DRUMWHAT. ' Mochrum.' Druim chat, hill of the wild-cats. 
See under ALWHAT. 

DRUMWHILL. ' Kirkmaiden.' Druim chuill [hill], ridge of the 
hazel. See under BARWHIL. Cf. Drumaquill in Ireland. 

DRUMWHILLAN. ' Kirkcowan.' Druim chuilinn [hillin], ridge of 
the holly. See under ALWHILLAN. Cf. Drumacullin, Druma- 
cullion, Drumcullen, and Drumcullion in Ireland, which are 
the unaspirated forms. 

DRUMWHILLANS. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under DRUMWHILLAN. 

DRUMWHIN. 'Urr.' Druim choin [1] [hin] ridge of the dog. 
ERSE cu, gen. coin, w. CI+TEUT. type HUN-DA (whence G., DAN., 
SWED. hund, DU. hand, A.s. hund, E. hound), related to LAT. 
amis, GK. KVWV, gen. KVVOS. SKT. $uan >\/KWAN, a dog. 

DRUMWHINNIE. ' Colvend/ ' Kirkgunzeon.' Druim mhuine [?], 
[vinny], ridge of the moor or thicket. 

DRUMWHIRN. ' Mochrum.' Druim chuirn [hirn], ridge of the 
cairn. See under DRUMAHERN. 

DRUMWHIRNS. ' Penninghame.' See under DRUMWHIRN. 
DRUMWHIRRAN. ' Kirkcowan.' 

DRUMWHISLEY. ' Leswalt.' Druim isle [issly], lower ridge. See 
under DRUMMIEHISLIE. 

DRUMWH6DYA. Mochrum.' 

DRUNGANS. ' New Abbey,' ' Berwick,' ' Troqueer.' See under 
DRANGAN. 



174 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

DRURY LANE. ' Whithorn.' 

DRYBURGH. ' Crossmichael.' 

DUBLOCH. ' Mochrum,' ' New Luce.' See under DOULOCH. 

DUB OF HASS (P. Haiss). ' Buittle.' The " dub," or pool of the 
" hals " or " hawse," a narrow glen. See under HAUSE BURN. 

DuCARROCH. ' Stoneykirk.' 

DUCHDUBS BURN. 'Inch.' A compound of ERSE dubh [dooh], 
black, and TEUTONIC dub, a pool. This name appears near 
Saltcoats, in Ayrshire, as Dudups. 

DUCHRA (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Dowchrary ; P. Dochray). ' Stoney- 
kirk.' Dubh reidh [dooh ray], black meadow. Cf. Dockra, 
Duchray, and Docraw in Ayrshire. 

DUCHRAE (P. Dowchra). ' Balmaghie.' See under DUCHRA. 
DUGLAND (a hill of 2000 feet). ' Carsphairn.' 

DULLARG (P. Dullarg). ' Parton,' ' Tungland.' Dubh learg, black 
hill-side. See under LARG. 

DuLSL,6uGH. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' 

DUMBEY or DUNBAE (Inq. ad Cap. 1691, Dumbeg). 'Inch.' Dun 
beith [bey], fort of the birches. 

DUMBIE POINT. ' Sorbie, s.c.' 

DuNAGARROCH. ' Kirkmaiden.' Dundn carrach or garbh [garve, 
garriv], rough fort. 

DUNAHASKEL. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

DUN AN. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under DONNAN. 
DuNAND6w. * Kirkmaiden.' Dunan dubh [doo], black fort. 

DUNANREA. * Stoneykirk.' Dun an righ [1] [ree], the king's fort. 
Cf. Dunaree in Cavan (transl. Kingscourt), and Dinn Righ 
on the river Barrow. (Four Masters, A.M. 3267, 4658); also 
Doonaree in Connaught, written Dun na riogh in the Book of 
Lecan. 

DUNBAR. ' Kirkbean.' 

DUNBEG. ' Kirkcolm.' Dun beag, little fort. 

DUNDEUGH (P. Dungeuch ; Pitcairn, 1515,Dungeuche ; Charters 
1630, Dingewche; 1666, Dungeuche; 1674, Dundeuch ; 1700, 
Dindouch; 1702,DunduflP). 'Carsphairn.' The original form 
of the name seems to have been Dungeuch. 



THE TOPO GRAPHY OF GALL OWAY. 175 

DUNDREAM. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' 

DUNDRENNAN (P. Doundrainan). ' Berwick.' Dun dmigheanan 
[1] [drannan], fort of the blackthorns. See under DRANGAN. 

DUNESKET. ' Balmaghie.' Dun dheisceart [escart], south fort. 
See under DRUMNESCAT. 

DUNFERMYN. ' Mochrum.' The old name given in Font's atlas 
to the vitrified fort now called the Doon of May. 

DUNGAMEN. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

DUNGARRY. 'Eerwfck.' Dun garlh [garriv], rough fort. Cf. 

DUNAGARROCH. 

DUNGEON GLEN, THE. ' New Luce.' Dunagan [?], rocky ; deriv. 
of dun. Cf. Port Dunagain and Eileandunagan, in lona. 

DUNGEON (a hill). ' Kells. 

DUNGEON (a small loch). ' Dairy.' 

DUNGUILE (a fortified hill of 1453 feet). 'Kelton.' Dun goill 
(gen. of gall), fort of the foreigner. Cf. INCHIGUILE ; and, in 
Ireland, Dungall and Donegal, i.e. dun na' gall, fort of the 
foreigners, the latter of which is frequently mentioned by 
the Four Masters as Dun-na-nGall. 

DUNHARBERRY. ' Girthon.' Dun CJiairbre [harbrie], Cairbre's 
fort. Cairbre is an exceedingly common proper name in the 
Annals of the Four Masters from A.D. 10 onwards. Under 
the year 1538 they mention dun Ccairbre (now Doongarbry) 
in Leitrim ; and the barony of Carbury, in Sligo, takes its 
name from Cairbre, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, chief 
of this territory in St. Patrick's time. 

DUN HILL. ' Carsphairn.' See under DOONHILL. But Dunhill 
in Waterford is called in Grace's Annals Donnoil (i.e. dun 
aille, the fort of the cliff). 

DUNICHINNIE. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

DUNIKELLIE. * Kirkmaiden.' 

DUNJARG. ' Crossmichael.' Dun dearg [dyarg], red fort 
DuNj6p (P. Dounjopp). ' Tungland.' 

DUNJUMPIN. ' Colvend.' See under DINCHIMPON. 
DUNKITTERICK. ' Minigaff.' 

DUNMAN (P. Doun Man). ' Kirkmaiden.' Dun m-beann [?] 
[man], fort of the hillocks, gables, or peaks. Cf. Dunnaman 
in Down and Limerick, Dunnavenny in Londonderry (from 



176 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

the genit. sing, bheanna), and Dunmanway in Cork (dun 
m-beann bhuidhe, fort of the yellow hills or peaks), given by 
the Four Masters (A.D. 1506) as Dun-na-m-beann. 

DUNM6RE. ' Carsphairn.' Dun mdr, the great fort. Cf. Dun- 
more in Ireland. 

DuNMtlCK. ' Kirkmaiden.' Dun muc, fort of the swine. 
DUNMUIR. ' Kelton.' See under DUNMORE. 

DUNMURCHIE. ' Kirkcolm.' Dun Murchaidh [murghy, gutt.], 
Murchadh's fort. See under CRAIGMURCHIE. 

DfrNNERUM. ' Inch.' 

DtiNNANCE MOAT. ' Balmaghie.' See under DINNANS. 

DUNNANEE. ' Minigaff.' Dun an fhiaidh [ee], fort or hill of the 
deer. See under CRAIGINEE. 

DIJNNANS CRAIG. ' Dairy.' See under DINNANS. 

DUNNOTTRIE. ' Minigaff.' Dun uachterach, upper fort. Cf. Moy- 
otra in Monaghan. 

DUN60L (a hill of 1777 feet). ' Carsphairn.' 

DtJNdRROCH or DUN6RA. ' Kirkmaiden.' Dun odhartha [owra], 
grey fort ; a derivative of odhar, or perhahs dun fhomhorach 
[awragh], fort of the pirates. 

DuN6wER. ' Balmaclellan.' Dun odhar [ower], grey fort ; or 
perhaps the same as Donore, in Meath, which the Four 
Masters (A.D. 1310), write dun uabhair [ower], the fort of 
pride, and Castleore in Sligo, which they write caisUn an 
uabhair. To Donoure, Doonoor, Doonour, Doonore, and 
Dunover, are assigned the same meaning by Joyce (ii. 473). 

DuNRdD (P. Dunrod). 'Kirkcudbright.' Dun rathaid [raad], the 
fort of the road, or from the older form rdd, the fort of the 
roads. See under DRUMMIERAUD. Cf., with the same 
meaning, Lisnarode in Queen's County. 

DUNSKEY (P. Dunskay). ' Port Patrick.' " Scseodunum appel- 
latur vulgo Dunskey, id est Arx Alata." Madellan. If this 
be the correct meaning, then the original name would be dun 
sciathach, the winged fort, from sciath, a wing, a shield, a 
buckler (O'Reilly). Donaskeagh in Tipperary is written 
(Four Masters, A.D. 1043), Dun na sciath, the fort of the 
shields. 

DUNSKIRLOCH. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Dun sceirlack p], rocky fort ; 
deriv. of weir, a sharp sea-rock (O'ReUfy). 



THE TOPO GRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 177 

DUNSOUR. 'Kirkcolm.' 

DUN'S WA'S. ' Kirkcudbright.' 

DUNTING GLEN. ' Stoneykirk.' 

DUNVEOCH. 'Kells.' Dun fithich [feeugh], the raven's fort. 
See under BENNAVEOCH. 

DUNWICK. Kirkcolm.' 

DUPAL. ' Kirkmaiden.' Dubh [doo] pol, black pool or water. 

DURHAM HILL. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

DUTCHMANSTERN. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

DYESTER'S BRAE. ' Stoneykirk.' The dyer's brae ; dyester, a 
woman who dyes. E. dye A.S. dedgan, to dye, dedg, deah, 
colour : further origin unknown (Skeat). The suffix ster (A.S. 
-es-tre), is well explained by Skeat, s.v. Spinster. Originally 
it was restricted to the female sex, but was gradually ex- 
tended to the other. 

DYESTER'S EIG. ' Balmaclellan.' See under DYESTER'S BRAE. 
DYRHYMPEN. ' Mochrum.' See under LOCH HEMPTON. 

DYRNAJIAY. ' Mochrum.' Dobhar [dour] na magha, water of the 
plain. This name, now disused, is that given by Pont to 
Drumwalt Loch. The farm of May, on the south-western 
shore of the lake, retains the last syllable of the old name. 

DYRSNAG. 'Mochrum.' 



E 



AGLE CAIRN. ' Kirkmaiden.' Cf. BENYELLARY. 

EARLSTON (P. Erlstoun). ' Dairy.' The Earl's homestead. Said 
to have been built by James, Earl of Bothwell, as a hunting- 
box, whence the name. 

EDGARTON (P. Egerton, Eggertoun). ' Balmaghie.' Edgar's 
homestead. 

EDINGHAM. ' Urr.' 

EGGERNESS (P. Eggerness ; CJiarter of Roland, Lord of Galloway, 
circa 1185 (Crauf. MS.), Egernesse). 'Terregles, s.c.' 
M 



1 78 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGA1DHEL. 

EGLIN LANE. ' Minigaff.' Cf. Eglin Hole in Nidderdale, York- 
shire, which Lucas (p. 101) derives from a man's name, a 
suggestion strengthened by the occurrence of the name Eglin- 
ton in Ayrshire. 

EILAH HILL. ' New Luce.' Aileach [ellagh], a stone house or 
fort, from ail, a stone. " Aileach or ailtheagh, i.e. a name for 
a habitation, which (name) was given from stones." O'Clery's 
Glossary. Cf. Elagh in Tyrone, and Ellagh in Mayo and Gal- 
way. See under CRAIGENALLIE. 

ELDER HOLM. ' Kells.' The river-meadow of the alders, not 
" elders," which in BR. sc. would be " bourtrees." M.E. aldyr, 
previously aller (the d being redundant), BR. SC. and north 
E. dialect, eller A.S. air + DU. els + ICEL. elrir, elri, olr + 
SWED. al + DAN. elle, el + O.H.G. elira, erila, erla, G. eller, else 
+ LAT. alnus + LITH. elkszris + RUSS. olecha \/AL, to grow, 
whence E. elm. The E. elder (M.E. eller} is probably the same 
word applied to a different tree. 

ELDRIG or ELRIG (P. Elrick, Elrich; Charter, A.D. 1413 (Crauf. 
MS.;, Ellerig). ' Kirkcowan,' ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Mochrum,' 'New 
Luce,' ' Penninghame,' ' Stoneykirk.' A name of very 
general occurrence all over Scotland. Cf. Olrick in Caith- 
ness. 

ELDRIG REE, THE. ' New Luce.' " Ree, a sheep-ree, a permanent 
sheepfold, surrounded with a wall of stone and peat." 
Jamieson. 

ELLERGOWER ROCK. ' Minigaff.' Ail na' gobhar [gower], goat's 
cliff. See under ALGOWER. 

EMER'S ISLE. 'Kirkcolm, s.c. 3 

ENOCH [pron. Ennogh] (Inq. ad. Cap. 1600, Enoche; P. Enoch). 
' Glasserton,' ' Stoneykirk,' ' Whithorn.' Aenach [ennagh], 
a fair. Cf. Enagh, the name of many places in Ireland. 
Liable to be confused with earMch [annagh], a bog. 

ENRICK (P. Ainrik, Ainryick). ' Girthon,' ' Tungland.' 

ERNAJVIBRIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1628, Irnealmerie; P. Ardnamrie). 
' Crossmichael.' The prefix Ern-, occurring six times in this 
parish, seems to be a local contraction of ard, a height, 
followed by the article ; it is possibly, however, A.s. cern, a 
house (see under WHITHORN), which may have found its way 
into Celtic speech as a loan word. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 179 

ERNANITY (P. Ardnannaty). ' Crossmichael.' Ard na annuid, 
hill of the church. Sec under ANNAT HILL. 

ERNCR6GO. ' Crossmichael.' 

ERNESPIE. ' Crossmichael.' Ard an espoic [espick], the bishop's 
hill. o. ERSE epscop (Cormac, p. 19), easpog, easbog + 'W. esgob, 
B. escob, C. ispak, escop LAT. episcopus, abishop GK. e7ricr/eo7ro9, 
an overseer. The gen. espoic occurs in the Leabor Breac, " Do 
laim Tassaig espoic" " To the hand of Bishop Tassach." Cf. 
GILLESPIE and QUINTINESPIE ; also, in Ireland, Tullinespick 
in Down, Monaspick in Wicklow, Killaspy in Kilkenny. 

ERNFILLAN. ' Crossmichael.' Ard an Fillain, Fillan's hill. The 
name of St. Fillan, abbot of Pittenweem, is perpetuated in 
many parts of Scotland. " This hermit saint had a miraculous 
left hand of glory, which shed from the fingers a splendour 
that lighted his task of translating the Holy Scriptures. 
Eobert the Bruce possessed this luminous arm, and had it 
carried in a silver shrine at the head of his army. Before 
the battle of Bannockburn, the chaplain, fearing lest it should 
fall into English hands, placed the marvel-working relic in a 
place of safety ; but whilst Robert knelt before the empty 
casket, the door suddenly opened and shut, for the saint him- 
self had replaced the arm as a sign of coming victory. In 
gratitude King Robert built St. Fillan's Priory at Killin, on 
Loch Tay." Mackenzie Walcott, p. 327. See under KIL- 

FILLAN. 

ERNMINZIE (P. Ardmynnies). ' Crossmichael.' 

ERSBAL'S CAVES. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

ERSOCK (JV. P. MSS., Erssik, Irsak, Irsyk; Charter 1513, Irsalk). 
' Glasserton.' 

ERVIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Urie). 'Kirkcolm.' 

ESCHONCHAN [pron. Skyoncan] (P. Eshsheskewachan). 'MinigafF.' 
The prefix is eas, a waterfall. Buchan Burn (q. v.), which is 
near this place, is spelt by Pont Essbuchany. 

EWE HILL (1900 feet). ' Carsphairn.' 

EYES. ' Inch.' 

EYES OF CRAIGBIRNOCH. ' New Luce.' 

EYES, RIG OF THE. ' New Luce.' 



i8o AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 



F; 



AGAN. ' Minigaff.' 

FAGRA. ' Berwick.' 

FAIRGIRTH (P. Fairgirth). ' Kirkcowan.' Fair garth, fair culti- 
vated field or garden. See under DRUMGORTH. 

FAIRY KNOWES. ' Inch.' 

FALBAE. 'Kirkmabreck.' Pholl beith [bey], pool of the birches. 
The aspirated form of poll is commonly met with as the pre- 
fix Fal, Phal, or Phil. See under POLBAE. 

FALCLINTALLACH. ' Mochrum.' 

FALCUMNOR. 'Mochrum.' 

FALGUNZEON [pron. gunnion]. ' Kirkgunzeon.' Pholl Gninnin, 
St. Winnin's pool. See under KIRKGUNZEON. 

FALHAR. ' Whithorn.' Pholl ghearr [1] [har], short pool. 
FALKE6WN BURN. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

FALKIPPER. 'Mochrum.' Phol tiobair, pool of the well. See 
under TIBBERT. 

FALLBAE. ' Parton.' See under FALBAE and POLBAE. 

FALLB6GUE. ' Borgue.' Pholl bot/, soft, boggy pool or stream. 
See under BOGUE. 

FALLINCHERRIE CRAIG. ' Kells.' The prefix is probably faill, a 
cliff, an alternative form of ail!. See under ALCHERRY, which 
appears to bear the same meaning as FALLINCHERRIE. 

FALL or FOURS (a field on Dunskey). ' Port Patrick.' BR. so. 
fauld, an enclosure. 

FALLREOCH. ' Balmaclellan.' Plwll riabhach [reeagh], grey pool. 
Cf. LOCHANOUR. 

FALNAW BURN. ' Kirkmabreck.' Pholl an atha [awe], pool or 
water of the ford. 

FALNEAR. ' Mochrum.' 

FALREADY. ' Penninghame.' 

FALSHEUCHAN. ' Kirkinner.' See under SHEUCHAN. 

FALWHIRN. ' Kirkcowan.' Pholl chuirn [hwirn], pool or water of 
the cairn. Cf. PILWHIRN. 

FAL WHISTLE. ' Kirkinner.' PMl iseal [1], low pool. See under 
CORVISEL. 



THE TOPO GRAPH Y OF GALLOWAY. 1 8 1 

FALYOUSE. ' Mochrum.' 

FANG OF THE MERRICK. ' Minigaff.' The " fang " or claw ; 
metaph. for the spur of a hill. 

FANNYGAPPLE (a field on Stewarton farm). 'Kirkinner.' FaicJie 
na geapul, the field of the horses. 0. ERSE faidche, a green 
(Cormac), whence BR. SC. " Fey, croft or infield land, Gallo- 
way." Jamieson. The Cinel-Fathaidh were the people 
whose descendants, after the tenth century, took the name 
of O'Fathaidh, now written O'Fahy and Fay, and still further 
disguised, in obedience either to fashion or to the laws com- 
pelling the native Irish to assume English names, in the 
name Green, from the resemblance between the pronunciation 
of Fathaldh and faithche, a green. 

FARMALLOCHY. ' Mochrum.' 

FARRACHBAE. ' Minigaff.' Farrach beith []] [bey], trysting-place 
of the birches. See under BORGAN FERRACH. 

FARY HOCK. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

FAULDBANE. ' Mochrum.' Plwll bdn [?], white water ; or per- 
haps a hybrid name, fauld bdn, the white enclosure. 

FAULD BURN. 'Mochrum.' The burn of the "fauld" or en- 
closure. 

FAULDCARNAHAN. ' New Luce.' Carnochan's " fauld " or en- 
closure. Carnochan is still a common surname in Galloway, 
Cairnech, Cearnach, and Cearnachan, occur frequently in the 
Annals of the Four Masters, the former being a celebrated 
saint and contemporary of St. Patrick. The name arises 
from two sources, viz. cearnach, victorious, from cearn, victory, 
and carnach, a heathen priest (O'Reilly}, i.e. one who officiates 
at the earn, or cairn. The suffix an is the usual addition to 
adjectives used as names of men (Top. Poems [55]). 

FAULDCLANCHIE. ' New Luce. ' A hybrid word, i.e. fauld, an 
enclosure, and cladh innse [claw inshie], the mound or fence of 
the meadow-land. The place seems first to have been called 
Clanchie (see under CLAUNCH), and then called the " fauld " 
of Clanchie. 

FAULDINCHIE. ' New Luce.' Prob. a hybrid word, i.e. fauld, an 
enclosure, innse [inshie], of the meadow-land. Cf. FAULD- 
CLANCHIE. 

FAULDRARE, or FULRARE BURN. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

FAULDROT or FILROTE WELL. ' Mochrum.' 



i8 2 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGA1DHEL. 

FAULDSLAVE. ' Inch.' 

FELL, in many places, sometimes alone, at others in conjunction with 
English or Gaelic names, frequently pleonastic. M.E. fel 
ICEL . fjall, fell, a mountain + DAN. field + SWED, fjiill. ' ' Prob- 
ably originally applied to an open flat down, and the same 
word as E. field." Skeat. The prevalence of this word in 
Galloway hill -names is doubtless owing to the subjection of 
the province to the Norsemen in the ninth and tenth centuries. 

FELLNAW. ' Tungland.' See under FALNAW. 

FELL OF CROOK. ' Mochrum.' Cruach, a hill, or crock, gallows. 

FELL OF LAGHEAD. ' Girthon.' Hill of the head of the hollow. 
This name, like Ass OF THE GILL, is polyglot. ICEL. fjall, 
ERSE lag, E. head. 

FELLSAVERY. ' Inch.' 

FELLYENNAN. 'Mochrum.' Pholl, water. There used to be a 
lakelet here, formerly a swamp. 

FERNTOWN HILL. ' Port Patrick.' 

FEYMORE. ' Leswalt.' Faiche mdr, great green field. See under 
FANNYGAPPLE. Cf. Foymore in Armagh. But Feemore, in 
Ireland, isfidh mdr, great wood. 

FILBANE HILL. ' Old Luce.' See under FAULDBANE. 

FINEN HILL. ' Kirkcolm.' See Font's rendering of Fingland. 

FINENESS (three syllables) (Inq. ad Cap. 1576, Fynnenes ; 1611, 
Fynnaneis ; P. Finneness). ' Balmaghie.' 

FINGLAND (P. Fingen). 'Dairy.' 

FINLOCK. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

FINNART. See CAIRNIE FINNART. 

FINTLOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1617, Fyntallachie ; P. Fintilloch). 
' Kells.' Fionn tulach, white hill. Part of this farm is called 
Whitehill. Cf. FYNTULLACH. 

FLECKEDLAND. ' Penninghame.' Broken, variegated land; E. 
equivalent of ERSE breac. See under AUCHABRICK, KNOCK- 
BRAKE, etc. Cf. the three names next following, also FRECKIT 
HILL. 

FLECKIT HILL. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' See under FLECKEDLAND. 
FLECKIT KNOWE. ' Minigaff.' See under FLECKEDLAND. 
FLECKIT RIG. ' Parton.' See under FLECKEDLAND. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 183 

FLEET (P. Fleet) (a river). ' Girthon,' etc. ICEL. fljdt, a stream 
+ DU. vliet, a brook + A.S. fledt, a bay or channel, fleotan, to 
fleet, glide bye. The regular name for a creek among the 
marshes of Kent is " fleet." 

FLEUGH LARG (P. Flularg). ' Penninghame.' Fluich learg, wet 
land. See under CARRICKAFLIOU and LARG. Cf. FLUSH HILL. 

FLOAT (Inq, ad Cap. 1616, Floit ; P. Flot). ' Stoneykirk.' 
Probably " flat " by the regular change of a to o (as in dc to 
oak). The farm of Flat, in Largs parish, Ayrshire, is called 
Flote by Pont (CuningJiame, p. 136). 

FLUSH HILL. ' Kirkcolm.' Wet hill. See under FLEUGH LARG. 
FOLK BURN. ' Kells.' 

FOULFLUSH. ' Whithorn, s.c.' Faill fluicli, wet cliff. See under 
CARRICKAFLIOU and FALLIN CHERRY. 

FOULFORD. ' Inch. Foul or dirty road. " Ford, way " (Jamieson) ; 
"E. ford, M.E. ford, forth, a passage, esp. through a river" (Skeat) 
A.S. ford + G. furt, furth+A.S. faran, to go + DU. varen + 
ICEL. and SWED. /ara + DAN. fare + o.K.G. faran, C. fahren + 
GOTH, faran, to go + GK. Tropevo/jiai, I go, travel, TTO/JO?, a way 
through, Trepdw, I pass through + LAT. experior, I pats through, 
experientia + SKT. pri, to bring over */PAR, to cross, pass 
over or through. 

FOUNTAIN BANNERS. ' New Luce.' 

FOREMANNOCH (P. Faumenach ; Charter 1799, Forminogh, Fomin- 
ogh). 'Parton.' Faiche meadhonach [menagh], middle field. 
See under BALMINNOCH and FANNYGAPPLE. 

FORKET GLEN. ' Kirkgunzeon.' Forked, divided glen. Cf. 
GLENHOWL. 

Fox HUNT. ' Glasserton.' 

Fox BATTLE. Stoneykirk, s.c.' Rattle, a heap of boulders and 
debris at the foot of a cliff. M.E. rattlen-A..S. hrcetele, 
/tra:^ZCT/r, rattlewort, z'.e. the plant that rattles + DU. ratelen,io 
rattle + G. rassel, a rattle + GK. tcpoTa\.l&tv, to rattle- KRAT, 
to knock (imitative, as in rat-tat-tat). In the sense of a heap 
of stones, from the noise made by stones falling from a cliff. 

FOXES' KATTLE. Kirkmaiden, s.c.' See under Fox RATTLE and 
INCHSHANNOCH. 



184 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

Fox YIRD. ' Carsphairn.' Fox earth. BR. sc. " Yird, yerd, earth." 
Jamieson. The technical expression for a fox's hole in E. is 
an "earth." BR. sc. yird ICEL. j&rd + T>AK. and SWED. jord 
+ GOTH. airtha + G. erde + A.S. eor%e (whence M.E. eor^e, er^e, 
erthe, E. earth). 

FRANCO HILL. ' Kirkcolm.' Franco, a Frenchman. See under 

AUCHENFRANCO. 

FRANKIE HILL. ' Minigaff.' See under FRANGO HILL. 
FRECKET HILL. ' Stoneykirk.' See under FLECKIT HILL. 

FREUCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1666, Gallindalloch, nunc vocata Frewch). 
' Stoneykirk.' Frdech, heather. There are several places in 
Ireland called Freagh and Freugh. o. ERSEfrdech + vr. grug, 
B. bruc. 

FRIAR'S YARD (close to New Abbey). ' New Abbey.' The friar's 
garden. "Yard, yaird, a garden, properly of pot-herbs. . ' The 
bonny yard of ancient Eden'; Ferguson.'* Jamieson. M.E. 
yerd A.S. geard. See under DRUMGORTH. 

FUFFOCK (a lakelet). ' Minigaff.' 

FUFFOCK HILL (P. Fuffock; MS. 1527, Fuchik) (1050 feet). 
' Twynholm.' 

FUFFOCK, KILN OF THE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

FULRARE. ' Kirkmabreck.' See FAULDRARE. 

FUMART LlGGAT. ' Dairy.' Polecat's gate. " Fowmarte, a polecat." 
Jamieson. M.E. fulmart, folmart, fulmard. From M.E. ful 
A. S. ful, foul, stinking, and o.F. marte, martre, a martin ; thus 
A.S. ful mear , stinking, foul martin =foul martin. But Lucas 
(Studies in Nidderdale, p. 130) devotes a chapter to show that 
fowmart, a polecat, is a distinct word from fomud, Yorksh. 
for the Pine Marten (which has no smell), and which he 
derives from o. NORSE foa, a fox, and mordr, a martin = the 
fox-martin, as we speak of the martin-cat. See under LlGGAT- 

CHEEK. 

FtiNLAN. 'Mochrum.' 

FURBAR. ' Kelton.' 

FtRMisiON CRAIG AND LANE. ' Carsphairn.' 

FYNTtLLACH (P. Fintilloch). ' Penninghame.' See under FINT- 
LOCH. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 185 

r\ ABARRUNING. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Gab, gob, a mouth, 
\X beak, snout (O'Reilly}. Applied to the point of a hill or 

cliff. BR. SC. " gab, gob, the mouth " (Jamiesori), w. gob, a 

heap, a mound. 

GAB HILL. ' Kirkmaiden.' Gab, gob, a snout. 

GABSN6UT. ' New Luce.' Appears to be a pleonastic compound 
of gab and snout. See under GABARRUNING. 

GAHARN (a hill of 2000 feet). ' Minigaff.' 

GAIGRIE. ' Buittle.' See under CAGGRIE. 

GAIRAL. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Gar aill []], near cliff. There are 
several islands off the coast of Ireland called Garinish, i.e. 
near island. 

GAIRLAND BURN (P. Ghairland). Gar linn, the near pool, or gearr 
lin, short pool (the former most likely). Cf. Garline in In- 
verness-shire. 

G AIRLOCK (P. Loch of Gherloch). ' Kells.' Gar loch, near loch, 
or gearr loch, short loch. 

GAIRY. A name commonly applied to an elevated place, a hill- 
side (not to be confounded with "garry ") A.S. gdra, a pro- 
jecting point of land A.S. gdr, a spear. Or perhaps it comes 
from ICEL. geiri, a triangular piece of land, from geirr, a spear ; 
BR. sc. " gair, a slip of tender, fertile grass in a barren 
situation " Jamieson. This is the same as E. " goi'e, a tri- 
angular piece let into a garment, a triangular slip of land " 
(Skeat), from the pointed shape. 

GALA LANE (P. Gallua Lein). ' Carsphairn.' 

GALDENOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Galdynnoch). ' Leswalt,' 'Old 
Luce,' ' Stoneykirk.' Gallnach, a place of foreigners, stranger's 
dwelling. See under DERGALL. 

GALE ISLAND. ' Minigaff.' 

GALLA HILL. ' Penninghame.' The gallows hill (see under CUL- 
CREUCHIE) galga, gealga, a cross, a gibbet, whence M. E. galwe, 
by usual change of g to w + ICEL. gdlgi + DAN. and SWED. 
galge, a gibbet + DU. galg + GOTH, galga, a cross + G. galgen. 
Koot unknown (Skeat). 

GALLANT BUOYS. ' Borgue, s.c.' 

GALLIE CRAIG. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 



i86 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

GALL KNOWE. ' Berwick.' 

GALL Moss OF DIRNEAUK ' Kirkcowan.' 

GALLOWAY, the province comprising the shire of Wigtown and 
the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. " During the latter years 
of Kenneth's reign (A.D. 844-860) a people appear in close 
association with the Norwegian pirates, and joining in their 
plundering expeditions, who are termed Gallgaidhel. This 
name is formed by the combination of the two words ' Gall,' 
a stranger, a foreigner, and ' Gaidhel,' the national name of 
the Gaelic race. It was certainly first applied to the people 
of Galloway, and the proper name of this province, Galwethia, 
is formed from Galwyddel [pronounced Gallwythel], the Welsh 
equivalent of Gallgaidhel. It seems to have been applied to 
them as a Gaelic race under the rule of ' Galls,' or foreigners; 
Galloway being for centuries a province of the Anglic king- 
dom of Northumbria, and the term ' Gall ' having been 
applied to the Saxons before it was almost exclusively appro- 
priated to the Norwegian and Danish pirates." Skene, Celt. 
Scot. L 3 1 1 . For the survival of the ERSE form of the name 
see under DRUMGALGAL. 

GALLOWAY ISLES. * Minigaff.' The meadows beside the stream 
called Galhia Lein in Font's map (see GALA LANE). " Isle " is 
here used in the sense of a meadow beside a stream, just as 
innis (BR. sc. inch, ink) and eilan are sometimes used in ERSE. 
See under MILLISLE. 

GALLOWHAE. ' Kirkinner.' The gallows height A.S. galga hehte, 
the g becoming ic in M.E. according to rule. See under 
GALLA HILL. 

GALLOLECK. ' Colvend.' The gallows stone, a hybrid word, 
from M.E. gahve, a gallows, and ERSE leac, a stone. " Leek, 
any stone that stands a strong fire, as greenstone, trap, etc." 
Jamieson. 

GALLRINNIES. ' Balmaclellan.' Cf. GILLROANIE. 

GALTNEY or GALTWAY (formerly a parish, variously written Gata, 
Gultneyis, etc.). ' Kirkcudbright.' 

GANNOCH. 'Minigaff.' Gaineach, gainmheach, sandy, a sandy 
place ; adj. from gains or gaineamh, sand. O'Reilly also gives 
gainneach, a place where reeds grow. Cf. GENOCH, GLEN- 
GAINOCH, GLENGUNXOCH ; also, in Ireland, Gannoughs, 
Gannow and Gannaveen in Galway, Gannaway in Down 
(called Gannach in the Inquisitions), Gannavagh (gainmheach) 
in Leitrim, Ganniv in Cork, and Gannew in Donegal. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 187 

GARCHEW (Inq. ad Cap. 1580, Garskeogh, alias Garskere vel Gar- 
kere; 1664, Garneskeoch, alias vocata Garkerie, also Garcherow; 
P. Garchery). ' Penninghame/ Gar ceathramhaidh [carrou], 
near land- quarter. The alternative name seems to have been 
gar sceithiog [skyog], the near hawthorn-tree. See under 
CARHOWE. 

GARCHRIE. 'Leswalt/ See under GARCHEW. 

GARCROGO (P. Garnechraggow, Garcraggow). ' Balmaclellan.' 

GARGRIE (P. Gargry). ' Kirkcowan/ ' Mochrum.' See under 
GARCHEW. 

GARHEUGH (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Garkerrow; P. Garcherow). 
' Mochrum.' See under GARCHEW. 

GARIXNER STRAND (a stream). ' Kells.' Gar inbher [inver], the 

near junction (of two streams). 
GARLAFFIN (a hill of 1050 feet). ' Dairy.' 

GARLAIKEN. ' Minigaff.' Gar leacain [lackan], the near hill-side. 
See under LAKIN. 

GARLICK. ' Minigaff/ Gar leac, the near stone. 
GARLIEHAWISE. ' Kirkcolm/ 

GARLIES (P. Ghairlyis, Gairleyis). ' Minigaff.' Gar lios [liss], the 
near fort. The ruins of a mediaeval castle stand here. 

GARLOFF (P. Loch of Gherloch). ' New Abbey/ Gar or gearr 

loch, near or short lake. 
GARMARTIN (P. Gormairtinn). ' Kirkpatrick Durham/ 

GAR.MILL. ' Penninghame/ Gar meaU, near hill. O. ERSE mell, 
ERSE " meall, a globe, a ball ; a lump, a mass, a heap ; a hill, 
hillock, eminence " (O'Reilly}. Perhaps akin to LAT. moles 
(E. mole, a pier). In composition sometimes difficult to dis- 
tinguish from maol, bare ; in fact, as a mountain name, the 
two words seem to have run together in Welsh, for moel, adj., 
means towering, piled up, and also bald, bare (Pughe). 

GARXAVLAHAN. ' Stoneykirk, s.c/ 

GARNIEMIRE. ' Girthon/ 

GARNSHOG. ' Mochrum/ Gcarn seobhag [garn shyog], cairn of 
the hawks. Cf. Carrickshock in Kilkenny. O. ERSE sebac, 
ERSE seabhac, GAEL, seobhag + w. hebog + O.H.G. Jiapuk, G. 
habicht -j- A.S. heafoc (whence M.E. hank, hauek, E. hauty + DU. 
Jiavic + ICEL. Jiaukr + SWED. hok, from Teutonic base HAB, to 
seize = LAT. capere. 



1 88 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

GARNSKEOG. * Mochrum.' Cam sceithiog [skeyog], cairn of the 
hawthorns. 

GARPEL BURN (P. Garvepool B.). ' Balmaclellan.' Garbh [garve] 
poll, rough water. 

GARRACHER (P. Garchur). 'Kirkcowan,' ' Kirkmabreck.' See 
under GARCHEW. 

GARRAHASPIN. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' Of. CASPIN, HESPIN. 
GARRAMIE. ' Kells. ' 

GARRARIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Garrore; P. Garery; W. P. MSS. 
Gararye). ' Glasserton,' ' Kells.' 

GARRARIE FORD. ' MinigafF.' Robert the Bruce is said to have 
crossed the Minnick here. 

GARRIE. ' Stoneykirk.' A word used in Galloway to express a 
rough, stony space of ground, a moraine garbh [garve, 
garriv], rough. " A garry o' stanes " is a common expression, 

GARRIEFAD. 'Kirkmabreck.' Gdradh or gdrrdha fada [garra 
faada], long garden. This name, Garrienae, and Garrieslae 
appear in the estate-map of Cuil along with such names as 
Peggie Murray's garden, J. Adam's garden, M'Kie's garden, 
etc. Gdrrdlia or gdradh is not to be distinguished in com- 
position, except by local circumstances, from garbh, carroch, 
and garradh. It is akin to gort. See under DRUMGORT. 

GARRIENAE. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

GARRIES. ' Port Patrick,' ' Stoneykirk.' See under GARRIE. 

GARRIESLAE. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

GARRIEWHINS. ' Carsphairn.' 

GARROCH (P. Garrach) ' Crossmichael,' ' Twynholm.' G-carrach, 
a rough, stony place. 

GARROCH BURN. ' Kells.' See under GARROCH. 

GARROCHTRIE (P. Garachty). ' Kirkmaiden. ' Ceathramhaidh 
[carrou] uachdarach, the upper land-quarter. See under 
CURROCHTRIE. 

GARRYAIRD (P. Garrowatrg, Garyaird). 'Dairy.' Garbh [garve, 
garriv] ard ; rough height. Cf. Garryard in Ireland. 

GARRYHARRY. 'Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

GARRY HILL. ' Balmaclellan.' See under GARRIE. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 189 

GARRYHORN (P. Garyhorm). ' Carsphairn,' ' Crossmichael.' 

GARSALLOCH. ' Kirkcolm.' Gar seUeach, the near willow-tree. 

Garrysallagh in Cavan and elsewhere is interpreted garadh 

seileach, willow garden, or garadh salach, dirty garden. See 
under BARNSALLIE. 

GARSTUBBIN (P. Garstubb). ' Dairy.' 

GARTHLAND (P. Garthland; Charter, A.D. 1295 (Crauf. MS.), 
Garochloyne ; Cliarter, A.D. 1413 (Crauf. MS.) Garrichloyue ; 
Cliarter, A.D. 1426 (Crauf. MS.), Garflane. ' Stoneykirk.' 

GARTHLEARY (Inq. ad Cap. 1656, Garthlerie). ' Inch.' Gart Idira, 
paddock of the mare. Cf. Gartnalaragh in Munster. 

GARVELLAN (an island in Fleet Bay) (P. Garvellan). ' Girthon.' 
Garbh [garve] eilean, rough island. Cf. Garvillaun in Ire- 
land. 

GARVILLAN. ' Kirkcolm.' See under GARVELLAN. 

GARVILLAND LOCH (P. Garvellan). 'New Luce.' See under 
GARVELLAN. 

GARWACHIE (P. Garvacchy). ' Penninghame.' Garbh acJiadh 
[garv-aha], rough field. 

GAR WALL. ' Minigaff.' 

GASS (P. Gaiss). ' Old Luce.' 

GATE, (P. Gaits). ' Kells.' " Gate, a way." Jamieson. M.E. 
gate, yate (the latter form is preserved in BR. SC. yett, a 
gate) - A.s. geat + DU. gat, a hole, opening, gap, mouth + 
ICEL. gat, an opening (see under TAYLOR'S GAT), gata, a way, 
path, street + SWED. gata, a street, lane + DAN. gade, a street 
4- GOTH, gatico, a street + G. gasse, a street. From the same 
root as A.S. gitan, to get, to arrive at, to reach, so that gate = 
a way to get at anything, a passage (Skeat). 

GATE CREASE. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' 

GATEGILL BURN (Inq. ad Cap. 1560, Gait-gill M'llvernok, Gaitgill 
M'lllinsche; 1602, Gaitgill M'Nische; 1603, Gaitgill Mund- 
well). ' Girthon.' ICEL. gat gil, the ravine of the gap. See 
under GATE. 

GATEHOUSE. ' Girthon.' BR. sc. the house on the ' ; gate " or road. 
See under GATE. 

GAVELS MOOR. ' Balmaclellan.' 



i9o AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

GAVINGILL. ' Kirkbean.' Prob. the gill or ravine of Cavens, as 
it is close to the place of that name. See under CAVENS. 

GAWINTOMS. ' MinigafF.' 

GED STRAND. * Balmaclellan.' BR. sc. the pike stream. 

GELSTON (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Glesto vel Glestoun v. Gelstoun ; P. 
Ghalstoun; Rag. Roll, 1296, Gevelestone; Robertson's Index, 
1300, Gauyliston, Guiliston ; Pitcairn, 1509, Gileston). 
Kelton.' 

GENOCH (P. Ganoch). 'Kirkcolm/ 'Old Luce.' See under 
GAINOCH. 

GIB, ROUGH. ' Kirkcowan,' ' Wigtown/ BR. sc. gib, a snout, a 
name for a hill. " The beak or hooked lip of a male salmon." 
Jamieson. ERSE gob, a snout. See under GAB HILL. 

GIBANARG (a sea rock). ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Gob an ulrc [?], the 
swine's snout ; genit. of ore. See under CRAIGGORK and 
GABARRUNING. 

GIBBON. ' Rerwick.' Gobin, little snout. Cf. Gubbeen in Cork. 

GlLH6w. ' Glasserton.' ICEL. gil, a ravine, haug, a hillock, a 
tumulus, a grave. The ravine of the hillock or grave. It is 
at the head of Physgill glen. 

GILLARTHUR. ' New Abbey.' The gill or stream which runs out 
of Loch Arthur. 

GILLESPIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Gillespeck ; P. Killespick). 'Old 
Luce.' Gill espoic [espick], the bishop's cell or chapel. See 
under ERNESPIE. Cf. Killaspy in Kilkenny, which used to 
be written Killaspucke, and has dropped the final consonant 
in the same way as Gillespie. The surname Gillespie, com- 
mon in Scotland, has a different origin, viz., giolla espoic, the 
bishop's servant. 

GlLLFOOT. ' Kirkbean.' The foot of the " gil " or ravine. 
GiLLRdANiE. ' Kirkcudbright. ' 

GILLS LOCH. ' Kells.' Loch gile [gilly, hard], loch of the bright- 
ness. See under LOCH GILL. 

GILSHIE FEYS (P. Achingilshy). ' Kirkinner.' A hybrid 
word, guilcJuich, rushy, and BR. sc. feys, meadows. See under 
AUCHENGILSHIE and FEYMORE. 

GiRGUNNOCHY. ' Stoneykirk.' Cf. Gargunnock in Stirlingshire. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 191 

GIRNIEL. Sorbie.' 

GIRSTENWOOD (P. Girsten Parck). ' Eerwick.' 

GIRTHON (a parish in the Stewartry) (P. Girtoun). 
GIRVELLAN (a peninsula). ' Berwick.' See under GARVELLAN. 
GLADSMOOR. ' Kirkcolm.' 

GLAIK (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Glayk; P. Glaik). 'Leswalt.' Glac, 
a narrow glen (O'Reilly) ; literally, the palm of the hand. 
Applied, like most names of hollows, to the neighbouring 
hill. 

GLAISTERS (P. Glaisters). ' Kirkpatrick Durham,' Glas tir, green 
land. E. plur. added. Glaisterlands, near Eowallan in Ayr- 
shire, shows the English pleonastic addition of lands. Tir + 
w. tir; allied to LAT. terra = older form tersa + GK. rapcros 
(Attic rap/309) a stand or frame for drying things upon, any 
broad, flat surface, akin to torrere,to parch *J TARS, to be 
dry ; and through this root connected with E. thirst, torrid 
(Skeat). 

GLASNICK (P. Glasnick; Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Glasnycht, vulgariter 
nuncupatus Garglasnycht). ' Penninghame.' 

GLASSERTON (P. Glastoun) [locally pron. Glais'ton]. A parish. 
See under WHITHORN. 

GLASSOCH (P. Glassoch). ' Penninghame.' GlaiseacM [glassaghd], 
verdure, a grassy place. Cf. Glassoch in Fenwick parish, 
Ayrshire, which Pont describes thus : " Glasschach, a grassey 
plot" (Cuninghame, p. 186). 

GLASTER, RIG OF THE. ' New Luce.' See under GLAISTERS. 

GLEDE BOG. ' Carsphairn.' Perhaps from BR. so. gleid, glede, a 
fire (Jamieson) A.S. gled. 

GLEDMEIN. ' Mochrum.' 

GLEIKMALLOCH. ' MinigafF.' See under GLAIK. 

GLENAMOUR (P. Glenaymer). ' MinigafF.' Gleann amuir, glen 
of the trough. See under BALLOCHANARMOUR. Gleann + w. 
glyn : derivation uncertain. 

GLENARM (Charter, 1665, Glenearn). ' Urr.' There is a well- 
known place of this name in Antrim. 

GLENCAIRD. ' MinigafF.' Gleann ceard [kaird], glen of the tinkers 
or workers in metal, o. ERSE cerd, ERSE and GAEL, ceard, 
whence BR. SC. caird, a gipsy, a travelling tinker, a sturdy 
beggar (Jamieson). 



192 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

GLENCHAMBER (P. Gleyschambrach). ' New Luce.' Gleann seamar 
[shammar], glen of the clover. Pont uses the adjectival form 
seamrach [shamragh], abounding in clover, which appears in 
several of the Irish writers in the form scoith-seamrach, flowery 
with clover. " Seamar, seamrdg, trefoil, white clover, white 
honeysuckle " (O'Beilly), is used with the usual looseness of 
botanical names in early times, but seems to mean "clover," 
which is probably the "shamrokes" mentioned by Spenser as 
being devoured by the people in time of famine. It would be 
at least as edible as woodsorrel. Cf. GLENSHIMEROCK ; also 
Aghnashammer in Fermanagh, Mohernashammer in Eos- 
common, Knocknashammer in Cavan and Sligo (the latter of 
which places is also called Clover Hill), Coolnashamrogue in 
Cork and Limerick, etc. The form Glenchamber arises 
from an attempt to Anglicise the Scottish word chammer. 
chalmer, into chamber. Instances of this process may be seen 
in Gleniron, Old Water. 

GLENCREE. ' Penninghame.' The glen of the river Cree. 

GLENCURROCH. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' ^Gleann corraich [1], glen of the 
boat, boat glen (it is a glen opening upon the shore), or gleann 
curraich, glen of the bog or moor (see under CORRA). Corrach, 
a boat + W. corwyg, a carcase, a trunk (whence cwrwgl, a 
coracle). 

GLENDARROCH. ' Kirkcowan.' Gleann darach, glen of the oaks. 
Cf. Glendarragh in Ireland. 

GLENEMBE. ' Kirkinner.' 

GLENFEY. ' Kirkmaiden.' Gleann faiche, glen of the green field. 
See under FANNYGAPPLE. 

GLENGAINOCH (P. Glengeynett). ' Girthon.' Gleann gaineach, 
sandy glen. See under GANNOCH. Cf. Glenganagh in Down. 

GLENGAP (P. Glenghaip). ' Twynholm.' Probably shortened from 
GLENGAPPOCH, q.v. 

GLENGAPPOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1607, Glengoppock ; P. Glengappock). 
' Crossmichael.' Gleann copdgach [?], glen of the dock-leaves. 
Cf. Glencoppogagh in Tyrone, and many other names in 
Ireland ending in goppoge and gappoge. 

GLENGARREN (P. Glengheiren). : MinigafF. Gleann garain, glen 
of the thicket. " Gardn, thicket, underwood ; Garran, a grove 
or wood " (O'Reilly) ; or gleann gearrain, glen of the horse. 

GLENGITTER. ' Leswalt.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 193 

GLENGRUBOCH. ' Minigaff.' 

GLENGUNNOCH. ' Parton.' See under GLENGAINOCH. 
GLENGYRE (P. Glenghyir). ' Kirkcolm.' 

GLENHAPPLE (Inq. ad Cap. 1645, Glenchappell; P. Glenchappel). 
' Inch,' ' Penninghame.' Gleann chapul [happle], the glen of 
the horses. See under BARHAPPLE. 

GLENHARVIE. ' New Abbey.' Gleann gharbh [harv], rough glen. 

Cf. Glengarrif in Ireland. 

GLENHIE. ' Stoneykirk.' 

GLENHINNIE. ' Old Luce.' 

GLENHOISE (P. Klonwhoisk). ' Minigaff.' Cf. BARHOISE. 

GLENHOWL or GLENHOUL (Barnbarroch, 1563, Glenhovyll; P. 
Glenhowill; Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Glenhovill). ' Carsphairn,' 
' Kirkcowan,' ' Penninghame.' Gleann ghabail [houl], glen of 
the fork (junction of streams). See under ADDERHALL and 
FORKET GLEN. Cf. Glengavlin on the Shannon, which the 
Four Masters (A.D. 1390) write gleann gaibhle. The word also 
occurs in Ireland as Gole, Goul, Gowel, and dimin. Golan, 
Goulaun, Gowlan, etc. See GOWLAN GLEN. From gabhal 
probably comes BR. sc. " Gowl, a hollow between hills. Perthsh. 
The goul o' a stook, the opening between the sides of a shock 
of corn. Aberd." Jamieson. 

GLEN!RON (P. Klonairn). ' Old Luce.' Gleann or cluain iairn, 
glen or meadow of the iron, or cluain airne, meadow of the 
sloes. This name is an instance of spelling being modified to 
interpret a name supposed to be BR. SO. Thus aim is BR. SC. 
for iron ; Pont shows that the name was so pronounced in 
his day ; modern writers, looking upon Broad Scotch as 
corrupt English, have attempted to make the word intelligible 
by putting it in its present form. The sense remains the 
same, which in such cases rarely happens; e.g. OLD WATER, 
GLENCHAMBER, etc. Old Gaulish isarn (Ehys, p. 2 6) -f ERSE 
iarn, iarand + w. haiarn, B. houarn + ICEL. jdrn (contr. from 
older isarn) + DU. ijzer+A..S. iren (older {sen}, O.H.G. isarn, G. 
eisen + GOTH. eisarn. 

GLEN IRON SEVERAL. ' Old Luce.' Separate Gleniron. See under 
SEVERAL. 

GLENJORIE (P. Gleniowarie). ' Kirkcowan,' ' Old Luce.' 

GLENKENS (Inq. ad Cap. 1550, Glenken). A district in the 
Stewartry consisting of the parishes of Balmaclellan, Dairy, 
Kells, and Carsphairn, through which runs the river Ken. 

N 



194 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

GLENKILN (P. Glenkill). ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

GLENKITTEN (P. Glenkitten). ' New Luce.' 

GLENLAGGAN (formerly Kilcrouchie). ' Parton.' Gleann lagain, 
glen of the hollow. See under LAGGAN. 

GLENLAGGIE. ' Port Patrick.' See under GLENLAGGAN. 
GLENLAIR. ' Parton.' Gleann Idir [1], glen of the mares. 
GLENLEE. ' Kirkmaiden.' Gleann liath [lee], grey glen. 
GLENLEY (P. Glenly). ' Kirkgunzeon.' See under GLENLEE. 
GLENLING (P. Glenling). ' Mochrurn.' 

GLENL6CHAR. ' Balmaghie.' Gleann luachair, glen of the rushes. 
See under DRUMLOCKHART. 

GLENLIJCE. ' Old Luce.' The glen of the Water of Luce. The 
village of this name was formerly called Ballinglauch. See 
under LUCE. 

GLENLtlCKLOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1663, Glenluchak; Charter 1719, 

Glenlochoch ; P. Glenluichak). ' Penninghame.' 
GLENLUFFAN. 'Colvend.' 

GLENMALLOCH, THE TORS or. ' MinigaflF.' Cf. GLEIKMALLOCH. 
See under TORRS. 

GLENNAPP. ' Rerwick.' Cf. Glenapp in Ayrshire, which is prob- 
ably Glen Alpinn, where Alpin (son of Eochaidh), king of 
Scottish Dalriada, was slain, A.D. 750 (Skene, Celt. Scot. i. 291). 

GLEN6GIE (P. Klonvogie). ' Penninghame.' 

GLENdRCHiE. ' Mochrum.' 

GLEN6\VRIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Glenure, alias wcata Blairboyis). 
' MinigafF.' .Gleann iubhar []] [yure], glen of the yews or of 
the juniper. See under PALNURE. 

GLENQUICKEN (P. Glenquikkin). ' Kirkmabreck.' 

GLENRAZIE [pron. raazie] (P. Klonrassy). ' Penninghame.' 

GLENRIE. ' Kells.' 

GLENR6AN. ' Crossmichael.' 

GLENRIJTHER (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Clonryddin; P. Kloniridder). 
' Penninghame.' 

GLENSELLIE. ' Old Luce.' Gleann seileach, glen of the willows. 
See under BARSALLOCH. 

GLENSHALLOCH. ' MinigaflF.' Gleann sealg [1] [shallug], glen of 
the hunting. See under DRUMSHALLOCH. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 195 

GLENSHIMEROCK (P. Glenshymbrock). ' Dairy.' Gleann seamar- 
ach [shammeragh], glen of the clover. See under GLEN- 
CHAMBER. 

GLENS6NE. New Abbey.' 

GLENSTdcKADALE (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Glenstakadaill ; P. Glen- 
stokkadell). ' Leswalt.' 

GLENST6CKING. ' Colvend.' Gleann stuadn [?], glen of the little 
stack or hill. See under STOCKING HILL. 

GLENSWINTONS (P. Glensuyntouns). 

GLENTIRROW or GLENTARA. 'Inch.' Of. CRAIGTERRA; also 
Moytirra in Mayo. 

GLENTRIPLOCH (P. Glentrybloc; Inq. ad Cap. 1675, Glentriploch). 
' Mochrum.' 

GLENTR60L (contains Loch Trool and Trool Burn) (P. Truiyll, 
Truyil). * MinigafF.' See under TROOL. 

GLENTRUIL. ' Borgue.' See under GLENTROOL. 

GLENVERNOCH (P. Glenbarrana, Glenbarranach). ' Penninghame.' 
Gleann bhearnach [varnagh], gapped glen. Pont preserves 
the original unaspirated form. See under CRAIGBERNOCH. 

GLENWHILLY. ' New Luce.' Gleann choille [h willy], glen of the 
wood. 

GLENWILLIE. ' Port Patrick.' See under GLENWHILLY. 

GLENYERROCK (Inq. ad Cap. 1615, Glenzairock). 'Berwick.' 
Gleann dhearg [yerrug], red glen. See under BARYERROCK. 

GLOON BURN and EIG OF GLOON. ' MinigafF.' Gluing [gloong], 
a shoulder, or glun [gloon], the knee. Cf. Gloonpatrick (Glun 
Phadruig in the Book of Lecari) in Roscommon, named from 
a stone said to bear the impression of St. Patrick's knee. In 
the present case it means a projecting shoulder or " knee " 
of the hill. Cf. CALF KNEES. 

GOAT CRAIG (in many places). Cf. CRAIGENGOWER. 

GOAT STRAND. ' Carsphairn.' The goat stream. 

GOBAWHILKIN. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Gob, a snout. See under 

GABARRUNING. 
GOLDIELEA (formerly Drungans). ' Troqueer.' Goldie's lea or 

field, a modern name given by Major Goldie, who owned it 

in 1799. 



196 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

GOOL HILL. ' Penninghame.' Gablial [?] [goul], a fork. Cf. 
Gole, Gowel, Goul, in various parts of Ireland. See under 
ADDERHALL and GLENHOWL. 

GORDONSTON (P. Gordonstain). ' Dairy.' Gordon's tun, or 
homestead. 

G6RMALHILL. 'Girthon.' Oorm aill [], blue cliif. Cf. Gor- 
minisli (gorm innis) in Lough Melvin, Gormagh in King's 
County (gorm achadh). If this derivation happen to be 
correct, it is the only instance occurring in Galloway of 
this word gorm, which is frequently used in other Celtic 
countries. 

G6RRACHER. ' Kirkcowan.' Gar or gearr achadh [aha], near or 
short field. 

GORTIE HILL. ' Kirkcowan.' Gar tigh, near house. See under 
DRUMATYE. 

GOUK HILL. ' Whithorn.' BR, sc. Cuckoo's Hill. Gowk is con- 
nected with the same imitative sound as LAT. cuculus, M.E. 
cukkoiv, coccou, O.F. and F. coucou, GK. KOKKVJ;, SKT. kokila, all 
meaning a cuckoo. 

GOUK THORN. ' Balmaclellan.' See under GOUK HILL. 
GOUNIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Gamhnach [gownah], a heifer. 
G6URLEY. ' Kells.' 

Gow HILL. ' Colvend.' HiU of the gulls [?]. " Gou; the old 
generic name for the gull." Jamieson. 

GOWLAN GLEN. ' Penninghame.' Gabhattan [goulan], a little 
fork (of a stream), dim. ofgabhal (see under ADDERHALL, GLEN- 
HOWL, GOOL HILL, etc.). Cf. Gowlan, Gowlane, and Gow- 
laun, in several parts of Ireland. 

GRACE HILL. ' Old Luce.' 

GRADDOCK (P. Gradock). ' Minigaff.' Probably connected with 
. greaddn, the parching of corn in an open fire ; greadadh 
[graddah], a scorching, whence BR. SC. " G-raddan, grain burnt 
out of the ear." Jamieson. 

GRAINY FORD. ' Balmaghie.' Greanach [grannagh], gravelly. 
Cf. GRANNEY FORD ; and, in Ireland, Greanagh, a stream in 
Limerick ; Granagh, Grannagh, Granny, and Granig in other 
counties. Grean [gran], gravel, liable, as Joyce says, to con- 
fusion in compound words with grdn, grain, and grian, the 
sun + w. graian, B. grouan, c. grou, probably akin to O.F. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 197 

grave (of which O.F. gravelle is a dimin., whence M.E. grauel, E. 
gravel). Cf. SKT. grdvan, a stone, rock. 

GRANGE (in many places, such as Grange of Bladenoch, Grange of 
Cree, of Urr, etc.). A farmhouse. M.E. grange, graunge 
O.F. graunge. Cf. SPAN, granja, a grange LOW LAT. granea, 
a barn LAT. granum, corn. 

GRANNAN. ' Kirkmaiden.' Grianan [greenan], lit. a sunny spot, 
from grian, the sun. It is glossed by Irish writers solarium, 
terra Solaris. The usual meaning is the residence of a chief 
or important personage. Grenan, Greenan, Greenane, and 
Greenaune, are the names of about forty-five townlands all 
over Ireland. In another form, Griandg, it gives name to 
three places in Ireland called Greenoge, and also to Greenock 
in Scotland. Cf. BARGRENNAN, GRENNAN. For a full 
account of the word grianan see " The Battle of Magh Rath," 
p. 7, note. 

GRANNEY FORD (on the Cree). ' Penninghame.' See under 
GRAINY FORD. 

GRAPLIN. ' Borgue.' 

GRAVE SLUNK. ' Leswalt, s.c.' See under BANDOLIER SLUNK. 
GREENDASS. ' Kells.' Green ledge. See under BUCKDASS. 
GREEN ELDRIGS. ' Old Luce.' See under ELDRIG. 
GREENFAULD. ' Kirkmabreck.' Green fold or enclosure. 

GREENGAIR HILL. 'Dairy.' Green strip. " Gair, a slip of 
tender, fertile grass in a barren situation." Jamieson. See 
under GAIRY. 

GREENLANE. 'Kelton.' 

GREENLAW (P. Greenlaw). ' Crossmichael.' Green eminence. 
BR. SO. law A.s. hlcew, hlaw, " tractus terrse paulatim as- 
cendens" (BoswortK). 

GREENMERSE. 'Troqueer.' " Merse. 1. A fertile spot of ground 
between hills, a hollow. 2. Alluvial land on the side of a 
river." Jamieson. M.E. mersche, a marsh A.S. mearsc, which 
is a contraction of mer-isc mere, a mere, pool, lake. 

GREENTOP. ' New Luce.' English equivalent of Barglass ; q.v. 

GREENTOP OF DUCHRAE (a hill of 900 feet). ' Dairy.' 

GREENYARD. 'Twynholm.' Green garden. See under FRIAR'S 
YARD. 



198 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGATDHEL. 

GREGGANS. 'New Abbey.' Probably graigdn, a little village, 
dim. of graig, to which Joyce assigns the origin of Gragane 
and Graigeen in Limerick, Gragan in Clare, and Grageen in 
Wexford. 

GREGGARY. 'Port Patrick, s.c.' 

GREGORY. ' Kirkgunzeon.' Cf. GREGGARY. 

GRENCHIE. ' Kells.' 

GRENNAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1550, Grenane; 1643, Mongreinan ; P. 
Grenen, Grinen, Granen ; W. P. MSS. Grenane). ' Dairy,' 
' Glasserton,' ' Kirkmaiden,' 'MinigafF,' 'Old Luce.' See 
under GRANNAN. 

GRETNA. 'Old Luce.' Probably borrowed from the celebrated 
place of that name. 

GREY HILL (in several parishes). 

GREYM6RN. ' Troqueer.' Cf. DRIGMORN. 

GRIBDIE. * Kirkcudbright.' 

GR6BDALE (Inq. ad Cap. 1548, Grobdaill; 1611, Groibdaill ; P. 
Grobdeill). ' Girthon.' 

GROOSY GLEN. ' Stoneykirk.' Gleann greusach [?], glen of the 
cobblers. See under BALGRACIE. 

GUFFOGLAND (M.S. 1527, Guffokland). ' Buittle.' 

GUILHILL. ' Penninghame.' See KiLLfflLL. 

GULLY HILL. ' Balmaghie.' " Gully, a channel worn by water." 
Skeat. A shortened form of gullet, a throat F. goulet, 
dimin. of O.F. gule, goule (F. gueule) iiAi. gula A/GAR, to 
devour. Cf. SKT. gri, to devour, gal, to eat. 

GUNION HILL. ' Mochrum.' Cf. BALLOCHAGUNION. 



H 



ACKETLEATHS [pron. -laze] (P. Haketlaiths ; M.S. 1527, 
Halkokleis ; Synod of Galloway MS. 1664, Hacketlies). 
' Buittle.' See under COCKLEATH. 



HACKLE ROCK. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

HAG. ' Parton.' Hag is a term used for copsewood ; the year's 
hag is the part annually cut ; but it also means " Moss ground 
formerly broken up " (Jamieson). 

HAGGAMALAG, HOWE HILL OF. ' Whithorn.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 199 

HA HILL. ' Wigtown.' Hall hill. 

HAIRY H6RRACH. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' 

HALFERNE. ' Crossmichael.' 

HALFMARK. ' Carsphairn.' See under MARK. 

HALFMIRE. ' Dairy.' 

HALLMIRE (P. Halmyir). 'Urr.' 

HALMYRE (Inq. ad Cap, 1604, Nether Kelton alias Halmure). 
' Kelton.' Cf. HALFMIRE. 

HANGMAN HILL. ' Kirkbean.' See under ACHENROCHER. 
HARDTHORN (P. Harthorn). ' Terregles.' 

HARKING HILL. ' Borgue.' 

HART BURN. ' Kirkcudbright.' 

HASS. ' Buittle.' See under HAUSE BURN. 

HAUGH WILLIAM. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' " ffaugh, low-lying flat 
ground, properly on the border of a river, and such as is 
sometimes overflowed." Jamieson. 

HAUSE BURN. ' Kells,' ' Kirkgunzeon.' "Hals, hause. 1. The 
neck. 2. The throat. 3. Any narrow passage. 4. A defile, 
a narrow passage between hills." Jamieson. A.s. lials, the 
neck. Used in the same metaphoric sense as ERSE braghad 
(see under BRADOCK), sluig (see under SLOCHANAWN), and E. 
gully (see under GULLY HILL). 

HAWKHILL. 'Kirkinner.' Cf. Hawkhill or Halkshill in the 
parish of Largs, Ayrshire. The name has nothing to do with 
" a hawk " (although the proximity of Whauphill suggests an 
ornithological origin), but is the same word as appears as 
Halkhead or Halket in Dairy parish, Ayrshire. 

HELENA ISLAND. ' Old Luce.' Said to have been named in 
commemoration of Napoleon's imprisonment ; but the name 
is suspiciously like eilean-na. Perhaps an old name was 
adapted to a modern historical event. 

HENMUIR. ' Eerwick.' 

HENSOL. 'Balmaghie.' A modern name given in recent years 
by the proprietor, in compliment, it is said, to a friend called 
Hensol. The old name was Duchra. 



200 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

HERRIES SLAUGHTER. ' Kirkcudbright.' Pitcairn (Crim. Trials, 
vol. i. part i. p. 242) records the remission in 1528 of 
" Andro Hereis, bruper to Williame Lord Hereis (and others) 
for ]>e tressonabill raising of fyre within fe realme, birnyng 
of pe peile of Knokschenoch (Knockshinnie, in this parish) ; 
slauchter of umq le Patrik Hereis, etc." This may be the 
tragedy which gives. name to this place. 

HESPIE'S LINN (on the Penkiln). ' Minigaff. 
HESPIN. ' Whithorn, s.c.' Cf. CASPIN. 

HESTAN ISLAND (P. Heston Yle). ' Berwick/ 
HEUGHYARD. ' Kells.' 

HILLMABREEDIA. ' New Luce.' Chill mo Brighde [Breedia], chapel 
of St. Brigid or Bride. Cf. BREEDIE BURN and KIRKBRIDE ; 
also, in Ireland, Kilbreedie and Doonabreedia. Dedications 
to St. Brigid are very frequent. " The syllables mo and do 
or da were often prefixed to the names of Irish saints as 
terms of endearment or reverence ; thus Conna became 
Mochonna and Dachonna. The diminutives dn, in, and 6g 
were also often postfixed ; as we find Ernan, Ernog, Baiethin, 
Baethan, etc. Sometimes the names were greatly changed 
by these additions ; thus Aedh is the same name as Maedhog 
(Mo-Aedhog, my little Aedh), though when pronounced they 
are quite unlike, Aedh being pronounced Ai (to rhyme with 
day), and Maedhog, Mogue." Joyce, i. 148 note. 

HILLSBOROUGH. ' Sorbie.' 

HILLYORE. * Mochrum.' 

HIND CRAIG (part of Benbrack, just as Craignelder is part of 
Cairnsmore). ' Kells.' See CRAIGNELDER. 

HIRLIE (the name of a field). ' Sorbie.' The common cry to 
cows, in use to this day. Few, perhaps, of Madaggarfs 
verses are worth repetition, but the following from his 
Galloway Encyclopaedia are musical and full of rural feeling : 

1. 

" yonder's my Nannie gatherin' the kye, 

Whar the e'ening sun is beaming, 
Awa' on the hazly brae, doun by 

Whar the yellow nits are learning. 
And aye she cries ' Hurly Hawkie ! 
String awa', my crummies, to the milking loan, 

Hurly, hurly hawkie.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 201 

2. 

" How sweetly her voice dinnles through my heart, 

I'll wyle roun' and her foregather, 
Tak a kiss or twa and then gae part, 

For fear o' her crusty father. 
And ( aye she cries ' Hurly hawkie ! 
String, string awa hame to the milking loan, 

Hurly, hurly hawkie.' 

3. 

" Now all in a flutter she lies in my arms 

On the hinny smelling bank o' clover ; 
Wha would be sae base as steal her charms ? 

It shall na be me her lover. 
I'll let her cry ' Hurly, hawkie ! ' 
And wize the kye hame to the milking loan, 

Hurly, hurly hawkie. " 

HODDOM. ' Parton.' Cf. HODDAM in Dumfriesshire. 
HOG HILL; ' Carsphairn.' Cf. DRUMMUCKLACH, etc. 
HOGUS POINT. ' Kirkbean.' 

HOLE CROFT. ' Kirkmabreck.' " Holl, howe ; hollow, deep." 

Jamieson. 

HOLE GINKINS. ' Port Patrick.' 

HOLEHOTJSE. ' Berwick.' 

HOLLAND ISLE (in the Dee). ' Balmaghie.' "Holland, of or 
pertaining to the holly." Jamieson. A.S. holen, holegn, holly. 
See under ALWHILLAN. 

HOLLEN BUSH. ' Sorbie.' Holly bush. See under ALWHILLAN. 
HOLLY ISLAND (in the Dee). ' Girthon.' Cf. HOLLAND ISLE. 
HONEY PIG. ' Old Luce.' 

HOODIE CAIRN. ' Kirkcowan.' The carrion or hooded crow's 
cairn. " Huddy craw, a carrion crow." Jamieson. 

HOOIES, THE. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

HOPE HILL. ' Kells.' " Hop, hope. A sloping hollow between 
two hills, or the hollow that is formed between the two 
ridges on one hill." Jamieson. 

HORNEY. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' (twice). 



202 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

HORNHEAD. ' Penninghame.' 

HORSE ISLES. 'Buittle,' ' Glasserton.' Horse pasture. Isle, 
inch, inks are used like the Erse equivalents eilean or oilcan 
and innis, in the alternative meanings of island or pasture 
beside a river. See under AUCHNESS. 

HORSE MOAT. 'Carsphairn.' 

HOUSTARD. ' Colvend.' 

HOWE HILL or HAGGAMALAG. ' Whithorn.' 

HOWE HOLE OF SHADDOCK. ' Whithorn, s.c.' " How, hollow." 
Jamieson. A.S. holh, a hollow. 

HOWELL. ' Kirkcudbright.' 

HOWE OF THE CALDRON, THE. 'Minigaff.' "How, any hollow 
place." Jamieson. A.s. holh, a hollow, spelt also holg, healoc 
(whence E. hollow), an extended form of hoi, a hole. Caldron 
is used figuratively as ERSE coire, a caldron. 

HOWE POT. ' Minigaff.' See under HOWE OF THE CALDRON. 
HUMPHREY. 'Mochrum.' Cf. DRUMHUPHREY. 
HUNGRY STONE. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

HUNT HA' (P. Hunthall). ' Carsphairn.' Cf. DRUMSHALLOCH. 
HURKLEDOWN HILL. ' Parton.' 



I 



LAN-NA-GtlY. 'Kirkcolm, s.c.' Oilman na gaoith [gwee], 
island of the winds. See under BARNAGEE. 

INCH (a parish in the shire). Inis, an island. Named from 
the natural island in the White Loch of Inch (called by 
Pont Loch of the Inch), near which the old parish church 
stood. In Loch Inchcrindle (now called the Black Loch of 
Inch), which is connected by a canal with the White Loch, 
there is a large crannog, inis Crindail. Pont calls this L. 
Ylen Krindil. Inis, gen. inse + w. ynys, B. enes, C. ennis, 
apparently akin to LAT. insula (whence, through the French, 
E. isle). Assumes the form of inch in BR. sc., in the sense of 
island or of holm, i.e. pasture near water ; and inks, or links, 
pasture liable to be overflowed, or, at least, near the sea, a 
river, or lake. In Ireland this word appears in place-names 
as Ennis, Inis, Inish, and Inch. The primary meaning is an 
island, but it is applied like oiUn, eilean, to pasture or 
meadow-land near water. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WAY. 203 

INCH (an island in Kirkcudbright Bay). ' Kirkcudbright.' Inis, 
an island. 

INCH (P. Yinch ; W. P. MSS. Inche). ' Sorbie.' Inis, holm or 
pasture beside water. 

INCHBANE. ' Kirkcolm.' Inis ban, white holm or pasture. 
INCHBREAD. ' Inch.' 

INCHIGUILE. 'Sorbie.' Inis a' Goil, the stranger's holm or 
pasture. Cf. Inchagoill in Lough Corrib, which the Irish 
writers render Inis-an-Gfoil-chraibhthigh, the isle of the devout 
foreigner, namely, Lugnat, pilot of St. Patrick, who established 
himself as a hermit there. The Hebrides were called by the 
Chroniclers Innsi-GfaU, the isles' of the foreigners, when they 
became occupied by the Norsemen, who named them the 
Sudreyar, or southern isles, a name still preserved in the 
Bishopric of Sodor and Man. 

INCHMALLOCH. 'Kirkcowan,' 'Kirkinner.' Probably the same 
as Inchmulloch. 

INCHMINNOCH. ' New Luce.' Inis meadhonach [minnogh], middle 
holm. 

INCHMULLOCH (P. Inch Mullach). ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Leswalt,' ' Old 
Luce.' Inis mullaich, holm of the height. 

iNCHNAGduR. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Inis na' gobhar [gour], island 
of the goats. Close by is Slochnagour. See under ALGOWER. 

INCHSHANNOCH. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Inis sionach [shinnagh], 
island of the foxes. It is an isolated rock, opposite to which, 
on the mainland, is a cliff called Foxes' Rattle. See under 

AUCHENSHINNOCH. 

INCHSLITHERY. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

INGLESTON (Tnq. ad Cap. 1605, Inglistoun; P. Englishtoun) . 
' Twynholm.' The tun, homestead of Inglis or of the 
Englishman. 

INK Moss. ' Kirkcowan.' 

INKS, in several places along the banks of tidal estuaries. Inis, 
pasture beside water. See under INCH. 

INNERMESSAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Inuermessan; P. Innermessen). 
' Inch.' Inbher [inver] Messain [?], mouth of the Messan Burn. 
The stream to which Pont sives the name of Messan Burn 



204 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

does not bear it now, but takes the names of the various 
farms through which it flows. Innermessan has been tenta- 
tively identified with Ptolemy's Rerigonium, a town of the 
Novantes, on Eerigonius Sinus (Loch Ryan). Cf. KNOCK- 
MASSAN in the next parish. 

INNERWELL (P. Innerwell). ' Sorbie.' 

INSHANKS (P. Inschacs, Inchacks; Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Inschanke). 
'Kirkcowan, 'Kirkmaiden.' Uinnse, uinnsedg or uinnseann 
[inshie, inshug, or inshin], the ash-tree. Uinnseann is the word 
in the north of Ireland which appears as fuinnseann in the 
south. See under DRUMNAMINSHOG. Cf. Unshog in Armagh, 
and Hinchoge in Dublin. 

INSHAW HILL. ' Whithorn.' Uinnse, uinnsedg [inshie, inshug], 
an ash-tree. See under INSHANKS. 

IRELAND-TOWN (P. Yrlandstoun). ' Twynholm/ 

IRONCRAIGIE. ' Balmaclellan.' Ard na creage, height of the crag. 
Cf. Ardencraig in Bute. See under ERNAMBRIE. 

IRONGALLOWS. ' Carsphairn.' 

IRONGRAY (P. Arngra). Kirkpatrick (formerly Kilpatrick) Iron- 
gray (a parish in the Stewartry). Ard an grdaich [graigh], 
height of the moor. " Gre"ach, a mountain flat, a level 
moory place, much the same as reidh. It is common as an 
element in townland designations in the counties of Cavan, 
Leitrim, Roscommon, Monaghan, and Fermanagh. Greagh, 
the usual Anglicised form, is the name of several places, 
Greaghawillin in Monaghan, the mountain flat of the mill ; 
Greaghnagleragh in Fermanagh, of the clergy ; Greaghnagee 
in Cavan, of the wind." Joyce, ii 393. Cf. AUCHENGRAY 
and KNOCKGRAY. 

IRONHASH. ' Colvend.' 

IRONL6SH. 'Balmaclellan.' Ard na loise [1], hill of the fire 
(O'Reilly). 

IRONMACANNIE. 'Balmaclellan.' 

IRONJSIANNOCH. ' Parton.' Ard na' manach, hill of the monks. 
IRON SLUNK. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' The " slunk" or gully of the iron. 

ISLAND BUOY. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' Oilean buidhe [buie], yellow 
island. 

ISLAYFITZ. 'Port Patrick, s.c.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 205 

ISLE-NA-GARROCH. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' 

IsLE-NA-G6\VER (on the Bladenoch). ' Kirkcowan.' Oilman na' 
gobhar [gour], the pasture of the goats. Cf. INCHNAGOUR. 

ISLE OF LANNA. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

ISLE OF PINS (in the Fleet K.). ' Girthon.' 

ISLE RIG (a hill of 800 feet). Dairy.' Aill [?], a cliff (see under 
ALGOWER) ; or isle, pasture (see under INCH). 



d ARDINTON. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

JARKNESS (a hill). 'Minigaff.' 

JEAN'S WA'S. ' Balmaclellan.' A place on the Garpel where 
traces of buildings remain. According to the popular belief 
Miss Jean Gordon, of the family of Shirmers, having been 
jilted by her lover, retired to this place, and died of a broken 
heart. 

JEDBURGH KNEES (a hill of 2021 feet). ' Carsphairn.' Cf. CALF 
KNEES. 

JEXOCH. 'Anwoth.' 

JERRY PEAK'S CRAIG. ' Minigaff.' 

JERUSALEM PARK. ' Old Luce.' A field close to Kirkchrist. 
JIB. ' Kirkmaiden.' Gob, a snout. Cf. GIBB. 
JOCKLIG (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Jakleig). ' Colvend.' 

JORDIELAND. ' Kirkcudbright.' 

JUNIPER FACE. ' Leswalt, s.c.' The wild juniper, though well- 
nigh extinct in Galloway, still survives in a few places on the 
sea cliffs, and inland on the moors of Penninghame. 



.AINTON. 'Girthon.' 

KELLS (a parish in the Stewartry) (P. Kells). There are 
several places of this name in Ireland, the principal, in 
Meath, deriving from ceann Us, chief fort ; the others, says 
Joyce (ii. 235), "are all probably the Anglicised plural of till, 
namely ceaHa [kella], signifying churches." It is more pro- 
bable that this parish takes its name from coill, wood. 

KELLS BURN. ' Colvend.' 

KELTON (a parish in the Stewartry) (P. Keltoun). 



206 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

KEMPLETON. ' Twynholm.' 

KENDLUM. ' Berwick. Cf. KENLTTM. 

KENDOWN. ' Girthon.' Ceann don, brown head or hill. See 
under CAMBRET. 

KENICK WOOD (Inq. ad Cap. 1548, Canknok; 1607, Kammuik, 
v. Kandnik ; 1611, Candnik; P. Keandnick). 'Balmaghie.' 
Cam cnoc [?], crooked or sloping hill. Cf. CUMNOCK. 

KENLUM HILL (1001 feet). ' Anwoth.' Cf. KENDLUM. 

KENMORE (Inq. ad Cap. 1598, Kenmoir ; P. Keandmoir). ' Kirk- 
cowan.' Ceann mdr, big head. See under CAMBRET. 

KENMUIR. ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Stoneykirk.' See under KENMORE. 

KENMURE (P. Kenmoir). ' Balmaclellan.' A place on the river 
Ken, the moor of the Ken. 

KENNAN. ' Balmaghie.' Ceanndn, dim. of ceann, a head. 

KENNANS HILL. ' Tungland.' See under KENNAN. 

KENTIE BURN and HILL. ' Minigaff.' 

KEN, WATER OF. ' Carsphairn/ etc. The stream that gives the 
name to the GLENKENS and to KENMUIR. 

KEOCH LANE (a stream). ' Carsphairn.' 

KERBERS. ' Kelton.' 

KERM!NACHAN. ' Kirkcolm.' Ceathramhaidh [carrou], manachan, 
quarter-land of the monks. Referred to in Inq. ad Cap. 1590, 
as " Monkis Croft, pertaining to the Abbey of Glenluce." 

KET, THE (a stream). ' Whithorn.' 

KEVAN BRAES. ' Whithorn.' Cabhdn [cavan], a hollow. See under 
CAVAN. 

KEVANDS (W. P. MSS., Crugiltoun Kevennis ; Inq. ad Cap. 1695, 
Cavenscroft). ' Sorbie.' Cabhdn, a hollow. 



KEVAN Ho^'i:. ' \Vhithorn.' Cabhdn, a hollow, and BR. sc. howe, 
hollow (pleonastic). 

KIBBERTIE KITE WELL. ' Kirkmaiden.' Tiobar Ugh Cait, the 
well of Kate's house. Catherine's croft is the name of the 
adjacent land, the remains of an early dedication to St. 
Catherine. The change from tiobar to chipper and kibber is a 
common one. See under TIBBERT. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 207 

KIDSDALE ( W, P. MSS. Kiddisdaill). ' Glasserton.' 

KILBREEN. ' Stoneykirk.' 

KiLBtiiE. ' Kirkmaiden.' It is impossible to distinguish, except 
by local circumstances, between till, a cell or chapel, and coill, 
a wood. Cuil, a corner, and cul, a back, posterior part, also 
get corrupted into the same sound. This is probably coill 
buidhe, yellow wood, like Kilboy in Ireland. 

KILCORMACK or KiRKCORMACK (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Kirkcormok). 
' Kelton.' Cill Cormaic, Cormac's cell or chapel. Skene 
mentions this place as the only known dedication in Scotland 
to St. Cormac-na-Liathain ; but the old name of the parish 
of North Knapdale was Killmochormac. For an account of 
Cormac's life see Reeves s Adamnan, ii. 42 and iii. 17, pp. 166 
and 219, and Celt. Scot. ii. 131. o. ERSE cell (kell), ERSE cill 
(kill), literally, a cell, hence an oratory, a church LAT. 
cella + GK. Ka\ia, a hut + SET. khala, a threshing-floor ; 
cdld, a stable, a house /y/KAL, to hide (whence LAT. celare, E. 
conceal). 

KILCROUCHIE (now called Glenlaggan) (P. Coulcreachie). ' Parton.' 
Cuil croiche, the gallows corner. 

KILDARROCH (P. Kildarrac). 'Kirkinner.' Coill darach, oak 
wood. See under AUCHENDARROCH. 

KILDONAN (P. Kildonnan). ' Stoneykirk.' Gil Donain, St. 
Donnan's church. St. Donnan was an Irish disciple of St. 
Columba, and was put to death, with fifty companions, in 
the island of Egg by a band of pirates in 617. Places 
called Kildonan and Kildonnan, perpetuating his memory, 
exist in Egg, in Sutherland, in South Uist, in Ross-shire, 
Skye, Argyllshire, Arran, and Ayrshire (Reeves's Adamnan, 
p. 309). 

KILDROCH BURN. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

KiLDR6cHAT (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Killedroquhat ; P. Kernadrochat). 
' Stoneykirk.' Coill, cul, cuil, or cill droichid, the wood, back, 
corner, or church of the bridge. Cf. (in the latter sense) 
Kildrought in Kildare. See under BARDROCHWOOD. 

KILFAD. ' Kirkinner.' Cuil fada, long corner. 

KiLFAiRY (near the ruins of Kilgallioch). ' Kirkcowan.' 



208 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

KILFEATHER (P. Kildhelir (misprint)). ' New Luce.' Gill Phetir 
or Pheadair (St.) Peter's church. Though there are here no 
ecclesiastical ruins that can be traced, yet the names im- 
mediately adjacent, Altibrair, Knockiebriar, Altaggart, bear 
evidence of religious occupation. Cf. Kilpeter in South Uist, 
sometimes written Kilphedre. See under CASTLE FEATHER. 

KILFERN. ' Twynholm.' Coill fearn [kill farn], alder wood. See 
under BALFERN. 

KILFILLAN (P. Kilphillen, Kilphillan (' Sorbie ')). ' Old Luce,' 
' Sorbie.' Cill Faolain, Fillan's church. St. Faolan of Cluain- 
Maoscna in West Meath, known in Scotland as St. Fillan, 
left his crozier, now called the Quegrith, in the hands of one 
of the pilgrims who accompanied him in his wanderings. It 
is now in the Museum of Scottish Antiquaries. St. Fillan 
was called 'an lobar,' the leper. See under BARLURE and 
ERNFILLAN. 

KILGALLIOCH (P. Kilgaillach ; Inq. ad Cap. 16.00, Cullingalloch ; 
1698, Killgalloch). ' Kirk cowan.' Cill gaUach []], the 
church of the standing stones, adjective formed from gall, a 
standing stone (see under DERGALL), like carrach, rocky, from 
carr, a stone (Joyce, i. 344). Cf. Cangullia in Kerry (ceann 
gaille), and several places in Ireland called Gallagh. Kil- 
gallioch is close to Laggangarn, where there are some very 
remarkable standing stones (see under LAGGANGARN). There 
are some interesting remains here. Close by the site of the 
old church, which has been pulled to pieces for dyke-building, 
there are three holy wells (Wells of the Rees), each under a 
separate dome of rough stones. 

KlLHERN. ' New Luce.' Cul chuirn [1] [him], hill-back of the 
cairn. Remains of a large cairn exist here, enclosing eight 
cists made of immense stones. It is called, locally, the Caves 
of Kilhern. Cf. KILQUHIRN and KILWHIRN ; also, in Ire- 
land, Kilcarn, which is from the genit. plur. earn. 

KILHILT (Barnbarroch, 1 568, Kenhelt ; P. Kinhilt). ' Port Patrick.' 
Ceann elite [?], the hill of the hind. Cf. Annahilt in Down, 
Cloonelt in Roscommon. See under CARNELTOCH. 

KILL AD AM. ' Kirkcowan.' 

KILLANTRAE (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Kerantra; 1600, Kerintraye ; 
P. Killentrae). ' Mochrum.' Ceathramhaidh [carrou] cill or 
cathair [caer] an traigh, land-quarter, church, or fort of the 
shore. See under DRUMANTRAE. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 209 

KILLANTRINGAN (P. Kilantrinzean). ' Port Patrick.' Gill sheant 
[hant] Ringain, church of St. Ringan, another form of Ninian. 
See under CHIPPERDINGAN and CLAYSHANT. 

KILLASER (Barnbarroch, 1562, Kyllasser; P. Killaister). ' Stoney- 
kirk.' 

KILLAUCHIE. ' Penninghame.' Cuil or cul achaidh [aghie], corner 
or back of the field. But cf. Cill achaidh, or the church of 
the field, in the Martyrology of Donegal. 

KlLLBR6CKS. ' Inch.' Coill broc, wood of the badgers. 

KILLEAL (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Kilzeild ; P. Coulleill). 'Penning- 
hame.' 

KILLERAN. ' Girthon.' 

KILLERN (Inq. ad Cap. 1575, Killerne; 1611, Killarne; P. Kill- 
orin). ' Anwoth.' Doubtful whether this is a dedication to 
St. Kieran (see under CHIPPERHERON) or, as Font's render- 
ing suggests, to Odhran [Oran], a co-temporary of Columba at 
Hy, whose name is lent to Killoran in Colon say. 

KILLHILL, THE, or GUILHILL. ' Penninghame.' The hill of the 
kill or kiln, for drying grain. The BR. SC. kill preserves one 
of the M.E. forms given in the Promptorium Parvulorum (1440), 
" kylne, hjll, for malt dryynge." A.S. cyln. The n is 
integral, as the word is borrowed from LAT. culina, a kitchen. 

KILLIBRAKES. ' Mochrum.' Coillidh brec [killy brake], dappled, 
variegated woodland. Coillidh, woodland, a deriv. of coill. 
See under AUCHABRICK and BARNHILLIE. 

KiLLiEG6wAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Killigoune; P. Killigawin). 
'Anwoth.' Coillidh gobhan [killy gown], the blacksmith's 
wood. 

KILLIEMACUDDICAN. ' Kirkcolm.' CUle mo Cudachain [?], church 
of St. Cuthbert. Apparently a diminutive of the name of 
the famous saint. See under KIRKCUDBRIGHT. 

KILLIEM6RE (P. Kaillymort). ' Penninghame.' Coillidh [killy] 
mdr, great wood. Cf. CULMORE. 

KILLIMINGAN. ' Kirkgunzeon.' 

KILLINESS (P. Kelly ness). ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

KiLL6cHiE. ' Balmaclellan.' Cf. KILLAUCHIE. 

KlLLUMPHA (Inq. ad Cap. 1661, Kilumpha-Agnew ; P. Killumpha). 
' Kirkmaiden.' 



210 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

KiLLYBdY. * Kirkinner.' Coillidh buidhe [killy huie], yellow 
woodland. Cf. KILBUIE. 

KlLLYL6uR. 'Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Perhaps cill an lobhair 
[lour], St. Fillan the Leper's church. See under BARLURE and 

KlLFILLAN. 

KILLYMIJCK or KiLLiNiMtiCK (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Kelenemuck). 
' Penninghame.' Coillidh [killy] na muc, wood of the swine. 
See under CLACHANAMUCK. 

KILLYWHAN. ' Kirkgunzeon.' 

KILMACFADZEAN (P. Kilmakphadzen). ' New Luce.' Cill mic 

Phaidin, the cell or church of the son of Paidin, or little 

Patrick ; Macfadzean's church. See under BARFADDEN. 
KILMALLOCH. ' New Luce.' 

KILM6RIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Kilmirring). 'Kirkcolm.' Cill 

Muire, (St.) Mary's church. There are about fifty townlands 

in Ireland called Kilmurry and Kilmorey. W. Meir, Mair, 

Mary. 

KILNAIR. ' Kells.' 

KILNBUT. ' Kells.' Cuil na boc [?], corner of the he-goats. See 

under AUCHNIEBUT. 
KILQUHIRN [pron. Kilhwern]. ' Wigtown.' Cill, cuil, or coillchuirn 

[hirn], the church, corner, or wood of the cairn. See under 

KlLHERN. 

KiLQTJH6coDALE (Inq. ad Cap. 1670, Killquhowdaill ; P. Kail- 

chockadale). ' Kirkcowan.' 

KILSTAY. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

KILSTIJRE (P. Kilstyre; Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Kilsture; W. P. MSS. 

Calstuir). ' Sorbie.' 
KlLTERSAN (P. Kiltersan). ' Kirkcowan.' Coill tarsuinn, the 

wood athwart. But cf. Kiltarsna, written cill tarsna (the 

church of the crossing), in the Martyrology of Donegal. See 

under BALTERSAN. 
KILWHANIDY (P. Kilwhonnaty ; JFar Committee, 1640, Kilquhen- 

nady). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 
KILWHIRN. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under KILHERN. 
KiNclRRACK. 'Kirkbean.' Ceann [ken] carroch, rocky hill, or 

ceann carric, head of the crag. 
KINDEE. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Ceann dubh [doo, duv], black head. 

Dubh often becomes dee in composition. On the opposite 

coast of Antrim is Kenbane (ceann ban), the white headland. 

Cf. Kinduff in Ireland. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 211 

KINDRAM (P. Keandramm). ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Ceann droma, 
head of the ridge ; genitive of druim. 

KINGANTON. ' Borgue.' 

KING'S LAGGAN. ' Anwoth.' 

KING'S WELL (within the old fortifications at the Mull of Gallo- 
way, and near two other wells called KIPPERNED and 
KIBBERTIE KITE WELL). ' Kirkmaiden.' 

KINHARVIE (P. Kinharvy). ' New Abbey.' Ceann gharbh [harve], 
rough head. Cf. Kingarve, Kingarrow, and Kingarriff in 
Ireland, o. ERSE garb, rough, ERSE and GAEL, garbh. 

KIPP (P. Kipp). ' Colvend.' " Kip. 1. A sharp pointed hill. 
2. Those parts of a mountain which resemble round knobs, 
jutting out by the side of the cattle path." Jamieson. Prob- 
ably from ERSE ceap [cap], gen. dp, a tree-stock, stump, 
or block. O'Reilly also gives to ceap the meaning of " a piece 
of ground." 

KIPPERNED. 'Kirkcolm.' Tlobar, a well. See under CHIPPER- 
HERON. 

KIPPFORD. ' Colvend.' The road or ford of Kipp. Cf. 
Knockakip in Clare, which the Four Masters (A.D. 1573) 
write Bel-an-chip, the (ford) mouth of the dp or tree-trunk. 

KIRBREEN or KIRKBREEN (P. Keribroyn). ' Kirkinner.' Ceath- 
ramhaidh bruigheain [?] [carrou breen], land-quarter of the 
dwelling-house. See under CURROCHTREE and BORGUE. 

KIRCALLA. ' Penninghame.' The only evidence of ecclesiastical 
occupation here is that a hill close by is called BARNEYCLEARY, 
q. v. 

KIRCLACHIE. * Inch.' Ceathramhaidh [carrou] cloiche [1], land- 
quarter of the stone. See under CARHOWE. 

KIRCL6Y. ' Mochrum.' See under KIRCLACHIE. 

KIRKANDERS or KIRKANDREWS (formerly a parish) (W. P. MSS. 
Kirkandirrs ; Rag. Roll. Eglise de Kircandres). ' Borgue.' 
Circ Aindrea, church of (St.) Andrew. BR. SO. &r& = M.E. 
chirch, chireche, Jcirk, kirke A.s. cyrice, arc + DU. JcerJc + DAN. 
kirke + SWED. kyrka + ICEL. kirkja + O.H.G. chiricha, G. kirche 
GK. Kvpiaicov, a church icvpios, the Lord. Occupying, as 
it frequently does, the first part of a name, it is easy to see 
that it has been substituted for the ERSE dll, or made inter- 
changeable as A.S. speech spread among the Celtic population. 



212 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

In names of directly A.S. or BR. SC. origin circ is placed last, 
such as Stoneykirk (Steenie's or St. Stephen's kirk). In 
Ireland, whither A.s. speech did not penetrate, circ does not 
appear in the topography. See under KIRKLEBRIDE. 

KlRKBEAN (a parish in the Stewartry) (P. Kirbyinn). Circ Beain, 
Bean's church; Bishop of Mortlach about A.D. 1012. Near 
Mortlach is Balvanie, written in Irish Bal-bheni mor, the 
dwelling of Bean the Great. Kal. Scot. Saints, p. 277. 

KIRKBRIDE (P. Kirkbryid ; Charter by Uchtred, Lord of Galloway, 
1170, Ecclesia Sanctae Brigide de Blacket). ' Kirkgunzeon/ 
' Kirkmabreck,' ' Kirkmaiden.' Circ Brighde, (St.) Brigid's 
church. The 'Mary of Ireland,' who died in 523, was 
extensively honoured in Scotland. 

KIRKCARSEL (Barribarroch, 1562, Kyrcarsall, Kyr-castell). 'Rer- 
wick.' 

KiRKCiAUGH (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Kirreclaugh ; P. Kareclauch ; 
War Committee, 1640, Kirriclauche). 'Anwoth,' ' Buittle.' 
Ceathramhaidh clach, land-quarter of the stones, as Carrowna- 
gloch in Connaught, which is written Ceathramhaidh-na-gcloch 
in the Book of Lecan. Cf. KIRCLACHIE. 

KlRKCHRiST (P. Kirkcrist, Kirkchrist). ' Kirkcudbright,' ' Old 
Luce,' ' Penninghame.' Circ Crioisd, Christ's kirk. 

KlRKCbLM [pron. Kirkcum] (Act. Ed. I., A.D. 1296, Kyrkum). 
Circ Coluim, (St.) Columba's church. Dr. Reeves enumerates 
fifty-six of this celebrated saint's dedications and foundations 
in Scotland. 

KlRKCdNNEL (P. Karkonnell, Kirkonnell). ' Tungland.' Circ 
Connaill, church of (St.) Connall. Cf. Tirconnel in Ireland, 
called Terra Connallea in a MS. life of St. Modvenna. A 
semi- vowel has been dropped ; the name was formerly 
Convall, as is shown in another life of St. Modvenna, where 
Tirconnell is called populus Convalleorum = W. Cynwal, O. W. 
Conffual, and, on an inscribed stone in Cornwall, CVNOVALI 
(Rhys, p. 86). "There are seven saints of this name in the 
Irish lists. It is impossible to identify any of them with 
him who gives his name to Kirkconnell." Kal. Scot. Saints, 
p. 311. 

KiRKc6RMACK. ' Kelton.' See under KILCORMACK. 

KlRKCbwAN (a parish in the shire) (Synod of Galloway MS. 
1664, Kirkuan). Circ Comhghain [cowan], Comgan's church. 
He was the brother of St. Caentigerna (the recluse of Inch 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 213 

Cailleach on Loch Lomond), and uncle of St. Fillan. He 
fled from Ireland to Ross-shire, where there is a dedication 
to him, Kilchoan, as well as numerous others in Scotland. 
Kal. Scot Saints, p. 310. Simpson remarks the name is 
pronounced (as at the present day) Kircuan. Cf. LINCUAN. 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT [pron. Kirkqoobry] (Rag. Roll, Kircuthbright ; 
Maclellan, Fanum Cudberti ; P. Kircubright). ' Kirkcud- 
bright.' A.S. circ Cuisbert, Cuthbert's kirk. " On one 
occasion Cudberct went to the land of the ' Niduari Picts,' 
or Picts of Galloway, who were then under the dominion 
of the Angles. He is described as quitting his monastery 
(Melrose) on some affairs that required his presence, and 
embarking on board a vessel for the land of the Picts who 
are called Niduari, accompanied by two of the brethren, 
one of whom reported the incident. They arrived there the 
day after Christmas, expecting a speedy return, for the sea 
was smooth and the wind favourable ; but they had no sooner 
reached the land than a tempest arose, by which they were 
detained for several days exposed to hunger and cold ; but 
they were, by the prayers of the saint, supplied with food 
under a cliff where he was wont to pray during the watches 
of the night ; and on the fourth day the tempest ceased, and 
they were brought by a prosperous breeze to their own 
country. The traces of this visit have been left in the name 
Kirkcudbright." Skene (quoting Bede's Fit. S. Cud.), Celtic 
Scotland, ii. 208. 

KIRKDALE [pron. Curdle, formerly a parish] (P. Kirkdall; W. P. 
MSS. Kirkdaill). ' Kirkmabreck.' AS. circ dcel, church por- 
tion, i.e. glebe. 

KIRKENNAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1611, Kirkcunane, Kirkinane 
P. Kerekennan). ' Buittle,' ' Minigaff.' Kirk Adhamhnain 
[?] [eunan], (St.) Adamnan's church. Although there is no 
authority for adding these places to the list of Scottish 
dedications to this Saint given by Dr. Reeves (Adamnan, Ixv.), 
yet the similarity of the name to those of other places sacred 
to his memory certainly suggest it, especially the old spelling, 
Kirkcunane. Cf. Killeunan in Argyllshire, Killonan in 
Limerick, etc. Perhaps circ Fhinnain [innan], a dedication 
to St. Inan or Finnan. See under KIRKGUNZEON. 

KiRKEftcH (P. Kirkock). ' Twynholm.' 

KIRKGUNZEON [pron. Kirkgunnion] (a parish in the Stewartry) 
(P. Kirkguinnan, Carguinnan ; Charters of 1 2th century 



2i 4 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

Kirkwinnyn and Kirkwynnin). Circ Finnain, St. Winnin's 
church. On the church bell, cast in 1640, Kirkwinong. 
Kilwinning and Southennan in Ayrshire are dedicated to the 
same Saint, whom Dr. Skene identifies with the Welsh Saint 
Vynnyn or Ffinnan, i.e. St. Finnan of Clonard, educated by 
St. Patrick, and patron of Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire, the 
name of which is a corruption "of the Welsh Llanffinan. 

KiRKHdBBLE (P. Kerychapell ; Inq. ad Cap. 1645, Keirchappell). 
' Penninghame.' Ceathramhaidh chaipeail [carrou happle], 
the quarter-land of the chapel. The next farm is GLENHAPPLE, 
q.v. See also under BARHAPPLE. 

KIRKINNA. ' Parton.' 

KIRKINNER (Inq. ad Cap. 1584, Kirkinver ; P. Kirkynnuir). 
* Kirkinner.' Kirk Cennera, St. Kennera's Church. St. 
Kennera, virgin and martyr, was one of the maidens who 
accompanied St. Ursula to Kome. Her story is told at length 
in the Breviarium dberdonense, vol. i. fol. cxxxiii. et seq. She 
lived with her parents, Aurelius and Florencia, " in Orchada 
minore ad urbem didam Orchadam." On returning from Eome, 
when St. Ursula and the other virgins were massacred at 
Cologna, the king of the Rhine " ob ejus eliganciam miram 
motus " (moved by her wonderful beauty) threw his cloak over 
her and took her to the Rhenish town where he dwelt. There 
she lived a life of piety, " ibat de virtute in virtutem," and be- 
came so honoured by the king that he gave into her charge 
the keys of his realm, and preferred her above all his house- 
hold. Not unnaturally the queen became jealous, and tried 
to make him believe evil of Kennera. " Sed quia vincit 
opus verbum" the king would not believe the slander, so the 
queen resolved upon the removal of the maiden. The king 
having gone hunting, she caused Kennera to be strangled 
with a towel (manitergium) and buried in the stable. On 
the king's return he asked at once where was Kennera. The 
queen replied that while he had been absent the parents of 
the maiden had come and taken her away. Meanwhile the 
king's horse, having been led round to the stable where 
Kennera was buried, neither by blows nor coaxing could he 
be induced to enter. He was therefore taken to another 
stable which he entered at once. The king went to bed, but 
was aroused by his groom, who, having had occasion to enter 
the stable where Kennera lay, was terrified at seeing burning 
candles in the form of a cross. Accompanied by his house- 
hold the king entered the stable, where the candles still were 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 215 

burning. On his approach they disappeared ; but on search 
being made the newly-disturbed floor led to the discovery of 
the body of Kennera with the napkin round her neck. She 
was canonised, and the 27th October set apart as her day. 
Seta. Kenera vgo. el mr. patrona de Kirkyner in Galwedia. 
Chalmers says the old name of Kirkinner was CARNESMOEL, 
and quotes, among others, a charter of Edward II. in 1319, 
giving presentation to Carnesmeol in the diocese of Candida 
Casa. 

KIRKLAND, in many places, = church land, glebe. 

KIRKLANE. ' Kelton.' The stream of the church. 

KiRKLAUCHLANE (Inq. ad Cap. 1596, Kerelauchleine; P. Keir- 
lachline). ' Stoneykirk.' Cathair [caher] Lochlinn, Lauchlan's 
fort. See under BARLAUCHLINE. o. ERSE cathir + w. and c. 
caer, B. karia. 

KIRKLEBRIDE (P. Kirkilbryde). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Kirk till 
Brighde, (St.) Brigid's church. We have here the BR. SC. 
kirk prefixed to the ERSE rill Brighde. See under KIRK- 
ANDERS and KIRKBRIDE. 

KIRKLEISH. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

KIRKLOCH. ' Minigafi".' 

KIRKMABRECK. A parish in the Stewartry. Circ mo Brice, church 
of St. Bricius or Brecan. (For the use of the pronoun mo, see 
under HILLMABREEDIA.) Of Bricius (episcopus et confessor) it 
is narrated in the Aberdeen Breviary that in his youth he bore 
great enmity to St. Martin. Once, when a certain sick 
person was seeking St. Martin, Bricius mocked him, saying : 
" If you are looking for that madman, there he is, staring at 
the sky as usual, like a lunatic." When he afterwards denied 
having said this, Martin said : " I have obtained this from 
God, that you shall be bishop after me ; but know this, that 
in your bishopric you shall encounter much tribulation." 
Bricius, hearing this, derided him, and continued in enmity 
to him ; but the blessed Martin was ever praying for him, 
saying : " If Christ bore with Judas, why shall I not bear 
with Bricius?" For the rest of his acts see the Aberdeen 
Breviary, vol. i. fol. clix. Another saint, whose name may 
be commemorated in KIRKMABRECK, is Brioc or Brieuc, a 
disciple of Germanus of Auxerre, and the patron saint of 
Rothesay. Bryak Fair is mentioned at the 16th Nov. in the 
Aberdeen Almanack 1665, and DUNROD, in the Stewartry, 
was dedicated to St. Mary and St. Brioc. Kal. Scot. Saints, 
p. 291. 



216 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

KIRKMABRICK (P. Kirkmabrick). ' Stoneykirk.' See under KIRK- 

MABRECK. 

KIRKMADRINE [pron. Kirkmadreen] (P. K. Madrym). ' Sorbie.' 
* Stoneykirk.' Both of these were formerly parishes. Dr. 
Stuart held that they were Gaulish dedications to Mathurinus 
of Sens, but Bishop Fwbes holds with more probability that 
Medran, mentioned in the Martyrology of Donegal, is herein 
commemorated. 

KlRKMAGiLL (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Carmagyll ; P. Kyrmagil). 
' Stoneykirk.' Cathair [caer] mic Giolla [?], M'Gill's fort. 
There are ruins here, behind the dwelling-house on Bal- 
greggan Mains, but nothing to indicate a church. 

KIRKMAIDEN (P. Kirkmadin, Kirkmaiden o' the sea). ' Glasser- 
ton,' ' Kirkmaiden.' A parish in the shire. Formerly there 
were two parishes of this name in Wigtownshire, one of 
which is now conjoined to Glasserton, the other being the 
southernmost parish in Scotland. The name is derived, 
according to the Aberdeen Breviary, from a dedication to St. 
Medana, who is described as an Irish maiden who took upon 
herself a vow of perpetual chastity, and being solicited by a 
certain miles nobilis, who would not take " no " for an answer, 
sailed for Scotland with two handmaidens. Landing in the 
Rhinns of Galloway (paries Galvidie superiores que ryndis 
dicuntur), she led a life of poverty. But the knight followed 
her, and drove her to take refuge with her two companions 
on an insulated rock in the sea. This rock, in answer to 
her prayers, became a boat, in which she was carried a 
distance of 30 miles, ad terrain gue fames didtur (Kirkmaiden 
in Glasserton), where the relics of the holy virgin (Medana) 
now repose. Again the knight followed her to her retreat, 
and arrived at the house where she and her two maids were 
sleeping. A cock crew and awoke her, when she took refuge 
in a high tree. " What do you see in me," said she, " to 
excite your passion 1 " " Your face and eyes," he replied : 
whereupon she tore out her eyes and flung them at his feet 
He, moved to penitence, departed ; she descended from the 
tree, and, being in want of water to wash her bleeding face, 
a fountain miraculously sprang from the root of the tree. 
The rest of her life she spent in sanctity and poverty under 
St. Ninian. There is a holy well at Kirkmaiden in Glasser- 
ton still repaired to by the country-people as a cure or pre- 
ventive of whooping-cough, hence called the Chincough Well. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 217 

In Kirkmaiden parish, near the Mull of Galloway, is the cave 
and exterior chapel of St. Medan, locally pronounced Midden. 

KIRKMIRRAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Kirkmirrein; 1615, Kirk- 
myrring). ' Kelton.' Circ Meadhrain [merran], church of 
(St.) Meadhran or Merinus, of the order of Clugny, buried 
at Paisley. 

KIRKMUIR, ' Kirkmabreck.' 

KlRKPATRiCK-DuRHAM (a parish in the Stewartry) (Inq. ad Cap. 
1607, Kirkpatrick Dirrame). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Kirk 
Pddric, church of (St.) Patrick. Formerly called Cella Patricii, 
or Kilpatrick-on-the-moor. 

KIRKPATRICK-IRONGRAY (P. Arngra). 'Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 
See IRONGRAY. 

KIRMINNOCH (P. Kerymeanoch). ' Kirkcolm.' Ceathramhaidh 
meadhonach [carrou mennagh], middle land-quarter. See 
under BALMINNOCH and CARHOWE. 

KIRMINNOCH (P. Kerimanach; Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Kerimannoch ; 
1643, Kerriemanoche). ' Inch,' ' Kirkinner.' Ceathramhaidh 
[carrou] manach, the monk's land-quarter. See under CAR- 
HOWE, KERMANACHAN, and KIRVENNIE. Cf. Carrowan- 
meanagh in Koscommon. 

KIRNAUCHTRY. ' Stoneykirk.' Cam uachdarach, upper cairn. 
See under AUCHNOTTRIE. 

KiR6uCHTRiE (Inq. ad Cap. 1570, Kerrochrie, Kerreochrie, Ker- 
dochrie; 157.2, Kirreuchrie). 'MinigafF.' Cathair [caer] 
Ochtraidh [oughtra], Uchtred's fort. 

KlRREftCH [pron. Kirry-oghe] (Inq. ad Cap. 1572, Correith). 
' Carsphairn.' 

KIRRIEDARROCH. ' MinigafF.' Coire darach, corrie or glen of the 

oaks. See under CURRAFIN. 
KiRRiEMdRE (P. Kerymoir). ' MinigafF.' Coire m6r, great corrie. 

KIRRIEROACH [pron. -roghe] (P. Kererioch, Kereryoch). ' Mini- 
gaiF.' Coire ruadh [rooh], red corrie, or, as Pant's spelling 
seems to indicate, coire riabhach [reeagh], grey corrie. 

KIRRONE (P. Kyrronh). ' MinigafF,' ' Mochrum.' 

KIRRONR!E. ' Kirkcolm.' Ceathramhaidh an reidha [carrou an 
ray], land-quarter of the flat field. A name truly expressing 
the ground, which is a wide flat on the shores of Loch Eyan. 
See under CARHOWE and REPHAD. 



2i8 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGA1DHEL. 

KIRSHINNOCH. ' MinigafF.' Carr, cathair [caer], or coire [kirrie] 
sionach [shinnaghj, rock, fort, or corrie of the foxes. See 
under AUCHENSHINNOCH. 

KIRVENNIE (P. Kerenwanach). ' Wigtown.' Ceathramhaidh [carrou] 
or cathair [caer] mhanach [vannagh], land-quarter or dwelling 
of the monks. Of. Drumavanagh in Cavan. See under 
KIRMINNOCH. 

KIRWAR. ' Mochrum.' Ceathramhaidh ghar [carrou har], near 
land-quarter. 

KmwluGH (P. Kirriwauchop, Kerywacher ; Cliarter 1513, Kero- 
woltok). ' Kirkinner.' Ceathramhaidh [carrou] mhagha 
[wagha] []], land-quarter of the plain or level ground. Pont 
shows an alternative form from machair, a synonym of magh. 
See under MAY and MACHAR. 

KISSOCK (P. Kissoktoun). ' New Abbey.' 

KITTRICK. ' MinigafF. ' See DUNKITTERICK. 

KITTYSHALLOCH. 'MinigafF.' Ceide or ceadach sealg [?] [kiddie 
shallug], hill of the hunting. " Ceide, a hillock, a compact 
kind of hill, smooth and plain at the top " (OJBrien). Cf. 
Keadydrinagh in Sligo, written Ceideach droighneach (Four 
Masters, 1526). 

KNARIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Knarie). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

KNOCK (W. P. MSS., Knok of Kirkmadin). ' Glasserton.' An 
exceedingly common name, usually as a prefix, but frequently, 
as in this case, standing alone. Cnoc, a hill (the initial 
hard c is pronounced in Erse and Gaelic). Probably akin to 
A.S. cnol (as if cnocel, a dim. of cnoc), w. cnol, a knoll + DU. 
knol, a turnip (from its roundness ; and it is to be remarked 
that O'Reilly gives " navew " or turnip as one of the meanings 
of cnoc). 

KNOCKADdON. ' Balmaclellan.' Cnoc a' du'm, hill of the fortress. 
Cf. KNOCKDOON, KNOCKDOWN, and KNOCKDUN. 

KNOCKAHAY. ' Old Luce.' Cnoc na aithe [?] [aiha], hill of the 
kiln. See under AUCHENHAY. 

KNOCKALANNIE. ' Kirkcowan.' 

KJJOCKALDIE. ' Leswalt,' ' Penninghame.' 

KNOCKALLAN. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc aluin, beautiful hill, cnoc 
alhiin, hill of the hinds, or cnoc Alain, Alan's hill. See under 
CRAIGELLAN. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 219 

KNOCKALPIN. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc Alpinn, Alpin's Hill. See 
under LEIGHT ALPIN. 

KNOCKAMAD. ' Penninghame.' 

KNOCKAMAIRLY. ' Stoneykirk.' 

KNOCKAMOORY. ' Port Patrick.' 

KNOCKAMOS. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

KNOCKAN (P. Knokkan). ' Kirkinner.' Cnocdn, little hill. The 
farm on which this is situated is called Little Hills. The 
stress, unlike the ordinary pronunciation of Erse in Gallo- 
way, but like that of Ireland, is in the last syllable. Of. 
KNOCKANS ; also Knockane, Knockaune, Knockeen, and 
Knickeen, the names of about seventy townlands in Ireland. 

KNOCKANAROCK. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnocdn dharaich [arragh], hill of 
oak ; or dhearg [arrig], red hill. 

KNOCKANDARICK. ' Tungland.' Cnoc an daraich, hill of the oak, 
or cnocdn dearg, red hill. Cf. KNOCKINDARROCH. 

KNOCK AND MAIZE (P. Maze). ' Leswalt.' 

KNOCKANEARY. ' Minigaff.' Cnocdn iarach [eeragh], western 
hill. See under BLAW WEARY. 

KNOCKANEED. ' Stoneykirk.' 

KNOCKANHARRY. 'Whithorn.' Cnocdn charragh [?] [harragh], 
rough little hill. Cf. KNOGKENHARRY ; also Knockaun- 
carragh in Ireland. 

KNOCKANICKEN. ' Kirkcowan.' Cnoc an cnuicin [?] [nikkin], hill 
of the hillock. 

KNOCKANRAE. ' Kirkmaiden.' Cnocdn rtidh [ray], smooth hill, 
cnoc an rtidhe [ray], hill of the green pasture, or perhaps, like 
Knockanree in Wicklow, cnoc an fliraeich [ree], hill of the 
heather. 

KN6CKANS. ' Minigaff.' Cnocdn, the hillock ; E. plur. added. 

KNOCKANTOMACHIE. ' Kirkmaiden.' Cnocdn tomach []], bushy 
hill. 

KNOCKARDY. ' New Luce.' Cnoc cearda [carda], hill of the 
workshop or forge. See under CAIRDIE ~V\ r iEL. 

KNOCKAROD. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Leswalt,' ' Port Patrick,' ' Stoneykirk.' 
Cnoc a' rathaid [?] [raud], hill of the road. See under 
DRUMMIERAUD. 

KNOCKASCREE. ' Port Patrick.' 



2 2 o AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

KNOCKAT60L. ' Inch,' ' Port Patrick.' Cnocdn tuatheal [tooal], 
northern hill. See under DRUMTOWL, 

KNOCKATOUAL. ' Kirkcowau.' See under DRUMTOWL. 
KNOCKAWINE ' Minigaff.' 

KNOCKBRAKE. ' Kirkcowan ' (twice), ' Old Luce,' ' Mochrum.' 
Cnoc bre"c, brindled, variegated hill. See under AUCHABRICK 
and FLECKIT HILL.. Cf. Knockbrack in Ireland. 

KNOCKBRAX. ' Kirkinner.' See under KNOCKBRAKE. 
KNOCKBREAK. ' Kirkcowan.' See under KNOCKBRAKE. 
KNOCKBREMEN. ' Stoneykirk.' 

KNOCKBREX. ' Penninghame.' See under KNOCKBRAKE. 

KNOCKBUIE. ' Carsphairn.' Cnoc buidhe [buie], yellow hill. See 
under BENBUIE. Cf. Knockboy in Ireland. 

KNOCKCAIRNACHAN. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc Ceaniachain, Carnachan's 
hill. See under FAULDCAIRNACHAN. 

KNOCKCAIRNS. ' Port Patrick.' Cnoc cairn, hill of the cairn. 
See under AUCHENCAIRN. 

KNOCKCANNON. ' Balmaghie.' Cnoc ceann fhionn [canhon], 
speckled, variegated hill. The literal meaning of ceann fhionn 
(fh silent) is white-headed; but is commonly applied to a 
cow with a white star on the forehead, and, generally, to any- 
thing freckled. Thus KNOCKCANNON is the equivalent of 
KNOCKBRAKE. Cf. Foilcannon, Clooncannon, Carrigcannon, 
Drumcannon, Lettercannon, etc., in Ireland. 
KNOCKCAPPY. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

KNOCKCARNEL. ' Parton.' 

KNOCKCLAYGIE. Minigaflf.' Cnoc daigeain, hill of the skull, or 
of the arable field. See under BARNYCLAGY. 

KNOCKCLUNE. * Kells.' Cnoc cluain [cloon], hill of the meadow. 
See under CLONE. 

KNOCKC6ARS. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

KNOCKcdCHER. 'Kirkcowan.' 

KNOCKCOM. 'Minigaflf.' Cnoc cam, crooked hill. Cf. CUMNOCK. 
KNOCKC6RE. < Stoneykirk.' 

KNOCKCRAVEN. ' New Luce.' See under KNOCKCRAVIE. 

KNOCKCRAVIE. ' Kirkcowan,' ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc craeWiach 
[creevagh], wooded hill, or craebhe, hill of the tree. See under 
CASTLE CREAVIE. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WAY. 221 

KNOCKCREAVIE. ' Balmaclellan.' See under KNOCKCRAVIE. 

KNOCKCROE. ' Mochrum.' Cnoc crodh [croe], hill of the cattle, 
or cnoc ruadh [rooh], red hill. 

KNOCKCR6SH. ' Balmaclellan. ' Cnoc crois [crosh], hill of the cross 
or gallows, or cnoc roiss, hill of the wood or promontory (see 
under Ross), or cnoc ros, hill of the roses. Cf. KNOCKROSH. 

KNOCKCRIJNGE. ' Old Luce.' 

KNOCKCUDDY. ' Minigaff.' 

KNOCKCULLIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Pecia terrarum de Stranrawer, 
vocata Knockinkelzie). ' Leswalt.' Cnoc coille, hill of the 
wood. Cf. KNOCKHILLY and KNOCKWHILLY. 

KNOCKctiNNOCH. ' Carsphairn.' Cnoc conaidh [connah], hill of 
the firewood (Joyce, ii. 351); Cf. Killyconny in Westmeath, 
written Coill an chonaidh (Four Masters, 1445), Kilconny in 
Cavan; Druminacunna in Tipperary; Clooncunna, Cloon- 
cunny, and Cloonconny, in various parts of Ireland. ERSE 
conadh, w. cynnud, B. cenneuden. Perhaps cognate with E. 
kindle, which is akin to candle LAT. candere (accendere) 
^/SKAND, to shine. 

KNOCKCURRY. ' Parton.' Cnoc coire, hill of the caldron, or kettle- 
like glen. See under CURRAFIN. 

KNOCKDAILY. ' Balmaghie.' Cnoc dealg [1] [dallig], hill of the 
thorns. See under CLAMDALLY. 

KNOCKDANIEL. ' Balmaclellan.' 

KNOCKDAVIE. ' Kells.' Cnoc t-samhaidh [?] [tavie], hill of the 
field-sorrel. Cf. Knockatavy in Louth. Samhadh, sorrel, pro- 
nounced saua or sow in the south, and sawva in the north of 
Ireland, generally loses the initial s in composition by eclipsing 
t. It appears in many Irish names (Joyce, ii. 341). 

KNOCKDAWN. ' Girthon.' Cnoc don, brown hill. 

KNOCKD6LLOCHAN. ' Dairy.' Cnoc da lochan [?], hill of the two 
lakelets. 

KNOCKD6LLY. ' Parton.' See under KNOCKDAILY. 
KNOCKDON. ' Mochrum.' See under KNOCKDAWN. 

KNOCKDdON. ' Kirkmabreck.' Cnoc duin, hill of the fort. See 
under KNOCKADOON. 

KNOCKD6WN. ' Stoneykirk.' Probably cnoc duin, hill of the fort ; 
but an attempt to Anglicise what was supposed to be BR. sc. 



222 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

doon, has turned it into E. down. The same name occurs, 
however, in Kerry and Limerick, and is referred by Joyce to 
cnoc don, brown hill. 

KNOCKDR6NNAN. ' Parton.' Cnoc draighnean [drannan], hill of 
the blackthorns. See under DRANGAN. 

KNOCKDtiN. ' Minigaff.' See under KNOCKDOON. 

KNOCKEANS. ' Kirkmabreck.' Onocin, little hill. Cf. KNOCKANS. 

KNOCKEEN. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Kirkmaiden.' Cnocin, little hill (see 
under KNOCKAN), or perhaps cnoc caein [keen], pretty hill, 
corresponding to Bonny Knowes, which is not far from 
Knockeen in Kirkcolm. Cf. Drumkeen and Dromkeen, the 
names of fifteen townlands in Ireland (Joyce, ii. 64). o. ERSE 
cam (bonus. Z 2 . 30) + w. cain, beautiful, can, bright, white ; 
B. can, C. can ] akin to LAT. candere, to shine LAT. candfre, 
to kindle, which appears in ac-cendere, in-cendere + SKT. chand, 
to shine /\/SKAND, to shine. 

KNOCKEFFERRICK (P. Knokafarik). ' Kirkinner.' Perhaps 
named from Afreca, daughter of Fergus, Lord of Galloway, 
who, after peace had been contrived between the Norsemen 
and the people of Galloway in the twelfth century, married 
Olave, the Norwegian king. Celt. Scot. iii. p. 34. 

KNOCKELDRIG. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under ELDRIG. 

KNOCKENCIILE. ' Kirkmaiden.' Cnoc an cuil [?], hill of the angle 
or corner. Probably a syllable has been lost, the original 
meaning having been the hill of the corner of something; 
as Knockcoolkeare in Limerick, the hill of the corner of the 
berries. 

KNOCKENCtiRR (P. Knokinkurr). ' Kirkinner.' 

KNOCKENDOCH. ' New Abbey.' Cnocdn dubh [dooh], black hill. 
KNOCKENDtiRRiCH. ' Twynholm.' See under KNOCKANDARICK. 
KNOCKENH!RRY. ' Kirkcolm.' See under KNOCKANHARRY. 

KNOCKENH6UR. ' Colvend.' Cnocdn odhar [owr], grey hill. Cf. 
Knockoura in Cork and Galway, from the derivative odhartha 
[owra], greyish. 

KNOCKENSEE. ' Kells.' Cnoc an suidhe [see], hill of the seat. o. 
ERSE sude, suide, ERSE suidlw, a seat, often occurring in Irish 
place-names, generally as a prefix; suidhim, I sit + DAN. sidde 
+ DU. zitten + GOTH. sitan + iCEL. sitja + o.'H.G. sizzan, G. sitzen 
+ A.S. sittan (whence M.E. sitten, E. sit), all from TEUT. base 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 223 

SAT, akin to /\/ SAD J * s ^> whence SKT. sad, GK. egofiai, LAT. 
sedere, LITH. sedeti, RUSS. sidiete. The E. see, the seat of 
a bishop, M.E. se, is from o.r. se, sed. 

KNOCKENTARRY. ' Mochrum.' Cnoc an tarbhe [tarvie], the bull's hill. 
ERSE tarbh, w. taw + LAT. taurus + GK. ravpos + A.s. steor, a 
young ox, whence E. steer. The word signifies full-grown or 
strong /^STU, to be strong, a form of STA, to stand (Skeat). 

KNOCKERNAN. ' Kirkcowan.' Cnoc Ernain, Ernan's hill. Ernan 
was one of the twelve followers of St. Columba from Ireland 
to Scotland, and to him Killernan in Eoss-shire is dedicated. 

KNOCKERRICK. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc dhearg [herrig], red hill. 

KNOCKEWEN. ' Girthon.' Cnoc Iain, John's or Ewen's hill. See 
under BAREWING. 

KNOCKFAD. ' Kirkpatrick Durham,' ' Minigaff.' Cnoc fada, long, 
or far hill. A common name in Ireland. 

KNOCK FELL. ' Old Luce.' Pleonastic addition of ICEL. fjall to 
ERSE cnoc. 

KNOCKFISHER. ' Crossmichael.' 

KNOCKGARRIE. ' Balmaclellan.' Cnoc garbh [garriv], rough hill. 
Cf. KNOCKANHARRIE. 

KNOCKGILL. ' Crossmichael.' Cnoc goill [?], stranger's hill. See 
under INCHIGUILE. Cf. KNOCKGYLE. 

KNOCKGILSIE. ' Kirkcolm.' Cnoc guikhach, rushy hill. See under 

AUCHENGILSHIE. Cf. KNOCKGULSHA, CASSENGILSIE, TAR- 

WILKIE ; and, in Ireland, Knocknagilky. 

KNOCKGLASS (P. Knokglash, Knockglass). ' Inch,' c New Luce,' 
' Old Luce,' ' Port Patrick.' Cnoc glas, green hill. 

KNOCKG6UR. ' Leswalt.' Cnoc golhar [gower], hill of the goats. 
See under ALGOWER. Cf. Knocknagore and Knocknagower 
in Ireland. 

KNOCKGRAY (P. Knokgrey). ' Carsphairn,' ' Kirkmabreck.' Cnoc 
grtaich [graigh], hill of the elevated flat. See under IRONGRAY. 

KNOCKGIJLSHA. ' Glasserton.' See under KNOCKGILSIE. 

KNOCKGYLE. 'Girthon.' Cnoc goill, hill of the foreigner. Cf. 
KNOCKGILL. See under INCHIGUILE. Cf. Knocknagaul in 
Limerick 

KNOCKHAMMY. ' Kirkcolm.' 



224 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

KNOCKHARNACHAN. ' Stoneykirk.' It is impossible to say what 
consonant is lost here by aspiration. The word may either 
be cnoc Chearnachain, Carnachan's hill (see under FAULDCAR- 
NAHAN) or cnoc fhearnachan (fh mute) hill of the alders. See 

Under DRUMFARNACHAN. 

KNOCKHARNOT. 'Leswalt.' Cnoc ornacht [?], hill of the barley. 
Cf. Barleymount in Kerry, formerly Cnoc-ornacht (ffDon. 
Suppl. to O'Reilly). 

KNOCKHASTIE. ' Dairy.' 

KNOCKHENRIES. * Kirkcowan.' Cnoc fhainre [hainry], sloping 
hill, deriv. of fdn, a slope. Cf. Donaghenry. a parish in 
Tyrone. See under CROFTANGRY. 

KNOCKHILLY (Inq. ad Cap. 1656, Knockinhillie). 'Leswalt.' 
See under KNOCKWHILLIE. 

KNOCKH6RNAN. * Port Patrick/ 

KNOCKIEBAE (P. Knokbe). 'New Luce.' Cnoc no, beith [bey], 
hill of the birch trees. Cf. Knockbeha in Ireland. 

KNOCKIEBRIAR. ' New Luce.' Cnoc a' brathair, hill of the brother 
(friar). See under ALTIBRAIR, which is close by. 

KNOCKiEcdRE. ' Old Luce.' 

KNOCKIEDIM. ' Old Luce.' Cnoc a' dtuim [dim], hill of the village, 
dwelling, or grave. Genit. of 0. ERSE tuaimm, "a village, 
homestead ; a dyke, fence ; a grave, tomb " (O'Reilly). 

KNOCKIEF6UNTAIN. ' New Luce.' Cnoc a Fintain [?], Fintan's hill. 
Cf. Kilfountain (Fintan's church) in Kerry, which is the 
Munster pronunciation of Fintan. There are several indi- 
viduals of this name mentioned in the old MSS. Of these, St. 
Finten, Munna, or Mundus was the most celebrated. He was 
a contemporary of St. Columba, and Adamnan thus writes of 
him in his life of that saint : " Sanctus Fintenus per universas 
Scotorum ecclesiasvalde noscibilis habitus est " (Reeves' s Adam- 
nan, p. 22). According to the Breviary of Aberdeen, he was 
buried in Cowall, at the place now called Kilmun (Munna's 
church) ; but the same honour is claimed for Taghmon (teach 
Munna) in Wexford. 

KNOCKIEHOURIE. 'New Luce.' Cnoc na huidhre p], [hourie], 
hill of the dun cow (see under BARNHOURIE) ; or cnocdn 
odhartha [owrie], grey hill. 

ElNOCKlENAUSK. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 225 

KNOCKIENAWEN. ' New Luce.' Cnoc an abhann [?] [owen], hill of 
the stream (one form of the gen. sing, of abhainn). 0. ERSE 
abann + w. afon, C. awan + LAT. amnis + SKT. avani. Or perhaps 
cnocin dhonn [onn], brown hill. 

KNOCKIER6Y. ' Minigaff.' Cnocdn ruadh [rooh], red hillock. Of. 

Knockroe, in Ireland. 
KNOCKIETANTER. ' Minigaff/ 

KNOCKIETIE. ' Old Luce.' Cnoc na tighe, hill of the house. See 
under DRUMATYE. 

KNOCKIETINNIE. ' Kirkcowan.' Cnoc a' teine [tinny], hill of the 
fire or beacon. Cf. Duntinny in Donegal, Kiltinny in Antrim. 
W. tan, a fire, pi. tclnau. 

KNOCKIETOL. ' Leswalt.' See under KNOCKATOOL. 
KNOCKIET6RE. ' Old Luce/ 

KNOCKiETdwL. ' Old Luce.' See under KNOCKATOOL. 
KNOCKINAAM. ' Port Patrick.' 

KNOCKINCAR. 'Kirkcowan.' Cf. KNOCKENCUR. 
KNOCKINDARROCH. ' Balmaclellan.' See under KNOCKANDARICK. 

KNOCKINDERRY. ' Old Luce.' Cnoc an doire [dirry], hill of the 
(oak) wood, or .cnocdn dearg, red hill. Cf. Knockaderry in 
Ireland. See under DERRY. 

KNOCKJETTY. ' Berwick/ 

KNOCKJIG. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray/ 

KNOCKLANNIE. ' Kirkcudbright.' Cf. KNOCKALANNIE. 

KNOCKLEACH. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Cnoc Hag, hill of the flat 
stones or tombs. See under AUCHLEACH. 

KN6CKLEARN [pron. -lairn]. (P. Knoklarrin). ' Balmaclellan/ 

KNOCKLER6Y. ' Tungland.' Cnodach ruadh [rooh], red hilly 
place. 

KN6CKLOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Knocklie). 'Balmaclellan/ 

Cnocklach, a hilly place. 

KNOCKLYOCH. ' Kirkmaiden/ 

KNOCKMALACHAN. ' Stoneykirk.' 

KNOCKM!N. ' Dairy/ ' Minigaff/ Cnoc mban [1] [man], hill of the 

women, genit. plur. of bean. Cf. Cornaman in Cavan and 

Leitrim. See under BARNAMON. 
KNOCKMARLOCH. 'Kirkmaiden/ Cf. KNOCKAMAIRLY. 

KNOCKMASSON. ' Leswalt.' Cf. INNERMESSAN in the next parish. 

p 



226 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

KNOCKMILAUK. ' Whithorn.' Cnoc Moluaig [?], Moluag's hill. 
Moluag, the patron saint of Argyll, and founder of Lismore 
in Scotland, was originally called Lughaidh, contracted into 
Lua, familiarised Luag, in honorific form Moluag. He died 
in 592 {Reeves' s Adamnan, p. 371, note). His name appears 
as Molouach, Moloak, flfhulluoch, Malogue, Emagola, and 
Muluag. He founded many religious houses in Scotland, and 
his name frequently occurs, especially in the west ; thus we 
find Kilmoluag in Tiree, in Mull, in Skye ; Kilmolowok in 
Eaasay ; Kilmoloig in Argyllshire, etc. ; and apparently the 
same name occurs in the HOWE HILL or HAGGAMALAG, q.v. 

KNOCKMdNEY. ' Kirkcolm ' (twice). Cnoc monadh [munney], hill 
of the moor or peat. See under DALMONEY. 

KNOCKMONONDAY or KNOCKMUNADY. ' Penninghame.' 

KNOCKM6RE. 'New Luce/ 'Wigtown.' Cnoc mdr, great hill. 
Occurs in Ireland, as well as a semi-translation Muchknock, 
quasi Muckle Knock in Wexford ; and in a charter by John 
Lord Maxwell, in 1604, are given two names in the Stewartry, 
Knokmekill and Knoklytill, where the adjectives retain, after 
translation, their position as in the Erse form. Cf. KNOCK- 
MUIR. 

KNOCKMORLAND (P. Foirland dycks). ' Kirkcolm.' Cnoc murlain, 
hill of the rough top. Pont perpetuates the aspirated form 
mhurldn [vurlan]. See under CARRICKAMURLAN. 

KNOCKM6WDIE. ' Kells.' 

KNOCKM6WE. 'Kelton.' Cnoc m-bo [moe], hill of the cows. 
See under BIAWN. 

KNOCKMUCK. ' Borgue.' Cnoc muc, hill of the swine. Swinedrum 
is close by. Cf. Knocknamuck in Ireland. 

KNOCKMUIR. ' Tungland.' See under KNOCKMORE. 

KNOCOitiLLOCH. ' Kirkcowan.' Cnoc mullaich [1], hill-top. 
See under MULLOCH. 

KNOCKMIJLLIN. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc muilinn, mill hill. Cf. 
Knockmullin in Ireland. 

KNOCKMtiRDOCH. ' Balmaclellan.' Cnoc Muirchertaigh, Murtagh's 
hill (O'Don. Top. Poems, xv. 60). 

KNOCKMIJRRAY. 'Balmaghie.' Cnoc Muireadhaich [Murragh], 
Murray's or Murdoch's hill. See, under BALMURRIE. 

KNOCKNAC6R. ' Kirkcowan.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 227 

KNOCKNAIL. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

KNOCKNAIN (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Knoknayne). ' Leswalt.' Cnoc 
n-en [nain], hill of the birds. Cf. Birdhill in Tipperary, 
formerly called Cnoc-an-ein-fhinn, hill of the \vhite bird 
(O'Don. Suppl). 

KNOCKNAIRLING (Inq. ad Cap. 1571, Knoknarling; 1604, Knok- 
marling; P. Knoknarilin). ' Kells.' 

KNOCKNALLING. ' Balmaclellan.' Cnoc n-alluin [?] [aelun], hill 
of the hinds. See under CRAIGELLAN. 

KNOCKNAMOOR. ' Minigaff.' Cnoc an ammuir [?], hill of the 
trough. See under BALLOCHANARMOUR. 

KNOCKNAN. ' Balmaclellan.' See under KNOCKNAIN. 

KNOCKNAR. ' Mochrum.' Cnoc an air, hill of the slaughter or 
of the ploughing. Cf. Knockanare in Ireland. See under 
BARNAER. 

KNOCKNASH. Dairy.' Cnoc an easa [assy], hill of the waterfall. 
Cf. Doonass on the Shannon, Caherass in Limerick, Owenass 
in Queen's County, etc. See under Ass OF THE GILL. 

KNOCKNASSY. 'Kirkcolm.' See under KNOCKNASS. Cf. Poulan- 
assy in Kilkenny. 

KNOCKNAVAR. ' Kirkmaiden.' Cnoc na bhfear [var], hill of the 
men. F is frequently eclipsed by l)h, which is the equivalent 
of English v, as in Bennaveoch, Craigenveoch ; and, in Car- 
rignavar (carraig na bhfear) and Licknavar (leac na bhfear), 
both in Cork. o. ERSE fer, a man + W. gwr, c. gur 
+ GOTH, wair + A.s. wer + O.H.G. wer + LAT. uir + GK. tfpws 
(for Fr/ptos), a hero + SKT. vira, a hero + ZEND, vim, a hero 
+ LITH. u-aira, a man. All from Aryan type WIRA, a man 
(Meat). 

KNOCKNAW. ' MinigafF.' Cnoc an atha [1] [aha], hill of the ford, 
or cnoc naithe [nay], hill of the kiln. See under AUCHENHAY 
and CARSNAW. 

KNOCKNEAN. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' See under KNOCKNAIN. 

KNOCKNEOCH. ' Kells.' Cnoc n-each [1], hill of the horses. See 
under AUCHNESS. 

KNOCKNEVIS. ' Carsphairn.' 

KNOCKNIEM6NEY. ' Leswalt.' Cnoc na monadh [munny], hill of 
the moor or peat. See under DALMONEY and KNOCKMONEY. 
Cf. Knocknamona in Ireland. 



228 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

KNOCKNIEM6AK. ' Leswalt.' Cnoc na mboc [moak], hill of the 
he-goats. See under AUCHNIEBUT. 

KNOCKNiNSHOCK. ' Kirkmabreck.' Cnoc n-uinnseog [ninshug], 
hill of the ash-trees. See under DRUHNAMINSHOG. 

KNOCKNISHIE. ' Whithoni.' 

KNOCKN6N. ' Buittle.' 

KNOCKNIITTY. ' Balmaghie.' 

KNOCK6RR. ' Kirkcudbright.' Of. KNOCKOWER. 

KNOCKdwER. ' Carsphairn.' Cnoc odhar [owr], grey hill. See 
under BENOWR. 

KNOCKQUHASEN [pron. Knockhwazen]. ' Port Patrick.' Cnoc 
chasain [?] [hasen], hill of the pathway. See under AIRY- 
HASSEN and CULQUHASEN. 

KNOCKREOCH (P. Knockreochs, Knockreocs). ' Kells.' Cnoc 
riabhach [reeagh], grey hill. Cf. Knockreagh in Ireland. 

KNOCKR6BBIN. ' Kelton.' 

KNOCKROGER. ' Kirkcowan.' 

KNOCKR6ro. ' Kirkcowan.' 

KNOCKR6NIE. ' Wigtown.' Cnoc raithne [?] [rannie], ferny hill. 
See under BLAWRAINIE. 

KNOCKR6SH. ' Carsphairn.' See under KNOCKCROSH. 

KNOCKSALLIE. ' Kells.' Cnoc seileach, hill of the willows. See 
under BARNSALLIE. Cf. Knockersally in IMeath. 

KNOCKSCADAN. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc scadan, hill of the herrings ; 
probably where herrings were sold, or possibly where a fall 
of herrings took place in a bursting waterspout. See under 
CULSCADDEN. 

KNOCKSENTICE. ' Balinaclellan.' 

KNOCKSHEEN (P. Knocksheen). ' Kells.' Cnoc sian [sheen], hill 
of the foxgloves. See under AUCHENSHEEN. 

KNOCKSHINNIE. ' Kirkcudbright.' Cnoc sianach, hill of the foxes. 
See under BLAIRSHINNOCH. 

KNOCKSHINNOCH (P. Knokshinnoch). ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 
See under KNOCKSHINNIE. 

KNOCKSKAIG. ' Kells.' Cnoc sceach, hill of the hawthorns. Cf. 
Knocknaskeagh in Ireland. See under SCAITH. 



THE TOPO GRAPHY OF GALL OWAY. 229 

KNOCKSKELLIE. ' Kirkcudbright,' ' Port Patrick.' Cnoc sceilig, 
hill of the rocks. Sceilec, scillec, a splinter of stone (O'Don. 
Suppl.^), scillic (Cormac). 

KNOCKSKE6G. ' Wigtown.' Cnoc sceithidg [skyoge], hawthorn hill. 
Cf. KNOCKSKAIG. See under AUCHENSKEOCH. 

KNOCKSTING (P. Knocksting). ' Dairy.' 

KNOCKSx6cKS. ' Penninghame.' Cnoc stuaic [stook], hill of the 
round knobs or lumps. This exactly describes the ground, 
which is characterised by several round hillocks, o. ERSE 
" Stuag, an arch" (Windiscti). " Stuaic, a little hill, a round 
promontory; a wall, a pinnacle, a horn; a summit; the 
highest part of man or beast. Stuc, a horn, a pile of sheaves 
of corn. Stuchd, a little hill jutting out from a greater."' 
OReilly. Probably akin to E. stack (which is also used in the 
sense of a columnar isolated rock) ; M.E. stak, BR. so. stook, a 
shock of corn ICEL. stakkr, haystack (stakka, a stump ; cf. E. 
chimney-stack) + SWED. stack, a rick, heap, stack, DAN. stak. 
The sense is "a pile," that which is set or stuck up (Skeat). 
There are several places in Ireland called Stook and Stucan. 

KNOCKSTRAWIE. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc sratha [1] [sraha], hill of 
the strath or vale. See tinder STRAMODDIE. 

KNOCKTAGGART. ' Kirkmabreck,' ' Kirkmaiden.' Cnoc t-sagairt 
[taggart], the priest's hill. In each case this name occurs close 
to the site of an old church, viz. OLD KIRKMABRECK and 
CHAPELROSSAN respectively. Cf. Knocksaggart in Ireland. 

KNOCKTALL. 'Borgue,' ' Minigaff.' See under KNOCKIETOL. 

KNOCKTALLOW. ' Berwick.' Cnoc talaimli [1] [tallav], hill of the 
land. Cf. Shantallow (sean talamh, old land), Tallowroe 
(talamh ruadh, red land), etc., in Ireland, o. ERSE talam + 
LAT. tellus. 

KNOCKTAJrMOCK. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc tomach, bushy hill, or cnoc 
tuama [tooma], hill of the tomb or tumulus. ERSE tuama + 
LAT. tumba + GK. ri;/i/3a = ry/i/3o?, a burial mound. Prob- 
ably akin to LAT. tumulus tumere, to swell (Skeat). See 
under KNOCKIEDIM. 

KNOCKTEINAN. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc tendhail []] [tennal], or ten- 
neail, hill of the bonfire. The final consonant is liable to 
change, as in Ardintenant in Cork, which is mentioned in the 
Annals of Lough Key under the name of Ard-an-tenneal. See 
under KNOCKIETINNIE. 



230 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

KNOCKTENTOL. ' Balmaclellan.' Cnoc tendail, hill of the bonfire. 
Cf. KNOCKTEINAN, of which this is the unaspirated form. 

KNOCKTIM (Inq. ad Cap. 1624, Knocktin ; P. Knoktimm). ' Kirk- 
colm.' Cnoc tuim [?] [tim], hill of the grave or dwelling. 
See under KNOCKIEDIM. 

KNOCKTINKLE. ' Anwoth,' ' Kirkmabreck.' See under KNOCK- 

TINNEL. 

KNOCKTINNEL. ' Urr.' Cnoc tiondil [tinnol], hill of the assembly 
(cf. Kkockatinnole in Ireland); or cnoc tendhal [tennal], or 
tenneail, hill of the bonfire. See under DRUMDENNEL. 

KNOCKTOL. ' Balmaclellan.' See under KNOCKIETOL and KNOCK- 
TALL. 

KNOCKT6MACHIE. ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc tomach [?], 
bushy hill. See under CAIRNTAMMOCK and KNOCKTAMMOCH. 

KNOCKT06DEN. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc t-sudaire [toodery], the 
tanner's hill. Cf. Knockatudor in Cavan, and Knockeena- 
tudor. See under BENTUDOR. 

KNOCKTOR. ' Troqueer.' Cf. KNOCKIETOR. 

KNOCKT6WER. ' Parton.' 

KNOCKVENNIE. ' Parton.' 

KNOCKVILLE (P. Knok Vill). ' Penninghame.' Cnoc bhile [villy], 
hill of the large tree. Cf. Knockavilla and Aghaville in 
several parts of Ireland. The well-known Movilla or Moville 
was originally magh bhile, the plain or field of the great tree 
(Four Masters, A.D. 649). 

KNOCKWALKER. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

KNOCKWALLOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Knokculloch). 'Kirkpatrick 
Durham.' Cnoc uallach p], proud hill. This epithet is often 
applied to natural features, e.g. Uallach, a river in Cork, now 
called Proudly. Applied to a hill it means " towering, pro- 
minent," cf. W. " Balch, prominent, towering, superb, proud " 
(Pughe). 

KNOCK\V!R. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc gar, near hill. 
KNOCKWARLEY. ' Crossmichael.' 

KNOCKWH!R. ' Girthon.' See under KNOCKWAR. 

KNOCKWHARREN. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc ghearrain [?], hill of the 
grove ; or cnoc ghearran, hill of the horses. Cf. Knockagarran- 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 231 

baun in Galway, written by the Four Masters (A.D. 1600) cnoc 
an gearrdin bain, hill of the white horse. ERSE gearran, a work 
horse, survives in BR. sc. " garron, a small horse " (Jamieson). 
See under GLENGARREN. 

KXOCKWHILLAN. ' Balmaghie,' ' Rerwick.' Cnoc chuillinn [hwillan], 
hill of the holly. ColJin Hill, close by, has the same meaning. 
Of. Knockacullen in Ireland. See under ALWHILLAN. 

KXOCKWHILLIE. ' Stoneykirk.' Cnoc choille [hwilly], wood hill. 
See under KNOCKCULLY and KNOCKHILLY. 

KNOCKWHIRN (a hill of 1633 feet) (P. Knokchyrn hill). ' Cars- 
phairn.' Cnoc chuirn [hwirn], hill of the cairn. 

KXOCKVVHIRR. ' Twynholm.' 

KNOCKYCLEGY. ' Penninghame.' Cnoc a' daiginn [1], hill of the 
skull. " Often applied to a round, hard, dry hill." Joyce, 
ii. 428. See under BARNEYCLAGIE. 

KNOITS or BENTUDOR, THE. ' Berwick.' The hillocks of Ben- 
tudor. " Noits, little rocky hills, also any little rocky rise " 
(M adaggart) = E. knop, knob, a protuberance, knap, a hilltop 
("some high knap or tuft of a mountain," Holland's Transl. of 
Pliny, B. xi., c. 10, ed. 1634) A.S. cncep, the top of a M11 + 
DU. knob, knoop, a knob + iCEL. knappr, a knot, button + DAN. 
knap, knop, a knob, button + SWED. knopp, a knob, knop, a 
knot + G. knopf, a knob. All probably from Celtic, GAEL. 
cnap, a slight blow, a knob, a little hill, w. cnap, a knob, 
button, ERSE cnap, a knob, button, hillock, from cnapaim, I 
strike ; as bump (subst.) from the verb to bump. See under 
NAPPERS. 

KNOITS OF LINKENS. ' Kirkcudbright.' See under LINKENS. 
KNOTTY BURN. ' Carsphairn.' 

KNOWEHAPPLE. 'Kells.' Cnoc chapul, hill of the horses (see 
under BARHAPPLE). Knowe = E. knoll A.S. cnol, for connection 
of which with Celtic, see under KNOCK. 

KNOWLIE. ' Urr.' A.S. cnol led, the hill field, field of the knoll. 

KNOX HILL (P. Knox). 'Buittle.' Cnoc, a hill. See under 
KNOCK. 

KNOX'S BURN. ' Carsphairn.' 

K6LPER's WELL. ' Kirkmaiden/ 



232 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 



JjABNIE POINT. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

LADY BAY. 'Kirkcolm.' The farm situated on this bay bears 
the Erse equivalent in its name, viz. Portencalzie, q.v. 

LADY BURN. ' Kirkinner,' ' Old Luce.' This and - the four fol- 
lowing names are traces of old religious occupation. BR. sc. 
burn, a stream, E. bourn, M. E. bourne A.S. burna, burne + TfU. 
barn, a spring ICEL. brunnr, a spring + SWED. brun, a spring, 
a well + DAN. brond, a well + GOTH, brunna, a spring, a well + 
O.H.G. prunna, G. brunnen, a spring, a well + GK. (frpeap, a well. 
The root of burn, bourn, is assigned by Skeat to A.s. byrnan, 
to burn, just as the root of GOTH, brunna is GOTH, brinnan, 
to burn. The idea is the same as in well (see under CAIRDIE 
WIEL), hot, boiling up, and in torrent, i.e. torrens, hot, boiling, 
raging, impetuous (Skeat). 

LADY CAVE and HILL. ' Kirkcolm.' 

LADY EUE. * Kirkcolm.' GAEL. " rudha [rooa, roo], a point of 
land in the sea, a promontory." Macalpine. This word, so 
common along the west coast of Scotland, does not appear in 
Ireland. 

LADY WELL. 'Mochrum,' 'Old Luce.' 

LAG, THE. ' Glasserton.' Lag, log, a hollow. Often transferred 
(as in this case) to the hill beside the hollow. Common in 
Irish place-names as lag, lig, leg, in the north, and lug in the 
south and west. ERSE lag, log + ICEL. Idgr, low (whence 
M.E. louh, lah, low, E. low) + SWED. lag, DAN. lav + vu. laag 
TEUT. base LAG, to lie, to which are akin LAT. lectus, a bed 
(from obsolete base leg-, to lie), and GK. X,e%o9, a bed (from 
obsolete base Xe^), also appearing in aorist eXea (Skeat). 

LAGAGEELIE. ' Kirkmaiden.' Lag a' gile [?] [gilly], hollow of the 
whiteness or brightness. Cf. Legilly in Tyrone. 

LAGAN AMOUR. 'New Luce.' Lag an ammuir, hollow of the 
trough. Cf. Lugganammer and Leganamer in Leitrim. See 
under BALLOCHANAMOUR. 

LAGANDERRY. 'Penninghame.' Lagdn doire [dirry], hollow of 
the wood. See under DERRY. 

LAGBAES (P. Lagbe). ' Minigaff.' Lag beith [bey], hollow of the 
birches. See under ALLANBAY. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 233 

LAGGAIRY HOWE (P. Laggyry). ' Minigaff.' Lag caera, hollow of 
the sheep, with BR. so. howe, a hollow, added pleonastically. 

LAGGAN. ' Glasserton/ ' Kirkcolm.' Lagdn, dim. of lag, a hollow, 
but not always used in a diminutive sense, e.g. LAGGANMORE. 
Cf. in Ireland, Lagan, Legan, Legane, Legaun, Leegane, 
Liggins. 

.LAGGANGARN. ' New Luce.' Lagdn g-carn, hollow of the cairns. 
There are some remarkable remains at this place on the Tarf. 
The old pack-horse track crosses the river under Kilgallioch 
(3. v.\ and there used to be here three standing stones, of 
which two now remain, each bearing large incised crosses. 
A story is told of a man who, in rebuilding the now deserted 
farm-house of Laggangarn, carried off one of the standing 
stones to form a lintel. Some time afterwards his sheep-dogs 
went mad and bit him. He also went mad, and his wife and 
daughters " smoored him atween twa cauf beds " (smothered 
him between two mattresses filled with chaff), and buried 
him on the hillside, placing the broken stone over his grave. 
It is a desolate region. 

LAGGANHARRIE. ' Glasserton.' Lagdn charrach [harragh], rough 
hollow. See under BARNHARROW. 

LAGGANIMORE. 'Glasserton.' Probably the same meaning as 
LAGANAMOUR, q.v. 

LAGGANMdRE. ' Port Patrick.' Lagdn mdr, great hollow. Cf. 
Lugmore in Ireland. 

LAGGANMULLAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1575, Lachinmollan, Laikmullene). 
' Anwoth.' Lag an muilinn, hollow of the mill. There are 
still mills here. Cf. Lagavoulin in Argyllshire. 

LAGGANREES. ' Kirkmaiden.' Apparently a hybrid word. The 
rees or sheepfold of the hollow. " Ree, a permanent sheep- 
fold, surrounded with a wall of stone and feal." Jamieson. 

LAGGANTULLOCH. ' Kirkmaiden.' Lag an tulaich, hollow of the 
hill. 

LAGGANLTSK. ' Kirkmaiden.' Lag an uisce [isky], hollow of the 
water. Cf. Luganiska in Ireland. 

LAGGERAN. ' Carsphairn.' 

LAGMONEY. ' Stoneykirk.' Lag monadh [munny], hollow of the 
thicket or of the peat. See under DALMONEY. 



234 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

LAGMtrcK. * Colvend.' Lag mm, hollow of the swine. Cf, Lag- 
namuck in Mayo. 

LAGNABALMER. ' New Luce.' 

LAGNABENAE. ' New Luce.' 

LAGNAGATCHIE. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

LAGNAWINNIE. ' Port Patrick.' Lag na mhuine [vinny], hollow 
of the thicket. Cf. LAGMONEY. 

LAGNIEB6LE. ' New Luce.' 

LAGNIEMAWN. ' Old Luce.' Lag na m-ban [maan], hollow of the 
women. Cf. Eilean na mban in lona. See under BARNAMON. 

LAGTUTOR. ' Mochrum.' Lag t-sudaire [toodery], hollow of the 
tanners. See under BENTUDOR. 

LAGVAG. ' Kirkmaiden.' Lag bheag [veg], little hollow. 
LAGWINE. ' Carsphairn.' 

LAGW6LT. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

LAINCHALLOCH. 'Inch.' The stream of the tealach, or forge. 
See under CHALLOCH and LANE. 

LAIRDLAUGH [pron. Lairdlaw] (P. Lardlach). ' Kirkpatrick 
Durham.' 

LAIRDMANNOCH. ' Tungland.' Lubhghwt [lort] manach [?], 
garden of the monks. Lubhghort is an exact equivalent to 
the BR. so. kale yard, O.W. lubgirth, gardens, sometimes written 
luird, w. lluarth. 

LIKENS, THE. 'Anwoth.' Leacdin [lackan], a hill-side. Cf. 
Lackan in Sligo, the old residence of the M'Firbis, where the 
celebrated Book of Lecan was written ; also Lacken, Lackaun, 
Leckan, Leckaun, and Lickane, in many other parts of Ireland. 
" Leacdin, the side of a hill, declivity ; the cheek." O'Reilly. 

LAKIN. ' Inch,' ' New Luce.' See under LAKENS. 

LAMACHAN (a hill of 2200 feet) (P. Lommachan). ' Minigaff.' 

LAMFORD (P. Lhunfard, Lomphard). ' Carsphairn. ' 

LAMLAIR. ' Carsphairn.' Leim Idira [?], the mare's leap. Cf. 
Leamlaira in Cork, and Lemnalary in Antrim. 

LAMLOCH (P. Lamnoch). ' Carsphairn.' 

LAMMASHIEL, SHEUGH OF (P. The Scheel). ' Minigaff.' 

LANDBERRICK (P. Lamberrick). ' Mochrum.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 235 

LANDIS (on which stood formerly the abbot's tower). 'New 
Abbey.' Land, a word of uncertain origin, appears in the 
same form in A.S. DU., ICEL., DAN., SWED., GOTH., G., with the 
meaning " earth, soil, country, district " (Skeaf). But in Celtic 
it seems to have acquired the meaning of " an enclosure," 
hence, specially, a house, a church, w. llan, " an area, a clear 
place, a small enclosure, a church " (Pughe). B. llan, c. Ian. 

LANEBREDDAN, LOOP OF. ' Minigaff.' A hybrid word. BR. sc. 
lane, a stream, ERSE braddn, of the salmon. 

LANE BURN. 'Kirkinner.' "Lane. 1. A brook of which the 
motion is so slow as to be scarcely perceptible ; the hollow 
course of a large rivulet in meadow-ground. Dumfries. 2. 
Applied to those parts of a river or rivulet which are so 
smooth as to answer this description. Galloway." Jamieson. 
ICEL. Un, an inlet, a sea-loch, loena, a hollow place, a vale. 
The word seems to have been adopted into Celtic speech, just 
as Carse, and other words ; perhaps akin to ERSE leana, a wet 
or swampy meadow (Joyce, ii. 401). 

LANEDRIPPLE. ' Inch.' 

LANEHULCHEON POOL (on the Dee). ' Balmaghie.' 

LANEMANNOCH (a stream). 'Kells.' A hybrid word. BR. sc. 
lane, a stream, ERSE manach, of the monks, or meadhonach 
[mennagh], middle. 

LANESIDE. ' Troqueer.' =Burnside, side of the stream. 

LANGFAULD. ' Kirkmabreck.' BR. sc. the long enclosure. See 
under FALL OF FOURS. In BR. sc. lang is preserved the A.S. 
lang, long. 

LANIEKER. 'Kirkcolm.' 

LANIEWEE. ' Minigaff.' Leana bhuidhe [lenna vwee], yellow 
meadow. See under SPITAL LENY. 

LANNIG6RE. ' Old Luce.' Leana gobhar, meadow of the goats. 
See under SPITAL LENY. 

LARBRAX (Inq. ad Cap. 1616, Larbrax Gressie (now Balgracie), 
Larbrax Stewart, Larbrax M'Quhilzeane (M'William) ; P. 
Lairgbrecks, Lairgwillia. ' Leswalt.' Learg Ir6c [larg brack], 
spotted, variegated hill-side. See under AUCHABRICK and 
LARG. 



236 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

LARG. ' Inch.' Learg, the side or slope of a hill. Cf. Lerrig in 
Kerry ; but in Ireland the diminutives Largan and Lurgan 
are more commonly used. 

LARGERIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1571, Garlarg ; 1604, Garlarge). ' Kells.' 
Gar learg, the near hillside. 

LARG FELL (a hill of 2150 feet) (P. Larg). 'Minigaff.' The 
Scandinavian fjall is here pleonastically added to the ERSE 
learg. See under FELL and LARG. 

LARGHIE POINT [pron. Lurgie]. ' Kirkmaiden.' Leargaidh [largie], 
a hillside ; a derivative of learg. Cf. Largy, a frequent name 
in Ulster. 

LARGIE BURN. ' Minigaff.' See under LARGHIE POINT. 
LARGIE HILL. ' Stoneykirk.' See under LARGHIE POINT. 
LARGIES [pron. Lurgies]. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under LARGHIE POINT. 

LARGLANGLE E (Charter 1679, Nether Lag, alias Larganglie). ' Urr. ' 
Leargdn liath [lee], grey hillside. Cf. Larganreagh (leargdn 
riabhach) in Donegal, with the same meaning. 

LARGLEAR (P. Lairglury). 'Parton.' Learg laira, hillside of the 
mare. See under AUCHENLARIE. 

LARGLIDDESDALE (Inq. ad Cap, 1596, Largliddisdail vel Largle- 
viestoun ; P. Larig). ' Leswalt.' The learg, or hillside, of a 
man named Liddesdale or Livingston. 

LARGM6RE (P. Largmoir ; MS. 1527, Largmoir). 'Kells.' Learg 
mdr, the great hillside. 

LARGNEAN. ' Crossmichael.' Learg n-en [nain], hillside of the 
birds. See under BARNEAN. 

LARGOES. ' Minigaff.' See under LARGIES. 
LARGS. ' Twynholm.' See under LARG. 

LARGVEY (MS. 1527, Largvey). 'Parton.' Learg bheith [vey], 
hillside of the birches. See under ALLANBAY. 

LARGVEY HILL. ' Kells.' See under LARGVEY. 

LARGYWEE. ' Stoneykirk.' Leargaidh bhuidhe [largy vwee], 
yellow hillside. See under BENBUY. 

LARIG FELL. ' New Luce.' See under LARG FELL. 

.LAROCHANEA. 'New Luce.' Learg anfhiaidh [ee], hillside of the 
deer. The initial / is often silenced by aspiration. See under 
CRAIGINEE. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 237 

LARRANGES. ' Balmaclellau.' 

LARROCH (W. P. MSS. Laroche; Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Lairoch; 
1681, Larruch). ' Glasserton.' Ldthrach [laaragh], a place 
or house-site. There are many places in Ireland called 
Laragh and Lauragh, e.g. Laragh in Sligo, called Lathrach in 
the Book of Lecan. o. ERSE, Idthrach, w. law, a floor, GAEL. 
larach, " stand or site of a building ; a building in ruins, a 
ruin ; a battlefield." Macalpine. A derivative of lathair, 
presence, a spot. + w. llawr, a floor + E. floor. 

LASHANDARROCH. ' Leswalt.' Lios an daraich, fort of the oak. 
Cf. Lisnadaragh in Wexford. There is a well-preserved fort 
here. See under DRUMLASS. 

LAUCHENTYRE (P. Lacchantyre, Laghantyr). ' Anwoth.' Leacdn- 
t-iar, west hillside. See under BALTIER and LAKIN. 

LAUGHENGHIE (P. Lagganghy). ' Girthon.' Lagan gaeith [gwee], 
hollow of the wind, windy hollow. See under CURGHIE. 

LAURIESTON. ' Balrnaghie.' Laurie's place ; formerly called 
Clauchanpluck. 

LA VICE. ' Parton.' Leamhach [lavagh], a place of elms. Cf. 
Lavagh, the name of several places in Ireland. Deriv. of 
leamb, an elm. " In some parts of Ireland Lavagh is under- 
stood to mean land of elms, in others land abounding in the 
herb marsh-mallows." Hy Fiachrach, 269, note. 

LAWGLASS. ' Dairy.' Lagli glas, green hill (cf. Greenlaw). " Lagh 
[law], a hill, cognate with A.s. law, same meaning. It is not 
given in the dictionaries, but it undoubtedly exists in the 
Irish language, and has given names to a considerable number 
of places through the country." Joyce, i. 391. 

LEAKIN HILL. ' "Whithorn.' See under LAKIN. 

LEA LARKS (a crag of granite). ' Girthon.' Liath learg [?] [lee, 
larg], grey hillside. 

LEATHS [ pron. Lathes] (P. Laiths). ' Buittle.' Barns, sheds. 
Yorkshire " Laith, lathe, shed ; o. NORSE hlatJia SWED. lada ; 
DAN. lade, a barn ; GER. and DU. lade, a box." Lucas. 

LEAVERLY SPRING. ' Kirkcolm.' 

LECK Ross. ' Mochrum.' Leac rois [lack rosh], stone of the 
point or promontory ; or, perhaps, as both these words have 
been adopted in BR. sc. speech, the meaning is " promontory 
of the stones or tombs." It is a point of land running into 
Airrieoullaud Loch, now drained. 



238 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

LEFFNOL (P. Lefnol). ''Inch.' "In the western lands . . . the 
halfpenny becomes Laffen, as in Laflenstrath." Celt. Scot., 
in. 226. Thus this would appear to be leffen cnol, the half- 
penny hill. 

LEIGHT (Charter 1355, Lachalpene ; Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Mekill 
Laight, alias Laightbeg ; P. Laicht). ' Inch.' Lecht, a 
grave. Takes its name from Leight Alpin, a large stone on 
the borders of Ayrshire which commemorates the burial of 
Alpin, the last king of Scottish Dalriada. He was killed by 
an assassin in Glenapp, about A.D. 750, after he had obtained 
sway over the Picts of Galloway (Skene : Chron. P. and S. 
clxxxv.). 

LENNANS. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Cf. BARLENNAN. 

LESSONS (Inq. ad Cap. 1570, Lessens ; 1625, Lessence). 'Mini- 



LEUCARROW. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

LESWALT (a parish in Wigtownshire) (Inq. ad Cap. 1607, Lesswoll ; 
1617, Les wad; P. Leswalt). 

LEWTEMOLE. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

LEYS HILL. ' Dairy.' Leys, leas, the fields. 

LIBERLANE [pron. Libberlan] (P. Elricken Libberton). ' Kirk- 
cowan.' 

LICK, THE. ' Whithorn, s.c.' Leac, lie, or liag, a flat stone. Cf. 
Lack, Leek, Lick, Leeg, Leek, in many parts of Ireland. See 
under AIRIELICK. 

LIGGATCHEEK. ' Dairy.' Gate-post. " Liggat, a gate so hung 
that it may shut of itself. Galloway. Yet cJiekis, door- 
posts. Douglas." Jamieson. A.S. leag, geat, field-gate. 

LIGGAT HILL, in many places. See under LIGGATCHEEK. 

LIGHT BURN. 'Balmaclellan.' 

LIGHTSOME KNOWE. 'MinigafF.' 

LILIES LOCH (P. Lilly L.). ' Minigaff.' 

LINBLANE (a salmon pool on the Luce). ' Old Luce.' Linn blean, 
the pool of the creek or curve. See under BLANYVAIRD. 
o. ERSE lind, ERSE linn, " a pool, the sea, water " (O'Reilly}. 
w. llyn, a lake, a pool ; liquor, juice ; C. lyn, B. lenn. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 239 

LiNCLtiDEN. ' Terregles.' The " linn " or pool of the Cluden. 

LINCOM (a salmon pool in the Luce). ' New Luce.' Linn cam, 
crooked pool (the river here turns at a right angle against an 
opposing rock). See under CAMELON. 

LiNCtrAN (a pool on the Tarf, close to Kirkcowan). ' Kirkcowan.' 
Linn Comhghain [Cowan]. Cowan's pool. See under KIRK- 
COWAN. 

LiNFdoT. ' Old Luce. ' Foot of the linn. 

LINGAN. ' Glenluce.' 

LINGDARROCH (a pool in the Bladenoch). ' Wigtown.' Linn 
darach, pool of the oaks. 

LINGDARROW (a pool in the Urr). ' Crossmichael.' See under 
LINGDARROCH. 

LiNGD6wiE BURN. ' Inch.' 

LINGHAR. ' Kirkinner.' Linn gearr, short pool, or linn gar, near 
pool. 

LiNGL6sKiN. ' Kirkcolm.' Linn losgann, pool of the frogs. Cf. 
LINLOSKIN. See under DARLOSKINE. 

LINGREE (a pool in the Cree). ' Penninghame.' 

LINKELLIE (a pool in the Bladenoch). ' Kirkcowan.' Linn coille 
[killy], pool of the wood. 

LINKENS (P. Lenkiuns). ' Kirkcudbright.' 

LINKHALL. ' Glasserton.' 

LINLOSKIN (a pool in the Cree) (P. Linglhoiskan). ' Penning- 
hame.' See under LINGLOSKIN. 

LINNCROSH (a pool in the Minnick). 'Minigaff.' Linn crois, 
pool of the cross or gallows. 

LINNFRAIG (a pool on the Deuch). ' Carsphairn.' 

LOAN BURN. * MinigafF.' See under LOAN HILL. Cf. LONG 
BURN. 

LOAN HILL. ' Inch,' ' Minigaif.' " Loan, lone, loaning, an opening 
between fields of corn, for driving the cattle homewards, or 
milking cows." Jamieson. =E. lane, M.E. lane, lone A.s. 
Idne, lone + 0. FRIES, lona, lana + DU. laan, a lane. 

LOAN KNOWES. ' Inch,' ' Old Luce.' See under LOANHILL. 

L6BBACKS. ' Whithorn, s. c.' Lubach [?], crooked, looped, winding. 
Cf. Loobagh, a river in Ireland. See under LOOPMABINNIE. 



240 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

LOCHABER LOCH. ' Troqueer.' o. ERSE, ERSE, and GAEL, loch, 
MANX logh-\-Vf. llwch, C. lo, B. ZOMC^ + LAT. lacus- (whence A.S. 
Zoc) + GK. Xa/c/co9, a hollow, hole, pit. This name is an 
example of how completely a place-name loses its signifi- 
cance, even when the original form is retained. To a Low- 
land Scot of the present day the word Lochaber would not 
necessarily imply a lake, to indicate which he has to repeat 
the syllable loch in the English position of the predicate. 

LoCHANHotlR. ' Glasserton.' Lochdn odhar [owr], grey lakelet. 
Takes its name from a huge grey rock lying along the north 
shore. Cf. Lough Ora (loch odhartha) in Fermanagh. 

LOCHAN OF VICE (P. L. Voyis ; Sibbald MS., Loch Vuy). * Tung- 
land.' 

L6CHANS (Crauf. MS. 1413, Lochanys). ' Carsphairn,' 'Inch.' 
Lochdn, a lakelet, E. plur. added. Cf. Loughan, Loughaun, 
and Loughane in Ireland. 

LOCHANSCADDAN (a tidal pool). 'Glasserton.' Lochdn sgadan, 
lakelet of the herrings. See under CULSCADDEN. 

LOCH ARROW (P. L. Amered). ' Minigaff.' 

LOCH ARTHUR (P. Loch Arcturr). ' Kirkgunzeon.' 

LOCH BEG. * Leswalt.' Loch beag, little lake. Cf. Lough Beg 
in Ireland. 

LOCH BILLY (P. Billies). ' Balmaclellan.' Loch bile [billy], 
loch of the big tree. See under KNOCKVILLE. 

LOCH BRACK. ' Balmaclellan.' Loch breac, loch of the trout. 

Cf. LOCHENBRECK. 

LOCH BRAIN. (P. L. na Brain). ' Mochrum.' Loch lrtan [brain], 
foul lakelet. It is a mere puddle in the middle of a quaking 
bog. Font's rendering suggests loch na breine, loch of the 
stench. 

LOCH CHESNEY. ' Mochrum.' 

LOCH CONNEL (P. Loch Konnel). 'Kirkcolm.' Loch Connati, 
Connal's loch. St. Columba, after whom this parish is 
named, was one of the Cinel Connaill, or Clan Connel. 

LOCH DOON. ' Carsphairn,' ' Inch.' Loch duin, loch of the 
fortress. 

LOCH D6RNAL (P. Loch Dornell). ' Penninghame. 1 The pre- 
fix is dobhar, dur, water. See under DARGALGAL. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 241 

LOCH D6UGAN. ' Parton.' 

LOCH Dow. ' Minigaff.' Loch dubh [dooh], black loch. Cf. 
DOULOCH. 

LOCH DUIF (now called Eldrig Loch). ' Mochrum.' See under 
LOCH Dow. 

LOCH DUNGEON. ' Minigaff.' 

LOCHENBRECK. (P. L. na Braik). ' Balmaghie.' Loch na toeac 

[brack], lake of the trout. See under LOCH BRACK. Cf. 

Lough Nabrack, many times in Ireland. 

LOCHENALING (now drained). ' Penninghame.' Loch na fhaio- 
leann [?] [ailann], lakelet of the sea-gulls. Cf. Loughana- 
weelaun, the name of several lakes in Ireland. Faioleann 
andfafeledg are dimin. of the original word represented by 
E. gull ; W. gwylan, c. gullan, B. gwelan. 

LocHENG6wER. ' Balmaghie.' Lochdn gobhar [gower], lakelet of 
the goats. Cf. LOCH GOWER. 

LOCHENKIT. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Loch an cult [kit], lake of 
the wild cat. See under ALWHAT. 

LOCH ENOCH (P. L. Aengoch). ' Minigaff.' 

LOCH FERGUS (P. Loch Ferguss). 'Kirkcudbright.' Loch 
Fearguis, Fergus's lake. Named after Fergus, Lord of 
Galloway in the 12th century, who had a castle here. He 
was the founder of the Monasteries of Tungland and Saulseat, 
the Priories of Whithorn and St. Mary's Isle, and the Abbey 
of Dundrennan. Cf. the Fergus River, a tributary of the 
Shannon, written Forghas by the Four Masters (A.D. 1573). 

LOCH GILL. Cf. Lough Gill in Sligo, written by the Four 
Masters (A.D. 1244) loch gile, loch of the brightness, clear or 
bright lake. Cf. GILLS LOCH and LOCH GLAR. 

LOCH GLAR. ' Balmaclellan.' Loch gleoir []] [glore], loch of the 
brightness or clearness, or loch gleordha [glora], clear lake. 
Cf. Loch Glore, in "Westmeath (Joyce ii. 70) ; also gleoir, the 
name given by the Four Masters (A.D. 1208) to the Leafony 
River in Sligo. O. ERSE gldoir, probably akin to A.S. glcer, a 
pellucid substance, amber (whence M.E. glaren, E. glare, to 
shine ; " It is not all gold that glareth" Chaucer, ' House of 
Fame,' i. 272) + DU. gloren, to glimmer -flCEL. glora, to gleam 
+ M.H.G. glosen, to shine. These are again connected with 
E. glass, DAN. glas, glar, o. SWED. glcer, ICEL. gler, glas. All 
from the European base GAL to shine /^/GHAR, to shine ; 
cf. SKT. ghri t to shine ; E. glow, etc. (Skeaf). 

Q 



242 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

LOCH GoiCH. * Tungland.' 

LOCH GOOSIE. ' Kells.' Loch giusach [gusagh], loch of the 
pine-trees. 0. ERSE gins, a pine + W. gwyd, trees, wood; 
C. gioydh, gus, gur, wood ; B. guida, wood, guedhen and guezen 
pin, pine-tree (Lhiyd). Akin to E. wood, ERSE and GAEL. 
fiodh. See under AIKET. Cf. Gusachan in Eosshire, etc. 

LOCH GOWER (P. L. Gaur). ' Mochrum.' See under LOCHEN- 
GOWER. 

LOCH GRANNOCH. ' Balmaghie ' (P. L. Greenoch). See under 
LOCH GRENNOCH. 

LOCH GRENNOCH (P. L. Grenoch). ' Minigaff.' Loch greanach, 
gravelly loch (cf. Greanagh, a stream in Limerick) ; or loch 
grianach [greenagh], sunny lake. See tinder GRAINY FORD. 

LOCH HARROW. ' Kells.' 

LOCH HEMPTON (P. Dyrhympen). ' Mochrum.' A most decep- 
tive name. Lying close to the old homestead of Mochrum 
Castle, it appears as if it were loch of the hamt toun 
(Hampton), but Pont shows that the prefix dobhar [dour], 
water, originally formed part of the name, of the latter part 
of which the meaning has been lost. 

LOCH HOWIE. ' Balmaclellan.' 

LOCH INCH-CRINDLE (P. L. Ylen Krindil). ' Inch.' Loch innse 
Crindail, lake of Crindle's isle. Crindle and M'Crindle are 
still extant as surnames in Galloway, but there is no record 
to show after whom this island was named ; but it is a large 
" crannog," or lake-dwelling, from which interesting relics 
have been recovered. Cf. Lochnahinch in Tipperary, which 
also takes its name from a crannog (Joyce, i. 300). See 
under INCH. 

LOCHINVAR (Inq. ad Cap. 1550, Lochinwar ; P. Lochinbarr ; 
Maclellan, Lacus Varii). ' Dairy.' Loch an bharr [var], lake 
of the hill-top. 

LOCH KINDER (Inq. ad Cap. 1601, Lochkindeloch). 'New- 
Abbey.' According to Mr. Skene (Celtic Scotland, i. 137), 
loch Cendaelaulh [kendelah], Cendaeladh's lake. Tighernac 
records the death in 580 of Cendaeladh, king of the Picts, 
perhaps of Galloway. There is a fine crannog in this 
beautiful lake, which may have been Cendaeladh's palace. 

LOCH LAGGAN. * Glasserton.' Loch lagaln, lake of the hollow. 
Cf. Lough Lagan in Roscommon, and Loch Laggan in Perth 
shire. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 243 

LOCH LEE. ' Balmaclellan/ ' Dairy.' Loch Hath [lee], grey lake. 
Cf. Loughanlea, in Ireland. 

LOCH LENNOUS. ' Mochrum.' 

LOCH LURKIE (P. Loch Lurkan). ' Parton.' 

LOCH MABERRY (P. Loch Mackbary). ' Penninghame.' 

LOCH MIDDLE (P. L. Middil). ' MinigafF.' 

LOCH MINNOCH. ' Kells.' Loch meadhonach [mennagh], middle 

lake. See under BALMINNOCH. 

LOCH MOAN. ' MinigafF.' 

LOCH MORE. ' Leswalt.' Loch m6r, large lake. 
LOCH MUICK. ' Carsphairn." Loch muc, lake of the swine. 
LOCH NARROCH (P. L. Narrach). * MinigafF.' 

LOCHNATIJMMOCK:. ' Penninghame.' 

LOCHNAW (P. Lochna). ' Leswalt.' Loch an atha [?] [aha, awe], 
lake of the ford. There is here a submerged causeway lead- 
ing to a lake-dwelling. See under CARSNAW. 

LOCH OCHILTREE. ' Penninghame.' 

LOCH OF CREE (P. Loch Kree). ' MinigafF.' See under CREE. 

LOCH OF THE LOWES. ' MinigafF.' The same name occurs in 
Selkirkshire. Cf. LOWES LOCH ; also Loch of Leys in Aber- 
deenshire. 

LOCH PATRICK. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Loch Pddric, Patrick's 
lake. See under KIRKPATRICK. 

LOCH QUIE. ' Penninghame.' Loch caeidhe [quay, kay], lake of 
the bog. See under CTJLKAE. 

LOCH REE. ' Inch.' Loch riabhach [reeagh], grey lake. Cf. 
Loughrea in Galway, written loch riach by the Four Masters 
(A.M. 3506) ; and Lough Righe on the Shannon, which they 
write loch ribh (A.D. 742). 

LOCH RINNIE (P. Lochrenny). ' Dairy.' Loch roine [rinnie], 
lake of the point. See under RHINNS. 

LOCH ROAN. ' Crossmichael.' Cf. CRAIGROAN. 

LOCH ROBIN (P. Loch Ribben). ' Old Luce.' 

LOCH RONALD (P. L. Ronald). ' Kirkcowan.' Loch Raonuill. 
Ronald's lake ; see under CRAIGRONALD. 

LOCH R6v. ' Borgue.' Loch ruadh [rooh], red lake. Cf. Loch 
Dears in Ireland. 



244 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

LOCH RUTTON (gives name to a parish in the Stewartry) (P. 
Loch Ruttan ; Lochryerton, Lochryntoun, Loghroieton, 1 3th 
century, quoted by M'Kerlie). 

LOCH RYAN. Rerigonium sinus of Ptolemy. " From Penryn Wleth 
(Dow Hill in Glasgow, i.e. dew hill, gwleth, in composition 
wieth, signifying dew) to Loch Reon the Cymry are of one 
mind bold." Vita Kentigernce, transl., p. 344. 

LOCHSKAE. ' Balmaclellan.' Loch see [skae], lake of the haw- 
thorns. See under AUCHENSKEOCH. 

LOCHSKERROW (P. L. Skarrow). ' Girthon.' Loch sceireach, 
rocky lake. Deriv. of sceir (O'Reilly). 

LOCHSMADDY. ' Crossmichael.' 

LOCH SPRAIG. ' Minigaff.' 

LOCH SWAD. ' Penninghame.' 

LOCH TROOL (P. Loch Truiyll). ' Minigaff.' See under TROOL. 

LOCH TWACHTON (P. L. Twaichtun). ' Minigaff.' The hill be- 
side the loch is written by Pont Meal Tuachtain. 

LOCH URR (P. Loch Orr). ' Urr.' See under URR. 

LOCH VALLEY (P. L. Vealluy). ' Minigaff.' Loch bJiealaich 
[vallagh], lake of the pass. See under BALLOCH. 

LOCH WAYOCH (P. L. Chrauochy). 'Minigaff.' Loch bheithach 
[?] [veyagh, wayagh], lake of the birch-wood (see under 
BEOCH). Cf. Lough Veagh in Ireland. Pout's spelling seems 
like loch chraebhach [hravagh], wooded lake. Cf. Lough Crew 
in Meath, of which the Irish name is Loch-craeibhe. 

LOCH WHIN. ' Dairy.' Loch chum [hinn], lake of the dog. 
See under DRUMWHIN. 

LOCH WHINNIE (P. Loch Wymoch). ' Dairy.' 

LOCH WHINYON. 'Girthon.' Loch Finain [St.] Finan's or 
Winnin's lake. See under KIRKGUNZEON. 

L6CKHART HILL. ' Balmaghie.' See under BARLOCKHART. 
LODDANLAW. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' 

LODDANM6RE. ' Old Luce.' Loddn m6r, large pool. This place 
and the next are rain-pools among the sandhills at the 
head of Luce Bay. " Lod, puddle, mud. Loddn, a thin 
puddle." O'Reilly. GAEL, lod, a pool, puddle. " Lodan, water 
in the shoe." Macalpine. " Loddans, small pools of standing 
water." Madaggart. See also Jamie-son. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 245 

LODDANREE. ' Old Luce.' Loddn riahbach [reeagh], grey pool ; 
or lod an fhraeicht [ree], pool of the heather. 

L6DENS, THE. ' Kirkcowan.' Lodan, the pools. E. plur. added. 

LODNAGAPPLE LOCH. 'Old Luce.' Lod na gcapul, pool of the 
horses. Cf. Lugnagappul, Pollacappul, and Poulacappul in 
Ireland. 

L6GAN (Crauf. MS. 1413, Logane, Lougau, P. Logan). 'Kirk- 
maiden.' See under LAGGAN, of which this is another and 
frequent form by the ordinary change from a to o. 

LONE HILL. ' Inch.' See under LOAN HILL. 

LONE STRAND. ' Carsphairn.' The " strand " or stream of the 
" loan." See under LOAN HILL. 

L6NGBERRY HILL. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

LONG BURN. ' Dairy.' 

L6NGCASTLE (Inq. ad Cap. 1584, Longcaster; P. Wood of 
Longcastell). ' Kirkinner.' Formerly a parish. 

LONG DENNOT. ' Leswalt.' 

LONGFORT. ' Old Luce, s.c.' GAEL, longphort, a haven (from long, 
a ship, port, a landing-place, a port). This is probably the 
sense in this case, where there is good landing in Auchenmalg 
Bay. But in Ireland, the word has a different meaning, " a 
palace, a royal seat ; a fort, garrison, tent, a camp ; parlour " 
(O'Reilly). Thus the town of Longford is written of old 
Longphort Ui Fearghail, Longford OTarrell (Four Masters, A.D. 
1448), OTarrell's Castle. Cf. PORTLONG. 

LONG HILL. ' Glasserton.' Cf. DRUMFAD. 

LONGMAIDEN. ' Glasserton.' 

LONG Row [pron-. Eoo]. ' Mochrum.' Rudlia [roo], a point, pro- 
montory, in this case running into the sea. See under RUE. 

LONG THANG. ' Old Luce.' Teanga, a tongue, strip of land ; or 
SCAND. tangi, a spit of land. See under CHANG. 

LONGT60 (P. Langtoo). ' Parton.' 

LOOPMABINNIE (a curve in Grobdale Lane, a stream). ' Balmaghie.' 
'' Lub, a loop, a \)ow." 0'Beilly. From this word is derived 
E. loop. 

LORG HILL (a hill of 2100 ft.). 'Carsphairn.' See under LARG. 

LORRAIN CROFT. ' Glasserton.' 

LOSHES. ' Troqueer.' 



246 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

LOSKIE, BIG AND LITTLE (two hills of 800 and 900 feet). ' Cars- 
phairn.' Loisgthe [luskie], burnt. Of. Ballylusky in Munster, 
Ballylosky in Donegal, Molosky [magh loisgthe] in Clare. 
See under CRAIGLOSK. 

LOSSET (Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Losset; P. Losset). ' Kirkcolm/ 
Losaidj a kneading-trough. "Applied to a well-tilled and 
productive field, or to good rich land. A farmer will call 
such a field a losset, because he sees it covered with rich pro- 
duce, like a kneading-trough with dough. In the form of 
Losset it is the name of a dozen townlauds from Donegal to 
Tipperary." Joyce, ii. 430. 

L6TUS HILL. ' Kirkgunzeon.' A modern name. 

LOUDON HILL. ' Penninghame.' 

LOWES LOCH. ' Balmaclellan.' Cf. LOCH OF THE LOWES. 

L6WRAN. ' Kells.' Leamhraidhean [lavran], a place where elms 
grow. Deriv. of leamh. Cf. Lowery in Fermanagh and 
Donegal, and Lowerymore, a river in the latter county, from 
leamliraidhe. See under LAVICH. 

LOWRING BURN. 'Kells.' See under LOWRAN. 

LUCE, AVATER OF. ' Old Luce.' Though several etymologies 
have been suggested for this name, none can be considered 
better than guesses. It is quite possible that in AvicoTriftia 
(Lttcopibia) of Ptolemy, which has been confidently, though 
unwarrantably, identified with Candida Casa or WHITHORN, 
we have the earliest written form of this name. In Dumfries- 
shire there was also a parish called Luce, now included in 
Ecclefechan. Cf. Luss on Loch Lomond ; Luce often occurs 
as Luss in old MSS. 

LUKE'S STONE. ' Carsphairn.' 

LUMAGARIE. ' Glasserton.' 

LtlNNOCK. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

LURG. ' Whithorn.' See under LARG. 
LURG HILL. ' Wigtown.' See under LARG. 

LURGIE. ' Penninghame/ Leargaidh [largy, lurgyj, a hillside. 
See under LARGHIE POINT. 

LUSKIE. ' Kells.' See under LOSKIE. 

LUSKIE HILL. ' Borgue.' See under LOSKIE. 

LYTHEMEAD. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 247 



MABIE 



(P. Maby). Troqueer.' 

MABREEDIA. ' New Luce.' See HILL MABREEDIA. 

MACHAR. * Inch.' A plain. O'Reilly gives " macliair, a battle," 
" maghair, ploughed land." The ERSE machaire [maghery], 
a field, a plain, appears in some names {see MACHERMORE), 
as in the Irish places Maghera and Maghery. Generally 
Machar may be taken to mean a level plain or field, the 
idea of " battle " being secondary (see BLAIR), from the 
place chosen for a battle, and of "beach," from its level 
character, though in modern Gaelic it is " seldom used for 
anything but a beach." Macalpine. All are derivatives of 
inag, magh, a plain. See under MAY. 

MACHERALLY[70ca%p-(m. Magherowley]. ' Kirkmaiden.' Machair 
Amhalghaidh [owlhay], Aulay's field. This is the origin 
assigned by Dr. Reeves to Magherally, the name of a parish 
in Ireland. M'Aulay is still a common name in the district. 
Cf. TERALLY, in the same parish. 

MACHERBRAKE. ' Kirkcolm.' Machair brfa, spotted, variegated 
field. Set under AUCHABRICK. 

MACHERCR5FT. ' MinigafiV Croft or farm of the machair or 
plain. 

MACHERM6RE (P. Machrymoir (' Old Luce ')). ' Minigaff,' ' Old 
Luce.' Machaire mdr, great field or plain. Font's spelling 
retains the original Erse trisyllable, as in Magheramore in 
Ireland. 

MACHERM6RE STONE. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

MACHERs6iL. * Mochrum.' 

MACHER-STEWART (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Machir Stewart, alias 
Dowellstoun). ' Sorbie.' Stewart's machair. 

MACHERS, THE. The eastern part of lower Wigtownshire. Machair, 
a plain, E. pi. added. 

MACKILSTON. ' Dairy.' M'Gill's toun or place. 

MACMOIR. ' Kelton.' Mag mdr, great plain. In Ireland this is 
softened down to Moymore. See under MAY. 

MACNAUGHTEN. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

MADLOCH MINES. ' Glasserton.' 



248 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

MAGEMPSEY. ' Minigaff.' 

MAG FAULD. ' Kirkcowan.' Mag, a plain, or field. BR. so. fauld, 
an enclosure. 

MAGGIE IRELAND'S WA'S. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

MAGGOT HILL (850 feet). ' Kells.' 

MAHAAR. 'Kirkcolm.' See under MACHAR. 

MAHEREIN. 'Leswalt.' Machairin [maghereen], small plain. 
Dimin. of machaire. Cf. Maghereen in Cork. 

MAKERS HILL. ' Minigaff.' See under MACHAR. 

MAH6UL [pron. MahoolJ. ' Glasserton.' Maethail [mwayhill], 
soft, spongy land, from maeth, soft (Joyce, i. 465). Cf. 
MEEHOOLS ; also, in Ireland, Mohill in Leitrim, given in 
Irish MSS. Maothail (Four Masters, A.D. 1331); Mothel, in 
Waterford, called Moetliail-Bhrogain in O'Clery's Calendar ; 
Moyhill in Clare and Meath, etc. Maeth, soft + w. mivyth, 
c. medal. 

MAIDEN CRAIGS. ' Stoneykirk.' 

MAIDENHEAD BAY. ' Kirkmaiden ' (twice). 

MAIDENHOLM. ' Urr.' 

MAIDENPAP (a hill of 1030 feet) (P. Maidenpape). ' Col vend.' 
A common metaphor in hill-names. 

MAIDLAND (P. Maidland). * Wigtown.' Meadow land. Cf. LOW 
G. meetland, midland, G. mattland, a meadow (Bosworth). A.S. 
med (whence M.E. rnede, E. mead, and math as in aftermath) 
A.S. mdwan, to mow, which is from a base MA, to mow ; whence, 
also, LAT. me-t-ere, to reap, GK. a-fid-w, I reap. 

MALLABEY (P. Malobey). ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

MALZIE BURN [pron. Mallyie] (P. Maille E.). ' Kirkinner." 

MAMMY'S DELPH. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' " Delf. A pit : a grave : a 
sod." Jamieson. Here applied to a gully in the rocks A.S. 
delfan, to dig, whence E. delve. The word del/ is not now 
in use in Galloway, but Jamieson mentions that it is used to 
express a sod in Lanark and Banff. 

MANRAP (on Barhullion Fell). ' Glasserton.' Said to have origi- 
nated from the death of a man who was gored by a bull, and 
whose entrails were " wrapped " round the bushes. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 249 

MANWHILL HILL (1376 feet). 'Dairy.' Mdin chuill [h will], hill 
or moor of the hazel. See under BARWHIL and DALMONEY. 

MARBRACK (P. Morbrack, Marbrock). ' Carsphairn.' The prefix 
mar, which occurs in parts of the Stewartry, seems to be 
of Scandinavian origin (cf. FELL), akin to ICEL. mdr, a 
moor, peat + 0. DU. moer, mire + UAN. mor+M.H.G. muor. G. 
m00r+A.s. rndr, a moor, or bog. The idea seems to be " bog " 
or " dirt," connected with E. mire. If we assign to the prefix 
mar this origin, it may be supposed to have entered Celtic 
speech like other Scandinavian words ; thus MARBRACK would 
be mor brec, brindled, spotted moor. Mar may, however, 
represent a contraction of machair, a plain, and in some cases 
undoubtedly it was originally Mark. 

MARBR6Y. ' Col vend.' 

MARCARTNEY (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Marcartney; P Markairtna). 
' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

MARE EOCK. ' Leswalt, s.c.' 

MARGLEY (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Margley ; P. Morgley). 'Kirk- 
patrick Durham.' 

MARGLOLLY. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

MARGREE, GREEN TOP OF. ' Dairy.' 

MARGREIG (P. Markgregg). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

MARGRIE (P. Margry). ' Borgue.' 

MARJORIE HILL. 'Whithorn.' 

MARK (in many places). " Merkland, a denomination of land, from 
the duty formerly paid to the sovereign or superior." Jamie- 
son. E. mark = 13s. 4d., BR. sc. merk A.s. wawc + G. mark-\- 
ICEL. mork + ERSE marg. Sometimes it is mark, a boundary, a 
march A.S. mearc, or more probably direct from ICEL. mark 
+ DU. merc+swED. miirke + 'DA.'X. mwrke + M.u.G. marke, O.H.G. 
marcha + GOTH. marka-\-l,A.T. margo (whence F. and E. marge, 
E. margin, ERSE marghan, prob. + LITE, margas, striped, perhaps 
+ SKT. mdrga, a trace, especially of a hunted animal ,^/MARG, 
to rub lightly MAR, to rub, bruise, pound. " The order of 
ideas appears to be to rub, rub lightly, leave a trace ; hence 
a trace, mark, line, boundary." Skeat. 

MARKBROOM. ' Old Luce.' 

MARKDOW (P. Markdow). ' New Luce.' Marc duhh [dooh], black 
Mark. 



250 AN TjfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

MARKFAST (P. Markfass). ' Urr.' 

MARKLACH (P. Markolach). * New Luce.' 

MARLINN POOL (on the Ken). ' Kells.' 

MARMIE'S DUB. ' New Luce.' A salmon pool on the Luce : 
Marmaduke's " dub " or pool. Of. Mammy's Delph. 

MARNH6UL. ' Parton.' 

MARSC!LLOCH (P. Marskallach). ' Carsphairn.' Mor [Scand.] or 
marc sceilig, moor or merldand of the rocks. See under BAL- 

SCALLOCH. 

MARSKAIG (P. Markskegg). ' Dairy.' Mor [Scand.] or marc sgeach, 
moor or merkland of the hawthorns. 

MARSLAUGH (P. Murslach ; Inq. ad Cap. 1608, Marslave ; 1661, 
Marslaugh vel Markslave). ' Kirkcolni.' Marc sliebhe [slewie], 
merkland of the moor. See under SLACARNACHAN. 

MARTHR6WN OF MARIE. ' Troqueer.' 

MARTHR6\VN OF WooDHEAD. ' Troqueer.' 

MARTINGIRTH. ' Troqueer.' ICEL. gaf&r, Martin's garth, yard or 
enclosure. See under FRIAR'S YARD. 

MARYFIELD (one close to New Abbey, the other to Lincluden 
Priory). ' New Abbey,' ' Terregles.' Commemorative of 
the Mother of God. 

MARYHOLM (near Lincluden Priory). ' Terregles.' Commer -r- 
ative of the Mother of God. 

MARYPORT (P. Marypoirt). ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Commemorative 
of the Mother of God. 

MARY WILSON'S SLUNK. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' See under BAN- 
DOLIER SLUNK. 

MAUR'S CRAIG. ' New Luce.' 

MAWKINH6WE. 'Balmaclellan.' The hare's hollow. PROV. E. 
and BR. so. maukin, a hare ; howe, BR. sc. Iwlloio or hill. See 
under HOWE HILL. 

MAY. ' Mochrum.' Magh, a plain. o. ERSE mag + w. maes, 
C. maes, mez, B. maes. This word may be traced in many 
Gaulish names, Csesaromagus, Drusomagus, Novismagus, etc. 
It is generally translated campus in Latin, and in the Annals 
of Tighernach, planities. In Ireland it becomes Moy, Maw, 
Moigh, and Muff. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 251 

MAYFIELD [pron. Myefield] (P. Meefeld). 'Kelton,' ' Terregles.' 
A pleonasm ; magh, a plain, with E. field added. 

MEAN HILL. ' Kirkcowaii.' " Min, a plain, a field." O'Reilly. 
" A green spot, comparatively smooth and fertile, producing 
grass and rushes, on the face of a mountain, or in the midst 
of coarse, rugged, hilly land. There are upwards of 230 
townlands (in Ireland) whose names begin with this word, in 
the Anglicised form of meen." Joyce, ii. 400. 

MEAUL (hills of 2279, 1525, 1591, and 1432 feet). ' Carsphairn ' 
(four times). Mdel, bald, bare. A word descriptive of sum- 
mits or headlands. In Ireland it generally assumes the form 
Moyle or Mweel, in Scotland Mull. O. ERSE mdel, ERSE and 
GAEL, maol + w. moel, bald. It is used to denote a person 
shorn in religious observance, a priest or saint ; and, from 
the same connection of shaving with service, retained to this 
day in the shaving of soldiers and domestic servants, it was 
prefixed to names of saints as a Christian name ; thus Mul- 
patrick = servant of St. Patrick ; Mulcolumb, Malcolm, servant 
of St. Columba. 

MEEHOOLS. ' Old Luce.' See under MAHOUL. 

MEGGERLAND. ' Borgue.' 

MEIKLEWOOD. 'Tungland.' Great wood. Cf. CULMORE and 

KlLLIEMORE. 

MEIKLEYETT. ' Tungland.' Great gate (BR. sc.) A.s. micel, 
mucel ; gcet. 

MELYHODD THORN. ' Penninghame.' 

MENLOCH. 'Penninghame.' Min loch, small lake. Min, the 
primary meaning of which is " smooth," has also that of 
" little. ' Cf. Meenlagh, on the Blackwater, in Meath, and 
Menlough in Galway. The base min-, small, appears in LAT. 
min-or min-imus + A.s. min, small + E. mean, moderate, 
middling. 

MEOUL (P. Meald). ' Stoneykirk.' See under MEAUL. 
MERKLAND. ' Parton.' See under MARK. 

MERRICK (a hill of 2750 feet) (P. Maerach Hill, Maerack). 
' MinigaftV 

MERROCK HILL. ' Port Patrick.' 



252 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

MERSE (P. Merss). ' Twynholm.' A.s. merse, a marsh, M.E. 
mersche. " Merse. 1 . A fertile spot of ground between hills ; 
a hollow. Nithsdale. 2. Alluvial land on the side of a 
river. Dumfr. 3. Also explained, ground gained from the 
sea, converted into moss. Dumfr." Jamieson. A.S. merse is 
a contraction of mer-isc = mere-ish, full of meres or pools 
A.S. mere, a mere or pool. It is quite distinct from morass 
(see Skeat, s.v.). 

MERTON [pron. Murr-ton] (P. Mertoun Makky). ' Penninghame.' 
A.S. m6r tun, dwelling or place on the moor. 

MID BURN. * Dairy.' Cf. MINNICK RIVER. 

MIDTOWN. ' New Abbey.' Cf. BALMINNOCH. 

MiLDRiGGAN. ' Kirkinner.' 

MILKING HOLES. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

MILKY BRAE. ' Kells.' 

MILLAE (a hill of 775 feet). ' Twynholm.' Cf. MILLYEA. Meall 
O. ERSE mell ; a globe, a lump, a hill. A common name for a 
hill in Ireland and Scotland, difficult sometimes to distinguish 
from maol in composition. It is perhaps akin to LAT. moles. 

MILLBAWN. * Kirkmaiden,' ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Meall bdn, white 
hill. 

MILLBUOY. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Meall buidhe [buie], yellow hill. 
Cf. Mullboy in Tyrone. 

MiLLD6\VN. ' Inch,' ' Leswalt,' ' New Luce,' ' Penninghame.' 
Meall don, brown, dun hill. 

MILLEUR POINT (P. Mullawyr). ' Kirkcolm.' Meall odhar [owr], 
grey hill. 

MILLFIRE (a hiU of 2350 feet). ' Kells.' 

MiLLFdRE (a hill of 2082 feet). 'Dairy.' Meall mhdr [vore], 
great hill. Cf. MILLMORE. 

MILLGRAIN. ' Penninghame.' 

MILLHARRY. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Meall gharbh [harriv], 
rough hill. 

MILLHILL. ' Kirkinner,' Leswalt,' ' Old Luce,' ' Penninghame.' 
Sometimes to be referred to E. mill, but at others probably 
from meall, a hill, with pleonastic addition, as in Bar Hill, 
Fell Hill, etc. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 253 

MILLISLE (P. Milnisle). ' Kirkinner,' ' Sorbie.' The " isle " or 
river-meadow of the mill. A.s. mylen, miln (BR. so. miln) 
LAT. molina. 

MiLLKN6cK. ' Anwoth.' Maol cnoc, bare hill. Of. MULLKNOCK. 
MILLMARK. ' Dairy.' 

MILLMINNOCH. ' Dairy.' Meall meadhonach [mennagh], middle hill. 
MiLLM6RE. * MinigaiF.' Meall mdr, great hill. 
MILLQUARTER. ' Dairy.' 

MILLQUHIRK [pron. -hwirk]. ' Inch.' Meall cheorce [?] [hurka], 
hill of the oats (see under AWHIRK), or meall cJiearc [hark], 
hill of the grouse. Cearc, a hen, is the usual word for 
grouse. 

MILLSTALK. ' Minigaff.' Meall stuaic []], [stook] stack hill. See 
under KNOCKSTOCKS. 

MILLSTONE HILL. * Port Patrick.' Presumably where mill-stones 
were quarried. There are several places in Ireland called 
from Iro, gen. brtin, a millstone ; e.g. Coolnabrone in Kilkenny, 
the hill-back of the millstones. 

MiLLiiM. ' New Luce.' Meall tuam [1], hiU of the tombs. See 
under KNOCKIEDIM. 

MILLYEA (a hill of 2450 feet). 'Kells.' Cf. BRANYEA and 
MILLAE. 

MiLMliN (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Malvein ; 1610, Malmen, Midmylne- 
toun, alias Balmannoch ; 1639, Balmannoche). ' Stoneykirk.' 
Meall meadhon [men], middle hill. Cf. MILLMINNOCH and 
MULLMEIN. 

MILNTHIRD (P. Millthridt). 'Kelton.' The third part (a divi- 
sion of land) of the mill. Cf. " Thrid and tein. A method 
of letting arable land for the third and tenth of the produce." 
Jamieson. Cf. Middlethird in Tipperary, a translation of 
the ERSE Trian meadhonach. 

MiLx6NiSE or MiLTdNiSH (P. Multonish). ' New Luce.' 

MiNDbRK (P. Mondorck). ' Kirkcowan.' Min dtorc [1], boars' field. 

MINICARLIE. ' Glasserton.' Muine [minny] Cerle [?], Kerlie's 
thicket. This is on CARLETON FELL, which M'Kerlie claims 
as Cerle's Toun, a proposition which this name certainly 
tends to strengthen. 



254 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

MINISHTREE. ' Carsphairn.' 

MiNNAuL. ' Kells.' 

MINNICK (a river) (P. Meannock). ' MinigafF.' Meadhonagh [?] 
[mennagh], middle, the mid-stream. It occupies the middle 
position between its tributaries the Cree and Trool, the united 
stream taking the name of Cree. Minnock or Munnock is 
the name of lands in Dairy parish, Ayrshire. See under 
BALMINNOCH. 

MINNIEBAY. ' New Luce." Muine beith [minny bey], birch 
thicket. Of. Monivea, in Gallway. 

MINNIEGALL. ' Kells.' Muine geal [gal], white thicket, or gall, 
of the strangers or of the standing stones. Cf. Money- 
gall in King's County, which Joyce interprets the shrubbery 
of the strangers. See under DERGALL. 

MlNNlEGlE. 'Kirkcowan.' 

MINNIGAFF, a parish in the Stewartry. Variously written Mone- 
goff, Monigaff, Monigow, Munygoiff, Munygaff, etc. Ap- 
parently muine gobha [minny gow], the smith's wood or thicket. 

MINNIN BURN. 'Loch Eutton.' The minnow stream. BR. sc. 
minnin, a minnow ; spelt menoun, plur. menounis in Barbour's 
Bruce, ii. 577. A.S. myne, probably min, small. Cf. 
ERSE miniasg, small fish. 

MINNIWICK (Inq. ad Cap. 1602, Muniwick vel Mynivick). 

'Minigaff.' 
MINNOCK'S MOUNT. ' Whithorn.' 

MiNNYD6\v (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Moniedow ; P. Monydow). 
' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Muine dubh [dooh], dark thicket. 
Cf. MoandufF in Ireland. 

MIRKSIDE. ' Dairy.' Dark hill-side ; A.S. mure, myrce, murky 
+ o. SAX. mirki, dark + iCEL. myrkr+VAN., SWED. mark ; from 
the same root as E. mark. See under MARK. 

MOATS THORN. 'Kelton.' 

M6CHRUM. A parish in the shire, and also a place in Parton. 
The latter Pont writes Mochrumm, the former Machrom, 
which also appears in Charter, 1341, Mochrome, and in 
a charter of David II., Monchrum. The spelling Motherin, 
which also is found, is probably a misreading of t for c. 
Perhaps it bears the same relation to magh as CLACHRUM 
does to chtch, and means an open country, champaign. The 
name occurs in Ayrshire also. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 255 

MOIDOCH HOLE. ' Kirkcolin, s.c.' 

MOILE. ' Inch.' See under MEAUL. 

M6LLANCE (Inq. ad Cap. 1628, Millance ; P. Mollens, Mill of 
Molleins; 1613, Mollans). ' Crossmichael. ' Mutiean, a mill, 
or mulldn, a hill, dimin. of mullach. " It is generally applied 
to the top of alow, gently-sloping hill. In the forms Mullan, 
Mullaun, and in the plural Mullans and Mullauns, it is the 
name of nearly forty townlands (in Ireland)." Joyce, i. 393. 

M6LLAND or MULLAN HILL (P. Drummollyin Hill). ' Penning- 
hame." Muilean, a mill ; the prefix druim shown by Pont has 
dropped off. See under DRUMMILLAN. 

M6NACHAN ' Whithorn, s. c.' Manachdn, the little monk, or 
manachean, the monks. It is a sea rock close to the old 
chapel of St. Niuian, Candida Casa, the earliest stone church 
in Scotland. Monaghan in Ireland has a different origin, 
being muineachdn, a little brake or thicket (Four Masters, 
A.D. 1462). 

M6NANDIE RIG (P. Mononduy). ' Kirkcowan.' Cf. Knockmon- 
onday. 

MONEYHEAD. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' Headland of the monadh [money] 
or moor. 

M6NEYKNOWE. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' GAEL, monadh [mona], a 
moor (see under DALMONEY) ; BR. sc. knowe, a hillock, added. 

M6NEYPOOL BURN. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

MONK HILL. ' Wigtown.' Cf. DRUMMANOGHAN, close by. 

MONREITH (variously spelt Murrief, Murith, Menrethe (Ragman 
Roll], etc.). 'Mochnun.' Moin riabhach [1] [reeagh], grey 
moor. Cf. Monreagh in Ireland. 

MONYBUIE (a hill of 1050 feet) (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Monyboy ; P. 
Mouybuy). ' Balmaclellan.' Monadh luidhe [buie], yellow 
moor. Cf. YELLOW BOGS. 

MooRFAD(P. Moorefadd). ' Kirkmabreck.' M 6r fada, long moor. 
Cf. Monfad in Ireland, long moor. See under MARBRACK. 

MOORTREEKNOWE. ' Troqueer.' Probably a corruption of Bour- 
tree Knowe, the " knowe " or hillock of the elder. Bourtree, 
boretree, boartree "seems," says Jamieson, "to have received 
its name from its being hollow within, and thence easily bored 
by thrusting out the pulp." Be that as it may, it was 
probably used with sand and water for perforating stones in 
neolithic times. 



256 AN TJR-CHUXNTAS GALLGATDHEL. 

M60RYARD HILL. 'Borgue.' Mfr ard, high moor. See under 
MARBRACK. 

M6RRACH (P. Moroch ; W. P. MSS. Morache). ' Whithorn.' 

M6RRISON. ' Balmaghie.' 

M6RROCH (Crauf. MS. 1468, Morrach). ' Stoneykirk.' Cf. 
MORRACH. 

MORROW WELL. ' Kirkmaiden.' Cf. BLACKMORROW WELL. 

MOSSBROCK GAIRY. ' Carsphairn.' Mos broc, badger's moss. 
The Scandinavian mos seems to have been adopted into Erse 
speech. " E. moss, a cryptogamic plant, M.E. mos, mosse A.s. 
meds+vu. mos + iCEL. mosi, moss, also a moss, moorland -f 
DAN. TWOS + SWED. mossa + G. moos, M.G.H. mos." Skeat. Akin 
to LAT. muscus. E. mire is related to moss through O.H.G. 
mios. 

MOSSFEATHER. ' Borgue.' Mos Pheaduir [?], Peter's moss. 

MOSSMAUL. 'Twynholm.' Mos maol, bare moss. See under 
MEAUL. 

MOSSNAE. ' Twynholm.' Mos n-aithe [1] [nay], moss of the kiln. 
See under AuCHENHAY. 

Moss KAPLOCH. ' Kells.' Cf. RAPLOCH, a village in Stirlingshire. 

Moss RODDOCK. ' Dairy.' Mos Rideirch [?], Roderic's Moss. 
Perhaps commemorative of Rydderch Hael, the Christian 
king who defeated the Pagans A.D. 573 at Ardderyd 
(Arthuret), near Carlisle, and whose name survives in several 
places; e.g. Cloriddrick, a large stone in North Ayrshire. 
See under MUNGO'S WELL. 

MOSSTERRIE. ' Borgue.' Mos t-searragh [?] [terragh], the foal's 
moss, or mos Tuire [terry], Terry's moss. See under CRAIG- 
TERRA. 

MOSSYARD. ' Girthon.' 

MOTHER WATER (a well on Prestrie (Priestery) farm). ' Whithorn.' 
Probably dedicated to the Mother of God. 

MOUNT HILLY. ' Inch.' Moin choille [hilly], hill of the wood. 

MOUNT SALLIE [pron. Salyie]. ' Kirkmaiden.' Moin seileach, 
hill of the willows. See under BARSALLOCH and DALMONEY. 

MOUNT SKIP. ' Crossmichael.' 

MOYLE. ' Borgue,' ' Colvend.' See under MEAUL, 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 257 

MtiCLACH. ' Wigtown.' Muclach, " a herd of swine " (O'Reilly) ; a 
swine-pasture. Cf. Mucklagh frequently in Ireland. 

MUDDIOCH ROCK. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

MUGLOCH. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under MuCLACH. 

MUIL, THE (P. Muil). ' Kirkcowan,' ' New Luce.' See under 
MEAUL. 

MuiRDR6cHWOOD. ' Carsphairn.' M6r drocheaid, bridge moor. 
Between the Bridge of Deugh and the High Bridge of Ken. 
The adjacent farm is called Bridgemark. See under BAKD- 

ROCHWOOD. 

MUIRGLASS. ' New Luce.' M6r glas, green moor. See under 
MARBRACK. 

MULDADDIE. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

MULD6NACH (P. Mealdanach), (a hill of 1800 ft.) ' Minigaff.' 
Meall Donnchaidh [Donhah], Duncan's hill. 

MULDOWN. ' Minigaff/ See under MILLDOWN. 

MUJXJARVIE. ' Minigaff/ Maol garbh [garve], rough, bare hill. 

MULL, THE. ' New Luce/ See tinder MEAUL. 

MULLACHGENY. ' Minigaff/ Mullach gaineach, sandy hill. See 
under GANNOCH. 

MULLAN. ' Penninghame/ Mulldn, a hill. See under MOLLANCE. 

MULLANDERRY. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c/ Mullan dearg, red hill or 
headland. Cf. Mullachdarrig, Mullachderg, in Ireland. 

MULLBANE. ' Carsphairn,' ' Girthon/ Maol or meall bdn, white 
headland or hill. See under MILLBAWN. Cf. Mweelbane in 
Fermanagh. 

MULLGIBBON. ' Girthon/ Maol gobain, headland of the little 
snout. See under GAB. 

MULL HILL OF (1) AIRIEOLLAND, and (2) OF MILTON. 'Mochrum.' 
Maol, a bare hill. See under MEAUL. 

MULLKNOCK. ' Mochrum/ See under MILLKNOCK. 

!MuLLMEiN (P. Mulmein), ' ^linigaff/ Maol or meall rain, smooth 
or little hill. Or perhaps the same as MILMAIN, q.v. 

MULLOCH. ' Kirkcowan,' ' Penninghame/ Mullach, a hill, from 
maol, bare. It takes the form of Mulla and Mullagh in many 
parts of Ireland. 

R 



258 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

MtrLLOCK (P. Mullock, Muloch). ' Eerwick.' See under MULLOCH. 

MULL or GALLOWAY, THE [locally pron. Moyle] (P. Mull of Gal- 
lua). ' Kirkmaiden.' Maol, bare, a bare headland. See 
under MEAUL. Madettan, in the article which accompanies 
Pant's map in Blaeu's atlas, gives the true etymology : 
" Mula, id est, glabrum et detonsum ; nam prisci Scoti pro- 
montoria appellant Mula, metaphora a capite detonso sumpta." 

MULL OF LOGAN, THE. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under MULL OF GAL- 
LOWAY and LOGAN. 

MULL OF Eoss. * Borgue.' See under MULL OF GALLOWAY and 

Eoss. 
MULLTAGGART. . ' Kirkmabreck.' Meall t-sagairt [taggart], priest's 

hill. See under ALTAGGART. 

MULNIEGARROCH. 'NewLuce.' 

MULREA. ' Kirkmaiden.' Maol or meall reidh [1] [ray], smooth, 
bare hill or raith [ray], of the " rath " or fort. 

MUNCHES (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Munocheis; MS. 1527, Muncheiss). 
' Buittle.' 

MUNCRAIG (P. Monkraig). ' Borgue.' Moin creag, moor of the 
crags. 

MUNGO'S WELL. ' Dairy.' This is the only dedication in Gal- 
loway, so far as known to the writer, to St. Kentigern or 
Mungo, the patron saint of Glasgow, who re-converted the 
Strathclyde Britons. The town well in Peebles is dedicated 
to him, as well as many other places in Lanark, Dumfries, 
and Cumberland. He died in A.D. 603. King Eiderch, the 
conqueror of Strathclyde, submitted his crown to him and if, 
as is suggested Moss EODDOCK in the adjacent parish com- 
memorates that individual, there may be some connection 
between the names of these two places. 

MUNR6GIE. ' Kirkcowan.' 

MUNSACK, FORD OF (P. Muinshesh, Monsack). ' Carsphairn.' 

MuNSHALLOCH. ' Minigaff.' Moin sealgha [1] [shalligha], moor of 
the hunting. See under DRUMSHALLOCH. 

MUNTLOCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Mulknok). ' Kirkmaiden.' Cf. 
MENLOCH. 

MUNWHALL. ' Girthon.' Moin gall, moor of the strangers or 
of the standing stones. See under DERGALL. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 259 

MUNWHULL (a hill of 1345 feet) (P. Monwhil). 'Minigaff.' 
Moin chuill [hwill], moor of the hazels. Cf. Monaquill in 
Tipperary. See under BARWHIL. 

MURCHIE WOOD. MinigafF.' 

MURDOCH HILL. ' Whithorn.' 

MURDOCH'S CAVE. ' Minigaff.' 

MURDONACHIE. ' New Luce.' Mfrr Donacliaidh [Donnaghie], 
Duncan's moor. See under BARDONACHIE. 

MURLIN STRAND. ' Whit-horn, s.c.' Murldn, a rough top or head. 
See under CARRICKAMURLAN. 

Music KNOWES. 'Kells.' 

MUSSEL CLAUCHAN (rocks on the coast). ' Colvend.' Clachan, 
stones, where mussels are collected. Cf. CRAIGNESKET. 

MUTER HILL. ' Borgue. ' 

MYE. ' Stoneykirk.' See under MAY. 

MYRETON [pron. Murrton], ' Mochrum.' A.S. mere Mn, the place 
or dwelling on the mere or lake. Cf. MERTON. 

MYROCH (Inq. ad Cap. 1661, Mairoch ; P. Maroch). ' Kirkmaiden.' 



ANNIE NAIED'S HILL. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

NANNIE WALKER'S WA'S. ' Kells.' 

NAPPERS, THE. ' Minigaff'.' See under KNOITS. 

NASHANTIE HILL. ' Stoneykirk.' An sean tigh [shan teeh], the 
old house. See under SHAMBELLY. 

NASSAN BURN. ' Kirkmaiden.' N-easean [nassan], the waterfalls, 
pi. of eas. See under Ass OF THE GILL. 

NETHERFIELD. ' New Abbey.' Lower field. 

NETHERLAW. ' Berwick.' Lower hill (antithetically to Oveiiaw). 

A.s. neoZra hlceu: 

NETHERTHRID (P. Netherthridd). Lower third (a division of land) 

A.S. neo%ra Zridda. See under MILNTHIRD. 

NETHERTOUN. ' New Abbey.' Lower place A.S. neoZra tun. 
NETHERYETT. ' New Abbey.' Lower gate A.S. neoZra geat. 



260 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

NEW ABBEY, a parish in the Stewartry, named from the Abbey of 
Sweetheart (Douzquer, Doxquer, Dux Quer, Douce Cceur, 
Dulce Cor, etc.), founded in 1275 by Devorgilla, daughter of 
Alan, Lord of Galloway, wife of John Baliol. 

NEWTON STEWART. ' Penninghame.' Formerly Newton Douglas, 
and still earlier Fordhouse. 

NEWHOUSE OF LOCH ARTHUR. ' New Abbey.' The antithesis of 
SHAMBELLY, q.v. 

NEWLAW. ' Berwick.' 

NEW GALLOWAY (Synod of Galloway, 1664, Newtowne of 
Galloway). 

NICK OF CLASHNEACH. ' Minigaff.' " Nick, an opening between 
the summits of two hills." Jamieson. " Nick is an attenuated 
form of nock, the old spelling of notch; so also tip from top." 
Skeat. Notch, a weakened form of nock, M.E. nokke, 
especially applied to the notch in the end of an arrow o. DU. 
nock + o. SWED. nocka, a notch. See under CLARHNEACH. 

NICK OF BUSHES. ' Minigaff.' 

NIMBLY (P. Nimbelly; Inq. ad Cap. 1601, Nunbellie). 'New 
Abbey.' Probably the baile [bally], house or place of the 
nuns. Cf. NUNTON. 

N6GGIE. ' Berwick.' 

NOGNIESCREE. ' Leswalt.' Cnoc na scrath [scraw], hill of the sods 
or turf. See under SCRABBY. 

NORWAY CRAIG. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Cf. CARRICKFUNDLE in 
Addenda. 

NUNLAND. 'Loch Button.' The land of the nuns. Nun, M.E. 
nonna A.S. nunna LOW LAT. nunna, nonna, a nun, " originally 
a title of respect, especially used in addressing an old maiden 
lady, or a widow who has devoted herself to sacred duties. 
The old sense is ' mother,' answering to LAT. nonnus, father, 
a word of great antiquity + GK. vdvvrj, vkvva, an aunt, 
vdvvat, vevvos, an uncle + SKT. nand, a familiar word for 
mother used by children, . . . answering to SKT. tata, father. 
Formed by repetition of the syllable na, used by children to 
a father, mother, aunt, or nurse ; just as we have ma-ma, da-da, 
etc."Skeat. 

NUNTON (P. Nuntoun). ' Twynholm.' The place or dwelling of 
the nuns. There are here the ruins of a nunnery. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 261 

NUNWOOD (near Lincluden Priory). ' Terregles.' Wood of the 
nuns. A sisterhood of Black Nuns was established at Lin- 
cluden by Uthred, son of Fergus, founder of the Priory in 
the twelfth century. 



0, 



'CHILTREE (P. Uchiltry). ' Penninghame.' There is a 
place of this name in Ayrshire. 

OCHLEY POINT. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' 

OCHTERALINACHAN. ' Leswalt.' UocMarach linachan, upper flax- 
field ; a derivative of lin, flax. See under PORT LEEN. 

OCHTRELURE (P. Ochtyluer ; Inq. ad Cap. 1642, Uchtrelmure). 
' Inch.' UacMarach lobhair [f] [lour, loor], upper land of the 
leper or infirm person. See under BARLURE and BARNEY- 
WATER, 

OCHTRIMAKAIN (P. Ochtrymackean, Ouchtriemackean ; Inq, ad 
Cap, Ucthreid M'Kayne). 'Port Patrick.' Uachdarach mic 
Iain, the upper land of MacEwen or Mackean. 

OLDLAND. ' Girthon,' ' Kirkcowan.' Cf. Shautallow (sean talamti) 

in Ireland. 

OLDMAN. ' Berwick.' 

OLD TURIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

OLD WATER (a tributary of the Cluden). ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 
Allt, a glen or stream, which, being confounded with BR. sc. 
(mid, has been made genteel and transformed into Old. See 
under ALDERGOWAN. 

ORBAIN HILL. ' Kirkcolm.' 

ORCHARDTON (P. Orchartoun, Orchardtoun). ' Sorbie.' Ort-gcerd 
or ivort-gcerd tun, the house with the garden of " worts " or 
vegetables. The sense of a garden of fruit-trees is a 
secondary one. 

ORCHARS. ' Minigaff.' 

ORLOGE KNOWE (close to the ruins of Corsewall Castle). ' Kirk- 
colm.' Hill of the horologue, or sun-dial. " Orloge, wlager, 
orliger, a clock, a dial." Jamieson. - o.F. horloge, horologe 
(whence M.E. orologe, E. hwologe} LAT. horologmtn, a sun-dial, 
a water-clock GK. oDpoXoyiovwpo for wpa, a season, hour, 
and \oytov from \eyecv, to tell. 



262 AN T1R-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

ORN6CKENOUGH. ' Anwoth.' Aridh [airie] cnocnach, hilly pasture. 
See under AIRIE. 

ORROLAND. ' Berwick. ' Debateable ground. " Orrow, orra, ora. 
Unappropriated, not matched." Jamieson. In sorting sheep 
in spring on the hills, those belonging to other flocks are 
put into the " orra bught." 

OUTON (Chapel, Gallows, and Burgess Outon, and Outon Corwar) 
(W. P. MSS. Lytill Owtoun, Owtoun chapell, Owtoun burges, 
Owtown carvar). ' Whithorn.' Out-town, outside the town 
(ofWhithorn). 

OUTTLE WELL. ' Sorbie.' 

OVERLAW (antithetic to Netherlaw). ' Kerwick.' M.E. over law, 
upper hill, as Chaucer writes over lippe for upper Up, C. T. 133. 
A.S. ofer hlcew; ofer, prep, (whence M.E. ouer, BR. sc. ower), 
akin to A.S. prep, up + DU. over + ICEL. yfir, prep., and ofr, 
adv.. exceedingly (as in E. over-fond, over-kind, etc.) + DAN. 
over + SWED. bfver + G. uber + O.H.G. iibar + GOTH, ufar 
+ GK. vTrep + LAT. super + SKT. upari, above. Over is the 
comparative form of the root UF (E. up), of which the 
superlative survives in oft. 

OVERTOWN. ' New Abbey. A.S. ufera tun, upper place ; antithetic 
to NETHERTOUN. 

Ox ROCKS. ' Kirkcolni, s.c.' Cf. Bo STAKE. 

Ox STAR (a high pasture on the shoulder of a hill). ' Minigaff. ' 
Probably this is BR. sc. oxter, the armpit, figuratively used 
as parts of the human frame so often are to describe parts of 
a hill. The Ordnance Surveyor has made two words of it. 
A.S. oxta, the armpit. 



-L ADAKIE. ' Kirkmaideu, s.c.' 

PADDOCK HALL. ' Rerwick.' This is probably the form of A.S. 
pearroc, a park, alluded to under PARK. The change from 
r to d, though not according to rule, undoubtedly took place, 
probably (says Skeaf) from confusion with paddock, a toad. 

PALGOWN (on the Minnick) (P. Poolgawin). 'Minigaff." Poll 
gobhain [gown], the smith's pool. See under POLBAE. 

PALINKUM (P. Poolinkum). ' Kirkmaiden.' Poll linn cam, stream 
of the crooked linns. See under LINCOM. 

PALMALLET (Inq. ad Cap. 1661, Polmo wart; W. P. MSS. Polraal- 
lart). ' Sorbie.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 263 

PALNACKIE (on the Urr). ' Buittle.' Poll an achaidh [aghey], 
stream of the arable field. 

PALNEE. ' Kirkcudbright.' Poll na fhiadh [ee], stream of 

the deer, or pott na fhiodhe [1] [ee], stream of the wood. 

Fidh, fiodh, o. ERSE fid + E. wood (see under BLAIKET). 
See under CRAIGINNEE. 

PALNURE (a stream) (P. Polnewyir R). ' Minigaff.' Poll 
n-iubhar [nure], stream of the yew-trees or of the juniper. 
Of. Terenure, Ballynure, Ahanure, Ardnanure, Gortinure, 
Killure, Killanure, in Ireland ; also Newry and Nure = an 
iubhar, with the agglutinative n of the article. O. ERSE 
ibar, ibhar, iubar, ERSE iubhar, GAEL, iubhar, iughar, w. yw, 
ywen, c. hivin, B. ivin + A.S. iw (whence M.E. ew, E. yew) 
+ DU. uf + ICEL. yr + G. eibe, O.H.G. iwa. 

PALWHILLIE or POLQUHILLIE. ' Penninghame.' Poll choille 

[hwilly], stream of the wood. 
PAPY HA'. ' Minigaff.' Probably equivalent to BALNAB, q.v. 

PARK (P. Parck). ' Old Luce.' Paire, enclosed ground. In 
Scotland park has not the exclusive meaning attached to it 
in England, but simply means an enclosed field. + W. 
park, parity, B. park, which Skeat takes to be borrowed 
from the Teutonic. E. park, ME. parrok A.S. pearroc + DU. 
perk + SWED. and DAN. park + G.pferch + F. pare, iTA.L.parco, 
SPAN, parque. Paddock is another form of ME. parrok. The 
A.S. form is retained in BR. SC. " Parrock, a small enclosure 
in which a ewe is confined to make her take with a lamb." 
Jamicson. Park is common in Irish place-names. 

PARKDOON. ' Minigaff.' Pairc duin, field of the fort. 

PARKMACLURG (P. Parkmaklurg). 'Minigaff.' M'Lurg's en- 
closure. 

PARKROBBIN. ' Balmaclellan.' Robert's enclosure. 
PARLIAMENT KNOWE. ' Minigaff.' 

PARROCK STANE. ' Carsphairn.' A.S. pearroc stan, stone of the 
enclosure. See under PARK. 

PARTON (a parish in the Stewartry) (Inq. ad Cap. 1607, Partoun ; 
P. Partoun). Portdn, a landing-place, dimin. of port. Some- 
times locally aspirated into Earton. " In the eastern part of 
county Clare port is pronounced as if written pdirt, and 
this pronunciation is reflected in the names of some places 
on the Shannon, from Limerick to Killaloe, which are now 
called Parteen, signifying little landing-place." Joyce, ii. 232. 



264 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

PASBUERY. ' Leswalt, s.c.' 

PAUPLE'S HILL. ' Penninghame.' 

PEAKSTALLOCH. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' " Peak is one of the Celtic 
words so often met with in English place-names." Skeat. 
ERSE peac, any sharp-pointed thing + GAEL, beic, a point, 
a bill (whence E. beak). In France and Switzerland Piz is a 
common mountain-name. 

PEAL HILL. ' Kells.' " Pele, peyll, peill, peel, paile, a place of 
strength, a fortification, properly of earth." Jamieson. Cf. 
BR. SC. ped tower A.S. pil, a pile, a heap; acervus (JBosicorth). 

PEAT BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Peat, turf cut in boggy places. " The 
true form is beat, as in Devonshire ; the change from b to p is 
very unusual, but we have it again in purse from F. bourse. 
It was so called because used for beeting, i.e. mending the fire, 
from M.E. beten, to replenish a fire A.S. be'tan, to better, amend, 
repair, to make up a fire." Skeat. A.S. bot, advantage, boot 
+ DU. boeta, penitence, boeten, to mend, kindle + ICEL. b6t, 
bati, advantage, cure, boeta, to mend, improve + DAN. bod, 
amendment, bode, to mend + SWED. bot, remedy, bota, to fine, 
mulct + GOTH, bdta, profit + O.H.G. puoza, buoza, G. busse, 
atonement. From the same root as E. better. " Beit, bete, bet, 
beet : 1. To help, to supply, to mend by making addition. To 
belt the fire or belt the ingle, to add fuel to the fire." Jamieson. 

PEAT HASS. 'Carsphairn.' "Hass is used in a general sense to 
signify any gap or opening." Jamieson. = Hals, hawse, a 
throat, a narrow opening or defile. 

PENEILLY CAIRN. 'Balmaclellan.' 

PEN HILL. * Sorbie.' See under PENNY HILL. 

PENKILL BURN (P. Poolkill b.). 'Minigaff.' Poll cille [killy], 
pool or stream of the church. It flows under the walls of 
Minigaff church. 

PENKILN (P. Benkiln). 'Sorbie.' Probably the same asPEXKiLL, 
as there is a stream beside which stood a church, KILFILLAN. 

PENNINGHAME (a parish in the shire) (P. Pennygham ; Burn- 
barroch, 1576, Pennegem ; Synod of Galloway, 1644, Peny- 
gham). A.S. Peneg ham, the penny land or holding. " In 
the western districts (of Scotland) we find the penny land 
also entering into topography, in the form of Pen or Penny. 
. . . The two systems of land measurement appear to 
meet in Galloway, as in Carrick we find the measure by 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 265 

penny lands, which gradually become less frequent as we 
advance eastward, where we encounter the extent by merks 
and pounds, with an occasional appearance of a penny land." 
Skene, Celtic Scotland, iii. 226, 227. 

PENNY HILL. ' Kirkinner.' See under PENNINGHAME. 
PENNYMUIR. ' Borgue.' See under PENNINGHAME. 
PENNYTOWN. ' Kells.' See under PENNINGHAME. 
PENTICLE. ' Kirkinner.' 

PENWHAILL. ' Girthon.' 

PENWHIRN. ' Inch.' Of. PILWHIRN, of which this is probably a 
corruption. 

PETER'S PAPS. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

PETILLERY HILL. ' Carsphairn.' Whatever the prefix Pet 
represents, the latter part of this name is iolaire [illery], an 
eagle. See under BENYELLARY. 

PHALSHEUCHAN. ' Kirkinner.' See FALSHEUCHAN. 
PHALWHISTLE. ' Kirkinner.' See FALWHISTLE. 
PHILBAINS. ' Mochrum.' Pholl ban, white water. 

PHILG6WN. ' Mochrum.' Pholl gobhain [gowan], the smith's 
water. Of. PALGOWN. 

PHILHAR. ' Whithorn.' See FALHAR. 

PHILSTABBIN. ' Inch.' 

PHILTOWL. ' New Luce.' Pholl tuatltail [towl], north water. See 
under DRUMTOWL. 

PHILWHINNIE. ' Whithorn.' 



PHYSGILL ( W. P. MSS. Fischegill). ' Glasserton.' SCAND. 

gil [1], fish stream; ICEL. fiskr + vu. visch+A.s. fisc (whence 
M..E.fach, E.^sA) + DAN. and SWED. Jisk + G.fisch + LA.T. piscis 
+ w. pysg, B. pesk + ERSE and GAEL, iasg (by loss of initial p). 

PIBBLE (P. Pibbil). ' Kirkmabreck.' 

PICKMAW ISLAND (in Loch Doon). ' Carsphairn.' " Pickmaw, a 
bird of the gull tribe." Jamieson. E. mew, M.E. mawe A.s. 
nueiv + 'DU. meeuw + ICEL. ?wfr+DAN. maage + SWED. mdke + G. 
mowe. " All words of imitative origin, from the mew or cry 
of the bird." 

PIKEHORN (P. Pykhorn). ' Sorbie.' Of. PEAKSTALLOCH. 



266 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

PILTANTON BURN (P. Pool Tanton; Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Poutan- 
tane). * Old Luce.' Poll, water. 

PILWHIRN BURN. ' New Luce.' Poll chuirn [?] [hwirn], pool or 
water of the cairn. Cf. FALWHIRN. 

PINFOLD. ' Port Patrick.' 

PINMINNOCH. ' Port Patrick.' Probably corrupted from beann 
meadhonack [mennagh], mid hill. The change from b to p is 
contrary to rule, but see under PEAT ; and the Erse beann 
seems, in Galloway, to have become assimilated to the Cymric 
pen, prevalent in Strathclyde, although originally a totally 
different word. 

PINWHIRRIE. ' Inch.' Beann fhoithre [whirry], hill of the copse. 
See under WHERRY CROFT. 

PIOT FELL. ' Port Patrick.' See CAIRN PAT. 

PIPERCROFT. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' A frequent name near old 
towns, the town-piper being an ancient and universal 
institution. 

PLAID, THE. ' Kirkmaideu.' 

PLAN. ' Crossmichael.' 

PLASCOW. ' Kirkgunzeon.' This word has a very Welsh character. 

PLEA RIG. ' Balmaclellan.' Land about which there has been 
a " plea " or litigation. 

PLUCKHIM'S CAIRN. ' Tungland.' 

PLUMBHOLE. ' Col vend.' " Plumb, the noise a stone makes when 
plunged into a deep pool of water; people guess at a pool's 
depth by this plumb." Mactaggart. " Plum, plumb, a deep 
pool in a river or stream." Jamieson. From the idea of 
sounding with & plumb, or mass of lead ; M.E. plumbe, plom 

F. plumb, lead LAT. plumbum, probably cognate with GK. 
/ioX,u/3o<?, /io\i;/3So9, lead; RUSS. olovo, pewter, O.H.G. pll, 

G. llei, lead. 

PLUMJ6RDAN. ' Col vend.' 

PLUMJ&RDAN, THE SINKS OF. ' Kirkcowan.' " Sink, ground 
where there is superabundant moisture." Jamieson. Cf. 
SYPLAND. E. sink, properly an intransitive verb (we have 
lost the transitive form senk, sench cf. drink, drench) ; M.E. 
sinken A.S. sincan + lCEL. sokkva+DAN. Stfn&e+BWED. sjunka 
+ G. sinken + GOTH, sigkwan. All from Teutonic base SANKWA, 
SANK, which seems a nasalised form of Aryan V SAG > to hang 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 267 

down. The sense of immersion is retained in the transitive 
form A.S. sencan, to cause to sink, SWED. siinka, DAN. scenke, 
G. senken, to immerse. 

PLUMJORDAN BURN. ' Minigaff.' 

PLUNTON (P. Plumtoun, Plumptoun). ' Borgue.' 

POCHRIE. ' Mochrum.' 

POCHRIEGAVIN BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Pochrie is probably a cor- 
ruption of the same original as Poultry, in Poultrybuie. See 

POLGAVIN. 

POINTFOOT. ' Dairy.' Foot of the " point " or hill. 

POINT OF THE SNIBE. ' Minigaff.' Another form of Snab. See 
under SNAB HILL. 

POLBAE. ' Kirkcowan.' Poll beith [bey], pool or stream of the 
birches. Of. FALBAE. In Polbeith Burn, a tributary of 
the Irvine, the silent th has been restored. ERSE and GAEL. 
poll, a hole, pit, mire, water either running or stagnant, 
MANX poyl+w. pidl, B. poull, c. pol (whence A.S. pdl, ME. 
pol, ^OO/)+LAT. palus + GK. TTT/XO?. Root uncertain. Enters 
largely into place-names, in which it indicates either a stream 
or a pool, in the various forms fal, fil, ful, pJial, phil, pal, 
pil, pol, pul, and even pen. 

POLGHESKIE BURN (P. Polchesky). ' Carsphairn.' Of. BARCHESKIE. 
POLCHIFFER BURN. ' Carsphairn.' 

PoLcdRROCH BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Poll carroch, rough stream. 

POLDORES BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Poll doran, stream of the otters. 
Of. Puldourau. See under ALDOURAN. 

POLDUSTON BURN. ' Minigaff.' 

POLGAVIN BURN (a tributary of the water of Deuch, near 
Pochriegavin). 'Carsphairn.' Poll gamhan [?], the calves' 
stream. 

POLIFERRIE BURN. ' Carsphairu.' Poll a' foithre [1] [fwirrie], 
stream of the woods. See under WHERRY CROFT. 

POLJARGEN BURN AND HAGS. ' Carsphairn.' Poll deargdn, red 
stream. 

POLMEADOW BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Poll madadh [?] [madda, 
maddoo], stream of the dogs or wolves. Cf. PULMADDY 
and PULVADDOCH. 



268 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL, 

POLQUHILLIE. ' Pennmghame.' See PALWHILLY. 
POLR6BIN BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Cf. PARKROBBIN. 

POLSHAG BURN (P. Poushaig). ' Carsphairn.' Poll seobhac [?] 
[shock], stream of the hawks. See under GARNSHOG. 

POLSTON BURN. ' Balmaclellan.' 

POLSUIE BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Poll subh [?] [soo], stream of 
the berries, or poll samhadh [soo], stream of the sorrel. See 
under DRUMMIESUE. Cf. Inishnasoo in Armagh (written by 
the Four Masters, A.D. 1158, Innis na subh), Cornasoo in 
Monaghan, and Lisnasoo in Antrim. Cf. SuiE. 

POLTIE BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Poll tighe [?], stream of the house. 
See under DRUMATYE. 

POLVADDOCH BURN. ' Dairy.' Poll mhadadh [vadda], stream of 
the dog or of the wolf. Cf. POLMEADOW and PULMADDY. 

POLWILLIEMOUNT. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

POLYM6DIE. 'Inch.' Poll a" madhaidh [madda], stream of the 
dog. Cf. POLMEADOW and PULMADDY. 

POOL NESS. ' Girthon.' 

PORT AGREE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

PORTACLEARYS. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Port a' cUrech, port or landing of 
the clergy. See under BARNEYCLEARY. ERSE port, a harbour, 
fort, bank (Corm. Tr., p. 133); a ferry (ffBeilly). Closely 
akin to, if not derived from, LAT. portus, a harbour porta, a 
gate GK. Tropo?, a ford, a way, from ^PAR, to pass through, 
ford, which is the root of E. fare, ford, far, ferry. 

PORT ALLAN. ' Whithorn, s.c.' 

PORTAMAGGIE. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' 

PORTANKIL. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Portdn cille [killy], the little 
harbour of the church or cell. Portdn, dimin. of port (cf. 
PARTON). See under KILCORMACK. 

PORTAVADDIE. ' Kirkmaiden ' (twice), 'Port Patrick, s.c.' Port a 
bhada [vadda], port of the boat ; ERSE bdd (O'Reilly) , GAEL. 
bdta + W. bad + A.S. bdt (whence M.E. boot, E. fa>a/) + iCEL. bdlr 
+ SWED. 6a/+DU. 6oo/+RUSS. bot'. Probably connected with 
ERSE and GAEL, bat, bata, a staff, cudgel, a bat. 

PORTBEG. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Leswalt, s.c.' Port beag, little port. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 269 

PORTBRIAR (close to the ruined chapel at the Isle of Whithorn). 
'Whithorn, s.c.' Port brathair [braher], landing-place or 
haven of the friars. See under ALTIBRAIR. 

PORT DONNEL. ' Colvend, s.c.' Port Domknuill, Donnel's port. 

PoRTD6wN (P. Port Doun). ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Port duin, port 
of the fort. Cf. Portadown in Ireland. 

PORTENCALZIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Portincalzie, P. Portincailly). 
' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Portdn cailleach, port of the nuns. It is a 
farm situated on Lady Bay, which is a literal translation of 
Portencalzie. 

PORTENC6RKRIE (P. Portinkorkry). ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Portdn 
corcra, red port. Named from the ruddy granite which crops 
out here. See under BARNCORKRIE. 

P6RTERBELLY. ' Kirkgunzeon.' The latter part of the word is 
baile, a townland. Cf. SHAMBELLIE. 

PORTERLOOP. ' Balmaclellan.' 

PORT GARVILLAN (P. Port Garvellan). 'Kirkcolm, s.c.' See 
under GARVELLAN. There is a place called Rough Isle close 
by. 

PORT G6wER. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' Port gobhar, port of the goats 
or horses. See under ALGOWER. 

PORT HENRY. ' Whithorn, s.c.' Port an righ [?], king's port. 
Cf. PORTREE. 

PORT KALE (P. Port Kyoch). ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Port cool [?] 
[keel], narrow port. See under CARSKEEL. 

PORT KENAN. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Port Caenain [Keenan], 
Keenan's port [?]. Keenan still survives as a surname in 
Galloway. It is from caen [keen], beautiful. 

PORT LEEN. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Port lin [leen], port of the flax ; 
where flax was landed or steeped. Cf. Port Leen in Ireland, 
also Coolaleen, Crockaleen, and Gortaleen. 0. ERSE lin, flax. 
The word is the same in A.S. and M.E. (E. linen being the adj. 
form, as woollen from wool) LAT. linum, flax + GK. \ivov. 
To " line " clothes is to put lin or linen inside them. 

PORTLENNIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

PORTLING. ' Colvend, s.c.' Port luing [ling], port of the ship. 
Cf. Port-na-luing in Tyree. See under LONGFORT. 

PORTL6NG. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Port long, port of the ships. See 
under LONGFORT. 



270 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

PORTMARK. 'Carsphairn.' 

PORT MARY. ' Berwick.' Formerly Nether Rerwick, where 
Queen Mary embarked in her flight from the battle of 
Langside. 

PORT MONA (P. Port-na-mony-a-koane). ' Kirkmaiden.' Port 
na monadh a' coin, port of the dog's moor. Pont preserves 
the full original name. Cu, gen. coin, a dog + W. ci, pi. cicn 
+ LAT. canis + GK. KVWV, gen. KVVOS + SKT. cuan, from an 
Aryan base KWAN, dog, whence we have a TEUTONIC type 
HUN-DA, extended from HUN = HWAN, giving E. hound - A.S. 
kund + DU. hond + ICEL. hundr -f- DAN. and SWED. hund + 
G. hund + GOTH, hunds. 

PORT MORA (P. Moiran's Poirt). ' Port Patrick,' M'Morran is 
a surname in Galloway formed from mbr, great. 

PORTM6RE (P. Poirt moir). ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Port m6r, great 
harbour. 

PORT MUDDLE. ' Kirkcudbright, s.c.' 

PORT MULLIN (P. Port Moulin). ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Port mutteain 
[meulan], port of the mill. Of. Millport in Cumbrae. 

PoRTNAUGHAN. ' Kirkcolm.' 

PoRTNAUCHTRY. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Portdn Ochtraidh [Oughtrie], 
Uthred's port. 

PORTNESSOCK (P. Port Nustak). ' Kirkmaiden.' Cf. CARSE- 
NESTOCK. In the "Book of the Nativity of Saint Cuthbert, 
taken and translated from the Irish," a manuscript of the 
fourteenth century, in the Diocesan Library at York, and 
printed by the Surtees Club, it is stated that the boy Cuthbert, 
accompanied by his mother, lauded in " Galweia, in that 
region called Rennii, in the harbour of Rintsnoc." Mr. Skene 
remarks that this is no doubt Port Patrick, in the Rhinns of 
Galloway ; but it is more likely that it was Port Nessock, an 
equally good landing-place in those days, farther south on 
the same coast. 

PORTOBEAGLE. ' Colvend, s.c.' 

PORTOWARREN. ' Colvend, s.c.' Port a' garrain [1], port of the 
horse. See under GLENGARREN ; cf. PORT WHAPPLE. 

PORT PATRICK (a sea-port giving name to a parish in the shire) 
(P. Port Fatrick; Inq. ad Cap. 1646, Portus olim nuncupatits 
Portpatrick, mine Portmontgomerie). ' Port Patrick.' Port 
Padric, (St.) Patrick's port. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WAY. 271 

PORTREE. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Port righ [ree], the king's port. 

PORT RIG (on Lochinvar). ' Dairy.' The " rig " or ridge of the 
landing-place or haven. 

PORT SAND. 'Kirkcolm, s.c.' 

PORTSL6GAN (P. Poirtslogan). ' Leswalt.' 

PORTWHAPPLE. ' Mochrum, s.c.', ' Sorbie, s.c.' Port chapuil 
[hwappill], port of the horse. See under BARH APPLE. 

PORTYERROCK ( W. P. MSS. Portcarryk, Pottarrak ; Inq. ad Cap. 
1647, Porterack). 'Whithorn, s.c.' Port dhearg [hyarrig], 
red port. But the spelling in the Whithorn Priory Rental 
suggests port carric, port of the sea-crag. 

POT6MARAS (a pool in the Minnick). ' Minigaff.' 

POULTRIEBUIE BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Cf. POCHRIEGAVIN. 

POUNDLAND. ' Parton.' Land of the annual value of a pound 
Scots = 13d. sterling. 

Pow. ' New Abbey.' A sluggish stream. " Pow, a slow-moving 
rivulet in flat lands." Jamieson. 

POWBRADE. ' Girthon.' Poll bragliaid, stream of the gulley. 
See under BRADOCK. 



BURN. ' New Abbey.' 

POWTAN. ' Minigaff.' 

P6WTON (W. P. MSS. Powtoun). ' Sorbie.' The tun or dwelling 
beside the pmv or sluggish stream. See under Pow. 

PREACHING HOWE. ' Minigaff,' ' Whithorn.' The hollow of the 
preaching. The place of this name in Minigaff is in the 
hill district, and probably dates from Covenanting times, 
that in Whithorn is not far from the Priory. 

PRESTON (P. Prestoun). ' Colvend.' A.S. preost tun, priest's 
dwelling. 

PRESTRIE (P. Prestry; W. P. MSS. Prestore). 'Whithorn.' 
Priest-ery, land of the priests. Part of the old Priory lands 
of Whithorn. A.s. pretist (whence M.E. preost, preest, E. 
priest LAT. presbyter (whence contracted o.r. prestre, r. pi-etre}) 
GK. Trpea-fivrepos, comparative of 7rpecr/3u9 (akin to LAT. 
priscus, old), DORIC irpeo-^o^. The syllable TT/H?-, pris- = 
imus, former, neuter of prior, which reappears later as an 
ecclesiastical title. 

PRIESTLANDS. ' Troqueer.' The possession of the priests. 



272 AN TiR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

PULARYAN [pron. Pullareean] (P. Poldenrian ; Inq. ad Cap. 1600, 
Polrean). ' Inch.' 

PULBAE (a stream running past Stronbae) (P. Phallbe). ' Mini- 
gaff.' See under FALBAE and POLBAE. 

PuLcliGRiE BURN. ' Kells.' Poll coigriche, stream of the 
boundary, or coigricheach, of the strangers ; literally those 
from over the boundary. See under DRUMCAGERIE. 

PULCARDIE BURN. ' Kells.' Pott cearda [carda], stream of the 
forge or workshop. See under CAIRDIE WIEL. 

PULCREE (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Polcrie, Pollincrie; P. Pdolkree b.). 
'Anwoth.' Poll criche [1] [creeghe], stream of the boundary. 
See under CREE. 

PuLD6uRAN. 'Glasserton.' Poll doran, pool of the otters. See 
under ALDOURAN. 

PuLD6w BURN. ' Kells.' Poll dubh [dooh], black stream. Cf. 
PULLOW ; also Powduff Burn in Dairy parish, Ayrshire. 

PULDR6lT. ' Kirkcudbright.' Pott droichit, bridge pool. Just 
below Tungland Bridge. See under BARDROCHWOOD. 

PULFERN BURN. ' Girthon.' Poll fearn [farn], stream of the 
alders. See under BALFERN. 

PULGANNY BURN. ' Penninghame.' Poll gaineach, sandy stream. 
See under GANNOCH. Cf. Pollaginnive in Fermanagh (poll a' 
gaineaimh). 

PULGAP BURN (P. Poolghaip b., Biern of Altyghaip). ' Minigaff.' 
Cf. DALNAGAP. 

PULG6WAN BURN. ' Minigaff.' See under PALGOWN. 
PULHARE BURN. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under FALHAR. 

PULHARROW BURN. 'Kells.' Poll charrach [harragh], rough 
stream. 

PULHATCHIE BURN (P. Poolhatchie). 'New Luce.' 

PULHAY BURN. ' Carsphairn.' Poll chaedhe [haye], stream of the 
swamp. See under CULKAE. 

PuLH6\VAN BURN. ' Minigaff.' Poll chabhan [I] [havvan, howan], 
stream of the hollow (see under CAVAN), or perhaps an 
aspirated form of Pulgowan, q.v. 

PULiAucH BURN. ' Minigaff.' 

PuLLHAMD6wN. ' Kirkinner.' Poll an duin [1], stream of the 
fort. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 273 

PuLL,6sH SIKES. 'Dairy.' " Sike, syik, syk. 1. A rill; 2. a 
marshy bottom with a stream in it." Jamieson. Perhaps the 
same as A.s. sic, sich, a furrow, gutter, watercourse (Bosworth), 
which appears akin to L. sulcus ; or else it may be connected 
with suck and soak. 

PuLLdw BURN. ' Minigaff.' Poll dhubh [oo, ow], black stream. 
Aspirated form of Puldow, q.v. 

PULMADDY BURN (Inq. ad Cap. 1608, Polvadache; P. Polmady). 
' Carsphairn.' See under POLMEADOW. The spelling quoted 
from the Inquisitions shows the aspirated form. 

PULMULLOCH BURN. ' Dairy.' 

PULNABRICK. 'Minigaff.' Poll na breac [brack], stream of the 
trouts. See under ALTIBRICK. 

PULNACHIE. ' Balmaghie.' See under PALNACKIE. 

PULNAGASHEL (flows past Craigengashel). 'Minigaff.' Poll na 
gcaiseail [gashel], stream of the fort or castle. See under 

AUCHEXGASHEL. 

PULNASKY BURN or POLNASKIE. 'Mochrum.' Poll n-easga 
[naska], stream of the eels. Of. Pollanasktn in Mayo. Pos- 
sibly, however, a corruption of Polnisky, q.v. Easga or easgdn, 
an eel, probably akin to iasg, a fish. See under PHYSGIL. 

PULNEE (P. Poolny). ' Minigaff.' See under PALNEE. 

PULNISKY BURN (P. Poolneisky B.). ' Minigaff.' Pott an uisge 
[isky], water hole, stream of water. Cf. Poulaniska in 
Ireland. Cf. WHISKEY BURN. 

PULRAN. ' Minigaff.' Poll rathain [rahan], stream of the ferny 
place (filicetum). There are many places in Ireland called 
Eahan, Rahin, and Rahans. Rahin, a parish in King's 
County, is written Rathain by the Four Masters (631), and so 
is Rahan in Donegal (1524). Cf. Pollrane in Wexford, 
Pollranny in Roscommon and Mayo, and Pollnaranny in 
Donegal. See under BLAWRAINIE. 

PULSKAIG. ' Carsphairn.' Poll sceach, stream of the hawthorns. 
See under AUCHENSKEOCH. 

PULTADIE [pron. Pultadee] BURN (P. Poolteduy, Poltaduy). 
' New Luce.' 

PULTARSON. ' Carsphairn,' ' New Abbey.' Poll tarsuinn, the cross 
water. See under BALTERSAN. 

s 



274 AN T1R-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

PuLTAYlN BURN. ' Kirkcowan.' 

PULWHANITY. ' Carsphaim.' Cf. KILQUHANITY. 

PULWHAT. ' Carsphaim/ ' Kirkmabreck.' Poll chat, pool or 
stream of the wild cats. 

PULWH!NRICK BURN (P. Pool why nrick B.). ' Rirkmaiden.' 

PULWHIRRAN. ' Borgue.' 

PYATTHORN. ' Crossmichael.' The magpie's thorn. " Pyat, pyot. 
The magpie." Jamieson. 



QU AHEAD [pron. Quaw-heed]. ' Kirkgunzeon.' Head of the 
" quaw " or quagmire. " Quaw : 1 . A quagmire, a name 
given in Galloway to an old pit grown over with earth, grass, 
etc., which yields under one, but in which one does not sink. 
2. A hole whence peats have been dug." Jamieson. 

QUAKER NOOK. ' Kirkcolm.' 

QUAKIN' ASH WIEL. ' Minigaff.' A pool in the Minnick, beside 
which grow aspens. BR. SO. quaJcin' ash, aspen. 

QUANTAN'S HILL. ' Carsphaim.' Cointin p], a dispute, disputed 
land. Cf. Quiutinmanus in Ireland. Cf. also ACQUAINTANCE 
HILL. 

QUARREL END (a stony hill-side). ' Carsphaim.' The quarry- 
like hill-end. " Quarrel, a stone quarry." Jamieson. The 
BR. SO. form seems to be a variation of M.E. quarrere, qnarrer 
0. F. quarriere, F. carrihe LOW LAT. quadraria, a place for 
getting squared stones LAT. quadrare LAT. guadrus, square. 

QUARREL KNOWE. ' Balmaclellan.' The quarry knoll. 

QUARTER. 'New Luce,' 'Tungland.' A division of land = 
ERSE cethramhadh [carroo]. Cf. CARHOWE. 

QUARTERCAKE. ' Renvick.' 

QUINTIN. ' Mochrum.' Cointin, a dispute. 

QUINTINESPIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1611, Tuncanespeik (misprint); P. 
Culdanespick ; Charter 1690, Cultingspie, Culteinspie). 
' Balmaghie.' Cointin []] espiog [espig], the bishop's quarrel. 
The present form of the name suggests this explanation, 
which is illustrated by a passage in Fordun, in which he 
describes William the Lion leading an army into Galloway 
in 1174 to quell the revolt of Uchtred and Gilbert, sons of 
Fergus; and "when the Gallwegians came to meet him 



TOPO GRAPHY OF GALL OWAY. 275 

under Gilbert, some Scottish bishops and earls stepped in 
between them, and through their mediation they were recon- 
ciled ; the Gallwegians paying a sum of money and giving 
hostages." Annalia, xi. Owing to mis-spellings in the charters 
the original name is doubtful, but some forms appear intended 
for coillte [kilty] an espig, the bishop's woods. See under 
ERNESPIE. 



JLtAEBE] 



CRRY. ' Kirkcudbright.' Cf. Roeborough in Devonshire. 
RAINTON (P. Ramtoun). ' Girthon.' 

RAMP HOLES. 'Stoneykirk, s.c.' Boisterous holes, where the 
sea churns and surges. "Ramp, adj. : 1. Riotous. 2. Vehe- 
ment, violent." Jamieson. 

RAMSEY. ' Whithorn, s.c.' ICEL. ey, an island + DAN. and SWED. o 
+ A.S. ig, leg, all from an original Teutonic form AHWIA, 
belonging to water, or a place in water AHWA, water, A.S. 
ea, cognate to LAT. aqua. Ey constantly appears in the end 
of place-names, e.g. Batters-ea, Roms-ey, Aldern-ey, and the 
A.S. ig forms the first syllable of " island " (Skeat). 

RAMSHAW WOOD. ' Buittle.' BR. so. shaiv, a wood. See under 
SHAW BRAE. 

RANKIN. ' Kirkinuer.' 

RASCARREL [pron. Roscarrel], ' Rerwick.' Eos, a wood or head- 
laud. 

RASHNOCH. ' Mochrum.' Rdsnach, a place of wild roses. 

RATTRA (P. Rotrow). ' Borgue.' Rath tdruidhe [?] [rah tory], fort 
of the hunter or outlaw, or rath Tuira [tirrie], Terry's fort. 
Cf. Ratory in Tyrone. See under CRAIGTERRA and DALTORAE. 

RAVENSTONE [pwi. Raimstun] (P. Remistoun ; W. P. MSS. Loch- 
toun ; Inq. ad Cap. 1585, Remistoun, alias Lochtoune; 1620, 
Clochtoun, alias Remistoun). ' Glasserton.' There are con- 
siderable ruins on a large crannog here, whence the name 
Lochtoun. 

RAWER HILL. 'Leswalt.' Perhaps the last syllable of STRAN- 
RAER, which is not far off, is connected with this name. 
Cf. CLACHRAWER and RINGREER. 



276 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

EEDBANK. ' Troqueer.' 

EEDBRAE. ' Wigtown/ etc. Cf. BARJARG, BARYERROCK, and 
DRUMJ ARGON. 

RED BURN, THE. ' Old Luce.' Cf. POLJARGEN. 

REDCASTLE (P. Ridcastell). ' Urr.' 

RED CLEUGH (near POLJARGEN, q. v.}. ' Carsphairn.' 

REDFIELD. ' Twynholm.' 

RED GLEN. ' Minigaff.' Cf. GLENJORIE. 

RED NICK. ' Twynholm.' Cf. BALLOCHJARGON. 

REGLAND (P. Ruyglann). ' Dairy.' 

REIFER PARK. ' Sorbie.' 

REPHAD. ' Inch.' R6idh [ray] facia, long plain or field. " Re", a 
field" (O'Don. Suppl.}, from r&dh, smooth. Cf. Reafadda in 
Ireland. Joyce assigns the meaning of " mountain-flat," but 
there seems to be no reason for its general limitation to hilly 
places. 

RERWICK (a parish in the Stewartry) (Barnbairoch, 1562, Rerryk , 
Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Rerik). 

RHINNS, THE (the western division of Wigtownshire). Rinn, a 
point, promontory, or headland, E. plur. added. Reference 
is made in the name to the promontories of Mull of Galloway, 
Corsewall Point, etc., which, with the long necks connecting 
them, form this part of the shire. " O'Brien says in his Dic- 
tionary : ' It would take up more than a whole sheet to 
mention all the neck-lands of Ireland whose names begin with 
this word Rinn.' It is found pretty extensively in the forms 
Rin, Rinn, Reen, Rine, and Ring, and these constitute or 
begin about 1 70 townlands." Joyce, i. 40. o. ERSE rind, rinn, 
GAEL, roinn, a point, a peninsula ; a share or division, 
especially of land. The term Run-rig, a primitive mode of 
agrarian tenure, still surviving in the Highlands and Islands, 
is a corruption of roinn-ruith, or division running. Ruith 
[righ], a running, a course, has taken the form of the 
Teutonic rig, a ridge, and, by a singular accident, roinn, a 
division, has assumed the form of run, the English translation 
of ruith (Report of Crofters' Commission 1884, Appendix A., 
p. 451). 



THE TOPO GRAPH Y OF GALL OWAY. 277 

RHONE HILL AND PARK (P. Ron). ' Crossmichael.' " Roan, A 
congeries of brushwood, Dumfries." Jamieson. 

RHONEHOUSE (a village). ' Kelton.' 

RHONG, THE (a long embankment running out from the Moat of 
Ballochadee). ' Kirkcowan.' Rinn or roinn, a point. 

RHYNCHEWAIG. ' Kirkcolm.' The name given by Pont to the 
Scaur, a long point of land running into Loch Ryan. 

RiCHORN (Inq. ad Cap. 1623, Rithorne; P. Richernn ; MS. 1527, 
Raeheren). 'Urr.' A.s. redd am, red house. Of. WHITH- 

ORN. 

RIBBING'S HILL. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

RIBER'S KNOWE ANB RIG. ' Carsphairn.' 

RIGG BAY. ' Sorbie.' 

RIGGINS HILL. ' Twynholm.' "Rigging, riggin. 1. The back. 
2. The ridge of a house. 3. A small ridge or rising in 
ground." Jamieson. Deriv. of rig A.S. hric, the back. 

RIGMAY. ' Kirkcowan.' 

RIG OF DIVOTS. ' Kells.' Ridge of the sods. See under DIVOT 
HILL. 

RIG or MOAK. ' Carsphairn.' 

RIG or THE JARKNESS. Minigaff.' 

RIG OF WELLEES. 'Kells.' Ridge of the boggy springs. " Well-ey, 
wallee ; that part of a quagmire in which there is a spring." 
Jamieson. The eye of the well. 

RING (P. Ring). ' Kirkcowan ' (twice), ' New Luce,' ' Stoneykirk.' 
Rinn, roinn, a point or division of land. See under RHINNS. 

RiNGAN. ' Sorbie.' Rinndn, small point or division. Cf. Rinneen 
in Galway, Clare, and Kerry. 

RINGANWHEY. ' Crossmichael.' Rinn an chaeidhe [hay], point of 
the quagmire. See under CULKAE. 

RINGBAIN. ' Balmaclellan.' Rinn bdn, white point. Cf. Ringbane 
and Ringbaun in Ireland. 

RING BURN. ' Rerwick.' 

RlNGBOO. ' Old Luce.' Rinn dubh [doo], black point. A point 
in the sandhills at the head of Luce Bay, where sea-ware 
collects and makes it darker than the rest. The name also 
occurs in Mochrum parish. 



278 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

EiNGDdo POINT. ' Anwoth.' See under EINGDOO. 

KINGFERSON (a point in Loch Ken). ' Kells.' Einn farsaing, 
wide point. 

ElNGHEEL. 'Mochrum,' ' Penninghame.' Einn chad [heel], 
narrow point or division. See under CARSKEEL. 

EINGHILL. ' Mochrum.' 

EINGIELAWN. 'Mochrum.' Einn na leamhdn [1] [lavan, lawn], 
point of the elms. Also called the Soldier's Holm, at the 
head of Loch Trool, where it is said that Lord Essex's men, 
slaughtered in combat by Eobert the Brace's forces, were 
buried. 

EiNGlEM6w. ' Kirkmabreck.' Einn na mbo [moe], point of the 
cows. 

EINGKILNS. ' Stoneykirk.' 

EINGLEES. ' Inch.' Einn liath [lee], grey point. 

EINGOUR. ' Kells.' Einn odhar [owr], grey point, or rinn gobliar 
[gower], point of the goats. 

EINGQUHILL [pron. -hwill]. ' Kirkcowan.' Einn chuill [hwill], point 
of the hazel. 

EINGREEL. ' Kirkcowan.' Einn rail [?], point of the oaks. Edil, 
rdl, an oak-tree. O'Eeilly ; Joyce, i. 505. 

EINGREER. ' Mochrum.' Einn reamhar [rawer], thick, broad 
point, the antithesis of ElNGHEEL. Of. Eeenrour, a common 
name in Cork and Kerry. " Eeamhar, or in old Irish 
remor, is a word which is very extensively employed in the 
formation of names. It means literally gross or fat; and 
locally it is applied to objects gross or thick in shape, 
principally hills and rocks. It is pronounced differently in 
different parts of the country. In the south they sound 
it rour. ... As we go north the pronunciation changes ; 
sometimes it becomes rawer, as in Dunbunrawer in Tyrone, 
the fort of the thick bun or hill-base. Elsewhere in the 
north, as well as in the west, we find the mh represented 
by v." Joyce, ii. 419. GAEL, ramhar [raver]. 

EINGREOCH (a point in Loch Dungeon). ' Kells.' Einn riabhach 
[reeagh], grey point. Of. Eingreagh in Down. 

EINGSALLOCH (an islet in the Dee). 'Minigaff.' Einn saileach, 
point of the willows. See under BARNS ALLIE. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 279 

KINGS, THE. ' Moclirum.' See under RHINNS. 

RINGUINEA (P. Ringeny). ' Stoiieykirk.' Rinn Cinaeidk [kinny], 
Kenneth's point or portion of land. 

RINGVINACHAN. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

RINGWHERRY. ' Mochrum.' Rinn fhoithre [hwirrie], point or 
division of the copse. See under WHERRY CROFT. 

RISK. 'Minigaff.' Riasc [reesk], a morass (Cormac Tr., p. 147). 
" There are twenty-two townlands scattered through the four 
provinces (of Ireland) called Riesk. Reisk, Risk and Reask." 
Joyce, i. 463. Cf. Rusco. Riasc, marsh, rushy ground; 
perhaps conn, with A.S. risce, resce, a rush (whence M.E. 
nt'Sche, rische, resche, E. rush) + LOW G. rusk, risch, DU. and 
G. rusch, rush, reed; perhaps -f- LAT. ruscus, butcher's broom. 
The word exists in BR, SO. " Riskish Ian,' land of a wet and 
boggy nature." M'Taggart. " Reesk, ... A marshy place, 
Angus." Jamieson. 

RISPAIN (P.Rispin ; Whithorn Priory Rental, circ. 1550, Respein). 
' Whithorn.' The site of the only Roman camp known in 
Wigtownshire. It is also called Ross's BRAE. 

ROAN. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under RHONE. 
ROAN HILL. 'Balmaclellan.' See under RHONE. 

ROARING CLEUGH. ' Carsphairn.' Named from the sound of the 
stream in the " cleugh " or ravine. 

ROCK M'GiBBON. ' Inch.' 

ROLLAND HILL. ' Penninghame.' 

ROSSEN HILL. ' Twynholm.' Rosdn, dimin. of ros, a wood. Cf. 
Rossan and Roshin in Ireland. See under Ross. 

Ross HILL. ' Kells.' Ros, a wood. See under Ross. 

Ross, THE (P. Ross Yl.). ' Borgue, s.c.' " Ros, a wood, a pro- 
montory. " O'Don. Suppl. In this case it means a promon- 
tory, and in others the meaning must be decided according to 
the nature of the locality. 

ROTCHELL. ' Troqueer.' 

R6UCHAN [pron. Rooghan] (P. Rouchan ; W. P. MSS. Rochane ; 
Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Rowchan). ' Glasserton.' Ruadhdn [roohan], 
ruddiness, reddish land. Cf. Rouhan and Rooghaun in several 
parts of Ireland. 

ROUGH GIBB [g hard]. 'Kirkcowan,' 'Wigtown.' See under 
GIBB. 



280 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

ROUGH ISLAND (in Loch Urr). ' Urr.' Cf. GARVELLAN. 
ROUGH ISLE. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Minigaff.' Cf. GARVELLAN. 
ROUGHTREE. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

ROUTING BRIDGE. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Roaring bridge, from 
the noise of the water. " Rout, rowt. 1. To bellow. 2. 
To make a loud noise. 3. To snore." Jamieson. 

Row OF DOURIE (a point of shingle on the coast). * Mochrum.' 
GAEL. " Rudha or rubha [rooa], a point of laud in the sea, a 
promontory." Macalpine. Cf. CRAIGROW. " Rubha, signi- 
fying a point of land, is much more frequent in Scottish than 
in Irish topography." Reeves's Adamnan, p. 430, note. 

ROYS (a shoulder of Cairnsgarroch). ' Carsphairn.' 

ROYSTON. ' Twynholm.' 

RUDDOUH HILL. ' Leswalt.' Cf. Moss RODDOCH. 
RUE, KNOWES OF THE. ' Kirkcowan.' See under Row. 

RUMMLEKIRN. ' Borgue, s.c.' Rumbling churn. " Rummlekirns, 
gullets on wild rocky shores, scooped out by the hand of 
nature ; when the tide flows into them in a storm they make 
an awful rumbling noise ; in them are the surges churned." 
Mactaggart. 

RUMPLES HILL. 'Partou.' A corruption, probably, of Dalrymple's 
Hill; Dalrymple being usually pronounced in the district 
D'rumple. 

Rusco (P. Rusko). ' Girthon.' Riascach, boggy, marshy. Deriv. of 
riasc. See under RISK. Cf. Ruscoe in Yorkshire \_pron. Roosca]. 

RUSHY HILL. ' Twynholm.' Cf. KNOCKGILSIE. 

RUSHY PARK. 'Minigaff.' Cf. AUCHENGILSHIE. 

R YD ALE. ' Troqueer.' 

RYES. 'Colvend.' 

ST. COLUMB'S WELL. ' Kirkcolm.' Probably the original 
cross well, now CORSEWALL. 

ST. GLASSEN'S WELL. ' Rerwick.' Of St. Glascianus nothing is 
known, save that he is commemorated as confessor and bishop. 
Kinglassie or Kinglassin parish, near Kirkcaldy, where there 
is a St. Glass's Well, and Kilmaglas in Argyllshire, are dedi- 
cations to the same saint. 

ST. JARDAN'S or ST. QUERDON'S WELL. ' Troqueer.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 281 

ST. MARY'S WELL (close to KILMORIE, q.v.). ' Kirkcolm.' 

ST. MEDAN'S Co (P. Maidin's Coave). ' Kirkinaiden.' See under 

KlRKMAIDEN. 

ST. NINIAN'S CAVE. ' Glasserton, s. c.' The occasional retreat of 
St. Ninian in the early part of fifth century. For a descrip- 
tion of the very interesting remains discovered here in 
1884, see Coll. A. G. A. A., vol. v. 

ST. NINIAN'S WELL. 

ST. PATRICK'S WELL. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' See under KIL- 
. PATRICK. 

ST. RINGAN'S WELL. ' Kelton.' Another form of St. Ninian's 
name. 

SALQUHARIE [pron. Sawlhrie] (P. Salachari). ' Kirkcolm.' 

SALTER'S Moss. 'Berwick.' 

SAMARIA. ' Mochrum.' 
SANDFORD. ' New Abbey.' Sandy road or ford. 

SANDHEAD. ' Stoneykirk.' Head or end of the sandhills. Cf. 
GENOCH (at the other end). See under GANNOCH. 

SANDHILL. ' Stoneykirk.' A mill among the sandhills. 
SANDYMORE CAIRN. ' Minigaff.' 

SANNOCH. ' Kells.' 

SAUCH GUTTER. ' Carsphairn.' Marsh of the willows. BR. sc. 
sauch, a willow A.S. salh, salig, a willow. " Gutter, a mire." 
Jamieson. M.E. gotere o. F. gutiere, goutiere, a gutter o. F. 
gote, goute (F. goutte), a drop LAT. gutta, a drop. 

SAULSEAT (P. Sauls Seatt). ' Inch.' Eccles. gloss, sedes animarum, 
seat of souls, but of doubtful origin. Cf. A.s. " sawl-sceat, soul 
shot, money paid at death for the good of the deceased's 
soul " (Bosworth}. " ^Erest him to saul sceate he becwsefc 
into Xres crycan pset land," i.e. " first, for the redemption of 
his soul, he bequeaths to Christ's Church that land." 
Alfrics Testament. 

SCAB CR AIGS. Minigaff. ' 

SCABBY'S LOUP. ' Leswalt, s.c.' 

SCALLOCH (a hill of 800 feet). ' Carsphairn.' Sceilig [skellig], a 
rock. See under BALSCALLOCH. 



282 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

SCAR. 'Kirkpatrick Irongray.' A rock or cliff. M.E. scarre, 
skerry ICEL. sker + DAN. skicer, SWED. sMr + ERSE sceir 
V SKAR > to cut, to shear, whence A.S. sceran, pt. t. sccer + 
DU. scJieren + ICEL. skera + DAN. s#re + G. sclieren + GK. 
icelpeiv (for (rrceipeiv) + LAT. curtus, E. short. Allied words 
in E. are sca?*0, scar/", scarify, scrip, scrap, scrape, share, slwer, 
sherd, shred, sharp, shore, short, score (Skeat). Cf. Scar in many 
parts of Ireland. 

SCAR HILL. ' Anwoth,' ' Berwick.' 

SCAUR, THE. ' Colvend,' ' Kirkcolm.' See under SCAR and KHYN- 

CHEWAIG. 

SCAURS, THE (two isolated rocks in Luce Bay). See under SCAR. 

SCRABBA or SCRABBIE. ' Glasserton,' ' Mochrum.' Scrath [scrah] 
bo, cow's turf, cow's grass. Cf. Scrabo in Ireland. 

SCRANGIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

SCRANNAGH. ' Old Luce.' Probably another form of STRONACH, 
q.v. 

SCREEL, HILL AND GLEN OF (P. Hill of Skyill). ' Kelton.' 

SCREEN, THE. ' Whithorn.' A reef of rocks protecting the Isle 
Harbour. 

SCROGGIE HALL. ' Balmaclellan.' " Scrog, a stunted bush, 
scroggie, abounding with stunted bushes." Jamieson. M.E. 
scraggy, covered with underwood, or straggling bushes (Skeat), 
E. scraggy, lean, rough SWED. dial, skraka, a great dry tree, 
also metaphorically, a long, lean man, skrokk, anything 
wrinkled or deformed + NOKWEG. skrokken, p. p. of skrekken, to 
shrink, allied to E. shrink, scrub, shrub. Cf. Scroggs, a valley 
in the chalk near Basingstoke. 

SCROGGIE HILL. ' Buittle.' Scrub-covered hill. See under 
SCROGGIE HALL. 

SCUTCHING STOCK. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' The frame, post, or any- 
thing fixed or " stuck " for scutching flax. Scutch, to dress 
flax = scotch + NORW. skoka, skuku, a swingle for beating flax 
+ SWED. skdcka, skdkta, to beat flax (Skeat). 

SEAT HILL. ' Inch.' Cf. KNOCKENSEE. 

SEESIDE (not near the sea). ' Terregles.' SuidJie [see], a seat or 
residence. Cf. Seagoe in Armagh (suidhe gobha), Seapatrick 
in Down (suidhe Padndc), Seadavog in Cavan, etc. See under 
KNOCKENSEE. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 283 

SEG HILL. ' Balmaclellan.' Hill of the flags. " Seg, the yellow 
flower-de-luce." Jamieson. A.s. secg, E. sedge. See under 
DERNACISSOCK. 

SEGGY NEUK. ' Anwoth.' Flaggy corner. 

SENWICK (formerly a parish) (P. Sannick; Charter of David II., 
Sanaigh; MS. 1527, Sanak). 'Kirkcudbright.' The sandy 
bay, or the village on the sand. A.s. " sand-ivic, sond-wic, 
Sandwich in Kent." Bosworth. 

SEVERAL. ' Inch,' ' Kirkmaiden,' etc. Separate land. " Severale, 
applied to landed property as possessed distinctly from that 
of others, or contrasted with a common." Jamieson. O.F. 
several LAT. separalis LAT. se, apart, parare, to provide. 

SHADDOCK (P. Schedack ; Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Shedzok ; W. P. MSS. 
Sedzok). ' Whithorn.' Cf. Sheddach in Arran. 

SHAKEABODIE EOCK. ' Penninghame.' 

SHALLOCH (P. Shelach). ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Sealg []] 
[shallug], the chase or hunting ground. See under DRUM- 
SHALLOCH. Perhaps, however, only a softened form of 
CHALLOCH, q.v. 

SHALLOCH RIG, ' Carsphairn.' See under SHALLOCH and DRUM- 
SHALLOCH. 

SHAMBELLIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1601, Schambellie ; P. Schanbilby (a 
misprint}). 'New Abbey.' Sean [shan] baillie, old building. 
Perhaps here in antithesis to NEW ABBEY and NEW HOUSE of 
LOCH ARTHUR, both of which are in this parish. Cf. SHIN- 
VALLEY and SHAN VOLLEY, showing the aspirated form bhaile 
[valley] ; also, in Little Cumbrae, Shanavallej', the name of 
some cairns, and, in Ireland, Shanvalley, Shanavalley, and 
Shanballie. o. ERSE sen, ERSE and GAEL, sean -f- w. hen + 
LAT. sen-ex + o. GK. evo?, old + GOTH, siti-eigs, old + SKT. 
sana, old. See under BAILLIE. 

SHANKFOOT. ' Balmaclellan,' ' Kirkgunzeon.' 

SHANRIGGIE. ' Inch.' 

SHANVOLLEY. ' Kirkcowan.' See under SHAMBELLIE. 

SHAW BRAE. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' The wood hill. " Scliaw. 
1. A wood, a grove. 2. Shade, covert." Jamieson. A.s. scaga, 
M.E. schawe, shawe -f ICEL. skdgr, a wood + SWED. skog, DAN. skov. 
Probably akin to ICEL. skuggi, A.s. scua, a shade ^ SKU, to 
cover, as in SKT. sku to cover, from which root are E. sky, scum, 



284 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

hide, shower, obscure (Skeaf). There is a secondary meaning of 
" Shaw, a piece of ground which becomes suddenly flat at the 
bottom of a hill or steep bank. Thus Birken-shaw, a piece of 
ground of the description given, covered with short, scraggy 
birches " (Jamieson). It is the same word, the meaning being 
transferred from the wood to the ground on which it grows. 

SHAW FELL. ' Parton.' 

SHAW HILL. ' Balmaclellan/ 'Dairy/ 'Girthon/ 'Mochrum/ 
'Rerwick.' 

SHAW KNOWES. ' Balmaclellan.' 

SHAWN HILL. ' Stoneykirk.' 

SHAW WOOD. ' Col vend.' 

SHEALING HILL. ' Terregles.' The winnowing hill. " Sheelin- 
hill, the eminence near a mill where the kernels of the grain 
were separated by the wind from the husks." Jamieson. 
" By every corn-mill, a knoll-top, on which the kernels were 
winnowed from the husks, was designated the sheeling-hill" 
Agricultural Survey of PeeUesshire. It is impossible in many 
cases to distinguish between shieling, a hut, and shealing, partic. 
of to sheal, to take the husks off seeds. See under SHEIL. 
To sheal, E. to shell A.S. scell, scyll, sceale + DAN. and SWED. 
skal + GOTH, skalja, a tile - Teut. base SKALA A/SKAL (for 
SKAK), to separate. From this root also come the closely 
allied words scale, sMf, skill, etc. (Skeaf). 

SHEANS [pron. Shanes]. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

SHEEPHANK. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' A place where sheep may get 
" hanked " or caught on a steep place. 

SHEFFIELD HOLE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

SHEIL (P. Sheel). ' Dairy.' A hut. " Sheal, schele, she'd, sheald, 
shield, shielling, sheelin, a hut for those who have the care of 
sheep or cattle. A shed for sheltering sheep during the 
night." Jamieson. ICEL. skjdl, shelter, skyli, a shed + DAN. 
skjul, shelter + SWED. sJcj-ul, a shed ^SKU, to cover. See 
under SHAW BRAE. Although so similar in meaning and so 
like in some of the forms assumed, sheal, a hut, is quite dis- 
tinct in origin from shield and shelter. 

SHEILA LINN. ' Dairy.' = Sheal law, the hill of the shieling or 
hut ; the pool of the hut hill. 

SHEIL BANK. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' See under SHEIL. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 285 

SHEIL BURN. ' Minigaff.' See under SHEIL. 

SHEILHEAD. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' The glen-head or hill-head 
of the shieling. 

SHEIL HILL. ' Balmaclellan,' ' Colvend ' (twice), ' Kirkmabreck,' 
etc. See under SHEIL. 

SHEIL HOLM. ' Carsphairn,' ' Minigaff.' See under SHEIL. 

SHEIL KNEES. ' Carsphairn.' See under SHEIL. 

SHEILLEYS. ' Kirkgunzeon.' The " leys " or fields of the shieling. 

SHEIL EIG. ' Girthon.' See under SHEIL. 

SHEILS. ' Colvend.' See under SHEIL. 

SHEILY HILL. ' Buittle.' See under SHEILA LINN. 

SHELL HILL. ' Kirkinner,' ' Stoneykirk.' See under SHEIL HILL. 

SHELL HOUSE, THE. ' New Luce.' The hut house (a pleonasm). 

SHENNAN CREEK (the estuary of a small stream). ' Colvend.' 

SHENNANTON (P. Schinintoun). 'Kirkcowan.' 

SHENRICK. ' Urr.' 

SHEUCHAN. 'Leswalt.' Suidheachdn [1] [seehan], a little seat. 
Dimin. of suidhe. Of. Seeghane in Dublin County, Seehanes 
in Cork, Seeaghandoo and Seeaghanbane in Mayo. 

SHEUCHAN CRAIG. ' Minigaff.' See under SHEUCHAN. 

SHEUCHAN6WER. ' Minigaff.' Suidheachdn odhar [seehan ower], 
grey seat. See under BENOUR. 

SHEUCHAN'S CAIRN. ' Minigaff.' See under SHEUCHAN. 

SHEUGH OF LAMMASHIEL. 'Minigaff.' " Sheuch ; a furrow, a 
trench." Jamieson. Applied metaphorically to a cleft in 
hills or precipitous glens. 

SHIELD HILL and RIG (P. Scheelhill). ' Kells.' See under SHEIL 
HILL. 

SHIELD WILLIE HILL. ' Dairy.' 

SHIGGERLAND. ' Minigaff.' 

SHILLA HILL. ' Kelton.' See under SHEILA LINN. 

SHINMOUNT (a hill of 1247 feet). ' Kells.' "Shin of a hill, the 
prominent or ridgy part of the declivity with a hollow on 
each side." Jamieson. One of the many metaphorical names 



286 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

taken from the human frame and applied to features of land. 
E. shin is from the root SKA, to cut, the primary meaning 
being " a slice, a form with a sharp edge." 

SHINNIE BRAE. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' The fox hill. A hybrid 
word ERSE sionach (shinnagh), a fox, and BR. sc. brae. See 
under AUCHENSHINNOCH and BRAE. 

SHINN6CK (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Shanknock). 'Kirkcowan.' Sean 
[shan] cnoc, old hill. " It appears difficult to account for the 
application of this word sean [shan], old, to certain natural 
features ; so far as history or tradition goes, one mountain, 
river, or valley cannot be older than another. Yet we have 
Shannow, Shanow, and Shanowen (old river), all common 
river names, especially in the South ; there are many places 
called Shandrum (old ridge), and Shanaknock (old hill), the 
former sometimes made Shandrim, and the latter Shancrock, 
Shantulla, and Shantullig, old tulach or hill." Joyce, ii. 481. 
See under SHAMBELLIE. 

SHINREOCH. ' Mochrum.' 

SHINVALLEY. ' Penninghame.' See under SHAMBELLIE. 

SHIP SLOUCH [pron. sloogh]. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' The gulley of 
the ship. See under SLOCK. 

SHOULDER o' CRAIG. ' Troqueer.' 

SHUTTLEFIELP. ' New Abbey.' 

SILVER CRAIG. ' MinigafF.' Of. CRAIGNARGET. 
SILVER EIG. ' Minigaff.' Cf. CRAIGNARGET. 

SINNINESS (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Hydder (hither) Synnons ; P. 
Sunoniss, Sunoness). ' Old Luce.' Southern point. ICEL. 
sunnan nos, southern nose, ness, or point. ICEL. su%r, sunnr, 
south; adv. sunnan, from the south, southerly + DAN. syd, 
south, sonden, southern + SWED. syd, south, sunnan, the south 
+ o.H.G. sundaiiy G. stiden, south + A.s. su% (whence E. sovtli). 
All from Teutonic base SUNTHA SUN, base of Teutonic 
type SUNNA, the sun ; " the suffix -tha = Aryan ta, so that 
the literal sense is the sunned quarter." Skeat. See under 

SOUTHERNESS. 

SKAITH (P. Skeyith). ' Penninghame.' Sceach, the hawthorn, 
the place of hawthorns. Sceach was originally an adjectival 
form from o. ERSE see' [skay]. See under AUCHENSKEOCH. 
Cf. Skagh, Skea, and Skeagh, in Ireland. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 287 

SKATE (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Skeych; P. Skeych). ' Mochrum.' 
See under SKAITH. 

SKATE HILL. ' Kirkinner.' See under SKAITH. 

SKEENGALLIE. ' Kirkinner.' 

SKELLARIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1650, Skellerbie; P. Skellary). 'Kirk- 
inner.' 

SKE6CH. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' See under SKEOG. 

SKEOG [pron. skeoge] (P. Skioch ; W. P. MSS. Skeoche). ' Whith- 
orn.' Sceitheug [skeoge], a hawthorn bush (O'Reilly) ; dim. 
of see". Cf. Skeoge in Donegal, Fermanagh, and Tyrone. 

SKIGLAE. ' Inch.' 

SKIGNIEBAROCHIE. ' Old Luce.' 

SKINNEL BURN. ' Kirkcudbright.' 

SKINNINGHLDE. ' Kirkinner.' 

SKYRE BURN (P. Skyir b.). ' Kirkmabreck.' Burn of the cliff. 
- ICEL. sker. See under SCAR. 

SLACARNACHAN. 'New Luce.' Slialh [slew] CearnacJiain, Car- 
nachan's moorland, o. ERSE sliab, mons, ERSE and GAEL. 
sliabh, generally appears in Irish names as the prefix Slieve, 
although in the names Sleamaine in Wicklow, Slemish in 
Antrim, it is softened into the vowel termination usual in Gallo- 
way, where its use is almost confined to certain parishes chiefly 
in the west of Wigtownshire. Thus it occurs upwards of thirty- 
four times in the parishes of Port Patrick, Kirkcolm, Leswalt, 
Stoneykirk, New Luce> and Kirkmaiden. " The word yli<OJ, 
sliabh, so commonly applied in Ireland to a single mountain, 
is rarely found in Scotland in that sense ; there it is essen- 
tially a heathery tract, and the idea of elevation is more an 
accident than a property. Thus in an ancient Scotch charter 
Schuemingorne (sliabh nan gabhran) is interpreted Mora cap- 
rarum (Collect, of Aberdeen, vol. i. p. 172); and Slamannan 
(sliabh Mannain), in Stirling, is a moor. O'Brien explains 
the word : ' any heathland, whether mountain or plain ;' and 
in his Preface observes : ' the word sliabh is made synony- 
mous to main or main, a mountain, though it rather means a 
heathy ground, whether it be low or flat, or in the shape of a 
hill.'" fieeves's Adamnan, p. 425, note. See under FAULD- 

CARXACHAX. 



288 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

SLAEHARBRIE HILL. 'Kelton.' Sliabh Chairbre [harbrie], the 
moorland of Cairbre. Cf. Slieve Carbury in Longford. See 
under DUNHARBERRY. 

SLAGNAW (P. Slogna). ' Kelton.' 

SLAM6NIA. ' Inch.' Sliabh, a moorland. See under SLACAR- 

NACHAN. 

SLANNAX. * Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

SLANNIEVENNACH. ' Minigaff.' Sliabh na bhfcannog []] [slew na 
vannog], moorland of the carrion crows. Cf. Mullanavannog 
in Monaghan. 

SLATEHEUGH. ' Glasserton.' 

SLEEKIT KNOWES. 'Minigaff.' Smooth hillocks. " Sleekit, 
smooth." Jamieson. Past part, of M.E. to slecke, to make 
smooth; ICEL. slikr, smooth, sleek, from the base SLI 
Aryan V SAR, to flow, to glide (whence DU. slijk, grease, mud, 
o. DU. sleyck, plain, even, LOW G. slikk, G. schlick, grease, slime, 
LOW G. sliken, G. schleichen, O.H.G. sUhhan, to slink, crawl). 
" Slik, slike; slime." Jamieson. The original sense of sleek is 
" greasy," like soft mud (Skeat). 

SLEWCAIRN. ' Colvend.' Sliabh [slew] cairn, moorland of the 
cairn. Cf. Slieve Carna in Ireland. See under AUCHEN- 
CAIRN. 

SLEWCART. ' Kirkcolm.' Sliabh cearda [1] [sleAv carda], moorland 
of the forge or workshop. 

SLEWCREEN. ' Kirkmaiden.' Sliabh crion [slew creen], withered 
moorland. Cf. Creenkill (crion coill) in Kilkenny, and Cree- 
nagh and Greeny, written Crionach by the Four Masters (1086), 
land where the vegetation is withering, o. ERSE crin, whence, 
probably BR. SO., " To crine, cryne ; to shrivel." Jamieson. 

SLEWCR6AN. 'Leswalt.' Sliabh [slew] cr6n, brown moorland. 
.See under CRAIGCROON. 

SLEWD6NAN. 'Kirkmaiden.' Sliabh [slew] Donnain, Donnan's 
moorland. Donndn, a brown man, deriv. of don, brown, 
remains as a surname in the district. 

SLEWD6WN. ' Kirkcolm,' ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Stoneykirk.' Sliabh don, 
brown moorland. 

SLEWENi6o. ' Leswalt.' Sliabhdn tuath []] [slewan too], north 
moor. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 289 

SLEWFAD. ' Leswalt.' Sliabh fada, long moorland. 
SLEWGALIE. ' Kirkmaiden.' Of. AUCHENGALIE. 

SLEWHABBLE. ' Kirkinaiden.' Sliabh chajml, moorland of the 

horses. See under BARHAPPLE. 
SLEWHENRY. ' Leswalt.' Sliabh fhainre [slew hainry], sloping 

moorland. See tinder KNOCKHENRY. 

SLEWHIGH. ' Leswalt.' Sliabh ailhe [?] [slew aye], moor of the 

kiln. See under AUCHENHAY. 
SLEWKENNAN. ' Kirkcolm.' 

SLEWLAX. ' Stoneykirk.' Sliabh leathan [slew lahan], broad 
moorland. Cf. Ardlahan in Limerick. See under AUCHLANE. 

SLEWLEA. ' Kirkmaiden.' Sliabh Hath [slew lea], grey moorland. 
SLEWMAG. ' Kirkmaiden.' Sliabh mbeag [meg], little moorland. 
SLEWMALLIE. ' Kirkmaiden. ' 

SLEWMEEN. ' Leswalt.' Sliabh meadhon [slew mehn], middle 
moorland; cf. Sleamain in Wicklow. Or perhaps sliabh min 
[meen], smooth moor. 

SLEWMUCK. ' Kirkcolm/ Sliabh muc, moorland of the swine. Cf 
Slievenamnck and Slievemuck in Ireland. 

SLEWNAGLE. ' Leswalt.' 

SliKWNAIN. ' Leswalt.' Sliabh n-e'n, moorland of the birds. See 
under BARNEAN. 

SLEWNARK. 'Port Patrick.' Sliabh n-arc [slewnark], moorland 
of the pigs, or other large beasts. Arc, another form of ore. 
See under CKAIGGORK. Cf. Drumark and Derryork in Derry, 
Cloonark in Mayo and Roscommon, and Gortnanark in Gal- 
way. 

SLEWNASSIE. ' Port Patrick.' Sliabh an easa [slewanassy], moor- 
land of the waterfall. See under Ass OF THE GILL. 

SLEWSCINNIE. ' Leswalt.' 

SLEWSMIRROCH. ' Stoneykirk.' Sliabh smeurach, moorland of the 
brambles or blackberries ; adjective from smew. See under 
SMIRLE. 

SLEWTAMMOCK. ' Leswalt.' Sliabh tomach, bushy moorland. 

SLEWT6RRAN. ' Kirkmaiden.' Sliabh torain [slew toran], moor- 
land of the little tower or little hill, dim. of tor. 

SLEWTRAIN. ' Leswalt.' Sliabh traona [1] [slew trana], moor of 
the corncrakes. Cf. Cloonatreane in Fermanagh. See under 
CLONE. 

T 



290 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

SLEWWHAN. ' Kirkmaiden.' Sliabh bhan [van], white moorland. 

SLICKC6NERIE. ' New Luce.' Sliabh Conaire [slew conary], Con- 
ary's moorland. Conaire is one of the earliest names in Irish 
history. 

SLIDDER FORD. ' Minigaff.' Slippery ford. " Slidder, s. slipperi- 
ness." Jamieson. A.s. slidor, slippery. Originally from 
the base SLI - Aryan A/ SAR. See under SLEEKIT KNOWES. 

SLIDDERICK. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' " Sliddery, slippery." Jamieson. 
See under SLEEKIT KNOWES. 

SLIGGERIE KNOWE. ' Leswalt.' Slippery hillock ; = slippery. 
See under SLEEKIT KNOWES. 

SLOCHABBERT (P. Sleuhybbert). ' Kirkinner.' Sliabh [slew], a 
moorland. There is mentioned " the towne and lands of the 
Habart " among those recorded in the Registry of Clonmac- 
noise as having been granted by Cairbre Crom to St. Kieran. 

SLOCHANAWN. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' Slocdn abhann [1] [a van, awn], 
gulley of the stream. 

SLOCHANGLASS. ' Whithorn, s.c.' Slocdn glas, green gulley. 

SLOCHNAG6UR. ' Kirkinaiden, s.c.' Sloe na gobhar [gowr], gulley 
of the goats. 

SLOCK. ' Kirkmaiden.' Sloe, a hole or gulley. " Sloe, slochd, a pit, 
hollow, hole, cavity, pitfall, mine." O'Reilly. The farm 
takes its name from a gulley on the coast. - ERSE slug, 
GAEL, sluig, to swallow + w. llawg, a gulp + SWED. sluJca + 
LOW G. sluken, to swallow, G. scMuken, to swallow, hiccough + 
GK. \veiv (for \vy-yeiv), to hiccough. The A.S. sldk (whence 
M.E. slogh, E. slough. BR. so. slouch] is borrowed from CELTIC; 
sloe (Skeat). 

SLOCKGARROCH. ' Port Patrick.' Sloe g-carrach, rough gulley. 

SLOCKNAM6RROW. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Sloe no, mara [1], gulley of the 
sea. Cf. SLOUCHANAMARS ; also Slog-na-mara, a whirlpool 
between Eathlin Island and Antrim, i.e. the swallow or gullet 
of the sea. Muir, the sea, gen. mam + W. myr, c. mor + 
ICEL. marr + DU. meer + A.s. mere, a mere, lake + G. meer, 
O.H.G. man, the sea + GOTH, marei + RUSS. mori + LITH. mares 
+ LAT. mare. The original sense is "that which is dead," 
hence a desert, waste, either of land (moor) or water ; cf. SKT. 
maru, a desert, from mri, to die (Skeat). 

SLOGANABAA. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Slocdn na bo [baw], gulley of 
the cows. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 291 

SLOGANAGLASSIN. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Slocdn na glasin [?], giilley 
of the streamlets ; or perhaps glasain, of the sea- weed. See 
under CARRICKGLASSIN. 

SLOGARIE (P. Sleugarie ; Charter 1611, Sleugarie). ' Balmaghie.' 
Sliabh g-caora []] [slewgarie], moorland of the sheep ; or sliabh 
caithre [carey], moor of the fort; gen. of cathair or caithre 
[carey], of tlie standing stones. See under CASSENCARIE, in 
Addenda. 

SLONGABER. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Sron c/abar, hill (snout) of 
the goats or horses. See under STROAN. 

SLOUCHAD6LLOES. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' 

SLOUCHALKIN. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

SLOUCHANAMARS. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Slochdn na mara, gulley 
of the sea. Cf. SLOCKNAMORROW. 

SLOUCHANAWN. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' See under SLOCHANAWN. 
SLOUCH ARANGIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

SLOUCHATALIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

SLOUCHAVADDIE. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Slochd a' bhada [vadda], 
gulley of the boat. See under PORTAVADDIE. 

SLOUCHEEN SLUNK. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Slochin, a little gulley, 
dimin. of slochd. Slunk is locally used on the sea-coast in 
the same sense as sloe, a gulley, but its original inland mean- 
ing, as Jamieson says, is a slough, a quagmire. It is from the 
same root as sloe, E. slough. See under SLOCK. 

SLOTJCHGARIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Sloch gcaora [garie], gulley of 
the sheep, or slochd caithre [carey], gulley of the fort. See 
under CASSENCARY, in Addenda. Cf, SLOUCHNAGARIE. 

SLOUCHLAURIE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

SLOUCHLAW. 'Kirkcolm, s.c.' 

SLOUCHNABAGS. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

SLOUCHNAGARY. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' See under SLOUCHGARIE. 
SLOUCHNAGLASSEN. ' Leswalt, s.c.' See under SLOGANAGLASSIN. 

SLOUCHNAM6RROCH. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' See under SLOCKNA- 

MORROW. 

SLOUCHNAWEN. ' Leswalt.' See under SLOCHANAWN. 
SLOUCHSPIRN. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' 

SLUGNAGLASS. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Sloe na glais, gulley of the 
stream ; or slocdn glas, green gulley. 



292 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGA1DHEL. 

SLUNEYHIGH. ' Leswalt.' Sliabh na aithe [haya], moor of the 
kiln. Cf. SLEWHIGH ; see under AUCHENHAY. 

SLUNKRAINY. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

SMEATON (P. Smytouu). ' Carsphairn.' Cf. the same name in 
East Lothian. 

SMIRLE. ' Glasserton.' Smeurlach, a place of brambles ; adj. from 
smeur or smear. Cf. SLEWSMIRROCH ; also Smearlagh, a river 
in Kerry. 

SNAB HILL. ' Kells.' " Snab, the projecting part of a rock or hill." 
Jamieson. This is the same word as E. neb, nib, a beak, 
nose, point ; the initial 5 (retained in E. snipe, snap, snaffle, snout, 
all from the same Teutonic root SNAP, to snap up) has been 
dropped. It is retained in DU. sneb, a beak ; G. schnabel, a 
beak, scheppe, a nozzle. The word is applied to pointed hills 
in the same sense as the Celtic gob (see GAB HILL) and Scand. 
no's (ness, naze). 

SNIBE, POINT or THE. ' Minigaff.' See under SNAB. 

SOLE BURN (P. Sull ; Sibbald MS., Solburn; Lochnaw Entail, 1756, 
Swolburn). ' Kirkcolm.' Probably the same syllable that 
remains in SOLWAY. 

S6LWAY FIRTH. Usually written Sulway and Sullwa in old 
writings ; called by the Celts Tracht-Romra, and by Ptolemy, 
Itunce dEstuarium. It is well described in the Irish life of 
Adamnan. " Adamnan put in at Traclit-Romra. The strand 
is long, and the flood rapid ; so rapid that if the best steed 
in Saxonland ridden by the best horseman were to start 
from the edge of the tide when the tide begins to flow, he 
could only bring his rider ashore by swimming, so extensive 
is the strand, and so impetuous is the tide." Celt. Scot. ii. 171. 

SONSY NEB. ' Kirkmaiden.' Pleasant or lucky point. " Sonsy ; 
lucky, fortunate, having a pleasant look." Jamieson. Per- 
haps related to ERSE sona-s, happiness, good fortune, adj. 
sontach, sonadh, and these to LAT. sanus. 

S6RBIE (P. Soirbuy). A parish in Wigtownshire. Cf. Soroby, a 
church in Tiree ; also Sourby in Ewisdale, and Sourby, a 
manor in Cumberland, formerly held by the Scottish Kings. 
There was also a place of this name in Portpatrick parish. 
ICEL. by, a dwelling, a village. 

SOUND CLINT. ' Minigaff.' Smooth rock. " Soun', smooth, level." 
Jamieson. 

SOUNDLY HILL. 'Stoneykirk.' A.S. snn<l Uah, M.E. sound lea, 
sound or level, smooth field. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 293 

SOUR BRAE. ' Miuigaff.' Wet, unfertile hill. " Sour ; frequently 
applied to a cold, wet soil." Jamieson. 

S6URCROFT. ' Mochrum.' See under SOUR BRAE and CROFT. 

SOURHILL. ' Buittle,' ' Urr,' ' Whithorn ' (twice). See under SOUR 
BRAE. 

SOURHIP. ' Penninghame.' See under SOUR BRAE. " Hip, a round 
eminence situated towards the extremity, or on the lower 
part of a hill." Jamieson. 

SOURSHOT. ' Mochrum.' " Slwt of ground, plot of laud, Lothians. 
In Fife, shod." Jamieson. A.s. sceat, a part, portion, corner. 

SOUTHERNESS \_pron. Satteruess]. ' Kirkbean.' Southern point. 
ICEL. su%r no's. See under SINNINESS. 

SOUTHWICK [pron. Suthik, Suddik] (P. Suddick, Sudlyick). 
' Colvend.' Southern bay. A.S. sii$ wic. 

SPEARFORD. ' Crossmichael.' Literally, " Ask-for-the-ford or 
ferry." BR. SC. speir, to inquire A. s. spiridn, to seek, to 
inquire. See under SPIRRY. 

SPEAT. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

SPIRN'S CRAIG and Moss. 'Minigaff.' 

SPIRRY. ' Leswalt.' Sporaidhe [I] [spurree], the spurs, or pointed 
rocks. Cf. Spurree in Cork county. Spor, plur. sporaidhe, 
probably borrowed from E. spur, M.E. spore, spure A.s. sp&ra, 
spura -f- ICEL. sport + DU. spovr, a spur, a track + DAX. spore + 
SWED. sporre + O.H.G. sporo, G. sporn. All from a TEUT. type 
SPORA >^/SPAR, to quiv r er, to jerk. The form A.s. spor, a foot- 
print + DU. spoor + ICEL. spor-\-G. spur, is closely allied, and 
from it comes BR. sc. speir, to inquire, to investigate (LAT. 
vestigium, a footprint), E. spurn, to kick (Skeat). 

SPITTAL. ' Penninghame,' ' Stoueykirk.' Hospital ; lands formerly 
owned by the Knights of St. John. M.E. hospital, hospitalle, 
Iwspytal O.F. hospital LOW LAT. hospitale, a large house, 
a palace LAT. hospit-, stem of hospes, a host or guest. " The 
base of hospit- is usually taken to be hosti-pit ; where hosti- is 
the crude form of host-is, a guest, an enemy. Again, the suffix 
-pit is supposed to be from the Latin potis, powerful, the old 
sense of the word being ' a lord ' ; cf. SKT. pati, a master, 
governor, lord. Thus hostes=hosti-pets, guest-master, guest- 
lord, master of a house who receives guests." Skeat. Other 
forms of this word are hostel, hotel ; the French hotel not being 
limited, as in English, to the meaning of an inn. 



294 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

SPOTTES (P. Bar of Spotts ; M.S. 1527, Spottis). ' Urr.' 

SPOUT BURN \jn-on. Spoot]. ' Carsphairn.' "Spout, a boggy 
spring in ground." Jamieson. M.E. spoute SWED. sputa, an 
occasional form of spruta, to squirt, or subst., a squirt + DAN. 
sprude, sproite, to squirt + DU. spuit, a spout, squirt + G. spritzen, 
sprudeln, to squirt ; from Teutonic base SPRUT, whence A.s. 
spredtan, to sprout, E. sprout, spurt. ERSE and GAEL, sput, to 
spout, squirt, if not borrowed from E., are rather akin to LAT. 
sputare, to spit, than to E. spout (Skeat). 

SPOUTY DENNANS (between two forts). ' Berwick.' The marshy 
ground of the forts. See under DiNNANS. " Spouty ; marshy, 
springy. ' ' Jamieson. 

SPYCRAIG. ' Urr.' Crag from which a man may spy, from whence 
there is a view. Cf. LOOK KNOWE. 

STABLE ALANE. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

STARRY DAM (on the shore of Mochrum Loch). 'Mochrum.' 
Eushy bank. " Starr, a sedge " (Jamieson) - SWED. starr, a 
rush. Dam appears here in its original sense of a bank. In 
the Prompt. Parvulm:, p. 113, it is translated by LAT. agger. 
Cf. A.S. fordemman, to stop up. The word occurs in o. FRIES. 
dam, dom -f-DU. dam+lOSL. dammr -f- SWED. damm, a dam + 
GOTH. faurdammjan, to stop up + M.H.G. tarn, G. damm, a ditch. 

STARRY HEUGH (P. Starryheuc). 'Terregles.' Eushy height. 
(See under STARRY DAM). " Heuch, heugh, hewch, huwe, hwe, 
hew ; a steep hill or bank." Jamieson. A.s. liou, a height. 
In Galloway this form, heugh, is usually confined to grass- 
covered cliffs on the sea-shore. See under DRUMACISSOCK. 

STARTLING DAM (on the shore of Mochrum Loch). 'Mochrum.' 
STARY WELL. ' Kirkmaiden.' See under STARRY DAM. 

STAY-THE-VOYAGE. ' Kirkcowan.' A resting-place. Voyage 
( O.F. veiage, voyage LAT. viaticum, provision for a journey) 
is here used in the older and more general sense of a "journey," 
which is now restricted by modern usage to a " passage by 
water." 

STEADSTONE. ' Colvend.' Perhaps the anvil-stone, from Norse 
stdd, an anvil. See under STUDIE KNOWE. 

STEELSTOP WOOD. 'Kirkpatrick Irongray.' The wood on the 
cliff or ravine top. "Steel. 1. A wooded cleugh or preci- 
pice. 2. The lower part of a ridge projecting from a hill, 
where the ground declines on either side." Jamieson. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 295 

STEIN HEAD. ' Whithorn, s.c.' Headland of the stone. Probably 
Scandinavian, like many coast names. ICEL. steinn. 

STELLAGE HILL (close to Gatehouse). 'Girthon.' Market-hill. 
" Stellage ; apparently the ground on which a fair or market 
is held. Earl of Galloicays Title-deeds. From LOW LAT. 
stallagium, the money paid for a stall. Stallage in th'e E. law 
denotes either the right of erecting stalls in fairs or the price 
paid for it." Jamieson. 

STELLAGE OF BORELAND. * Minigaff. 

STELL HEAD and STELL KNOWE. ' Dairy.' " Stell. 1. A covert 
or shelter. 2. An enclosure for cattle higher than a common 
fold." Jamieson. A.s. steal, steel (whence E. stall) -f DU. stal 
+ ICEL. stallr + VKS. sfa/d+swED. and G. stall; o.n.Gstal, all 
meaning a stall or stable +LITH. stalas, a table +SKT. sthala, 
firm ground, a terrace +GK. crre\\iv, to set. All with idea 
of firm standing VSTAL, extended from STA, to stand fast 
(Skeat). 

STELLOCK (Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Stallage; W. P. MSS. Stellag). 
' Glasserton.' See under STELLAGE. 

STENNOCK (Charter, 1595, Stenework ; Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Stennok 
M'Connell ; P. Stinnock ; W. P. MSS., Stynnok M'Connell, 
Stynnok Corbett). ' Whithorn.' Staonag, sloping ground, 
from staon, oblique (Reeves s Adamnan, p. 425). Cf. Stenag 
in lona. 

STEY BRAE and STEY HILL. ' Balmaclellan.' Steep hill. " Stay, 
steep." Jamieson. 

STEY FELL (1000 feet). 'Anwoth.' See under STEY BRAE and 
STEY HILL. 

STEY GREEN OF KITTERICK. ' Girthon.' Steep green hill. 

STINKING BIGHT. ' Stoneykirk, s.c. : Probably named from the 
collection of decaying sea-weed. Cf. DAN. and SWED. bugt, 
used (like bight) both for the loop of a rope and for a small 
bay. From the Aryan /y/BHUGH, whence E. to boiv, M.E. bugen, 
bmfen, bogen, boicen A.s. bugan, to bend + DU. buigan + ICEL. 
leygja + svfEV. Jq/a + DAN. boie, to bend (tr. and intr.), bugne, to 
bend (intr.) + GOTH, biugan + O.H.G. piocan, G. beugan + ^AT. 
fugere, to turn to flight -f GK. ^evyeiv, to flee + SKT. bhuj, 
to bend. 

STINKING PORT. ' Whithorn, s.c.' See under STINKING BIGHT. 
STIRNIE BIRNIE BRIDGE. * Whithorn.' 



296 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGA1DHEL. 

STOCKERTON. ' Kirkcudbright.' 

SACKING HILL. ' Old Luce.' BR. so. stoken, enclosed, past part. 
of " steik, to shut, to close " (Jamieson). 

S'rftNEHOUSE [locally catted Stane-hoos]. ' Sorbie/ ' Twynholm.' 
A.S. stan hus. This name is a relic of the days when 
houses were built of wood and wattle, or of turf, and houses 
of stone were remarkable and unusual. 

STONEYBATTER (a field on Dowies). ' Glasserton.' Joyce (i. 45) 
mentions a place of this name in Dublin county as showing 
a semi-translation of the old name Bothar-na-gclocli, or cause- 
way of the stones. 

SxbNEYKiRK (Court of Session Papers, 1725, Stevenskirk). 
Steenie's (St. Stephen's) Kirk. The change of sound is 
due to the old pronunciation, stainie having been interpreted 
as staney, i.e. full of stanes or stones. 

STRAHANNAN. ' Carsphairn.' 

STRAMODDIE. 'Borgue.' Srath madadh [srah madda], strath or 
meadow-land of the dogs or wolves. Srath enters into many 
Irish names, either alone, as Sra, Srah, Sragh, and Straw, or, 
in composition, as Strabane in Tyrone (srath ban, Four Masters, 
1583), and Straboe in Queen's County and Carlow. Srath, a 
strath, probably akin to LAT. stratum, that which is laid flat 
or spread out + GK. o-ropw/jn, I spread /y/STAR, whence 
star, straw, street, strand ("?), etc. 

STRANDFOOT. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' The " foot " of land on the 
beach. 

STRANDMAIN. ' Inch, s.c.' The " mains " or farm on the beach. 
" Mains, the farm attached to a mansion-house." Jamieson. 
Connected with LAT. mansio, an abiding, a place of abode 
manere, to dwell + GK. n&veiv, to stay, allied to iiovipos, 
staying, steadfast, and to /j,/j,ova, I wish, yearn A/MAN, to 
think, wish ; cf. SKT. man, to think, wish. Thus akin to 
LAT. mens, mind (Skeat). 

STRAND OF THE ABYSS. 'Minigaff.' "Strand, a rivulet." 
Jamieson. Probably the same word as E. strand, the beach of 
the sea or of a lake A.S. strand + DU. strand + ICEL. strand, 
margin, edge + DAN., SWED., and G. strand. Root unknown ; 
perhaps ultimately due to V STAR > to spread. 

STRANFASKET (Ing. ad Cap. 1607, Stronfaskin ; P. Stronfaskan ; 
MS. 1527, Stranfaskane). ' Minigaff.' Srdn, a nose, a headland. 
See under STROAN. Cf. BARHASKIN. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 297 

STRAXGASSEL (Inq. ad Cap. 1607, Strongassil ; P. Strongassils). 
' Kells.' Srdn g-caiseail [gashel], headland of the castle. See 
under STROAN. 

STRANGER'S KXOWE. ' Minigaff.' Cf. DRUMCAGERIE. 

STRANNAGOWER. ' Kirkmaiden.' Sn'm na golhar. peak or head- 
land of the goats. See under ALGOWER and STROAN. 

STRAXOCH. ' New Luce.' Srunach, peaked, pointed, adj. of sr6n. 

Cf. SCRANNAGH, Sl'ROXACH, and SlRONIE. 

STRANORD (P. Schroinord). ' Minigaff.' Srun ard, high peak or 
headland. 

STRAXRAER (Inq. ad Cap. 1600, Strain-aver; " Capella, vel (ut 
quidam malunt) Stranravera " (Magellan) ; P. Stronrawyr). 
* Inch.' Cf. CLACHRAWER. Chalmers derives this name from 
sron reamhar [ravar], thick point, but this meaning appears 
wholly inappropriate to the place. It has been suggested 
that it is BR. so. strand raw, the row or street on the strand, 
but M'Kerlie quotes a charter of Robert the Bruce in which 
the name is written Strait refer. The labial consonant thus 
appears to be organic. 

STRATHMADDIE. ' Minigaff.' See under STRAMODDIE. 
STRAVERRAX. ' Kells.' 

STRIFE GROUND. ' Mochrum,' ' Troqueer.' This and the five 
following names may have originated either in combats or 
lawsuits. 

STRIFE HILL. < Kirkmabreck,' Leswalt,' ' Wigtown.' 

STRIFE HOLM. ' Minigaff.' 

STRIFE KNOWESS. ' Port Patrick.' 

STRIFE MOAT. ' Carsphairn.' 

STRIFE RIG. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' ' Minigaff.' See under 
DRUMTRODDEN. 

STROAN (P. Strom). ' Kells,' ' Minigaff.' Srdn, lit. a nose, a peak, 
promontory, or headland. Cf. Shrone in Ireland, o. ERSE 
sron, a nose + w. tru-yn, c. iron, trein. The insertion of the 
t in the Anglicised form is not uncommon. See under 
STROOL BAY. 

STROANFASKET. ' Kells.' See STRAXFASKET. 

STROANFREGGAX (P. Stronchreigan). 'Dairy.' Srun creayain, 
point or headland of the crag. 

STROAN HILL. ' Dairy.' See under STROAX. 



2 9 8 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

STROANPATRICK (P. Stronpatrick). 'Dairy.' Sr6n Patraic, 
Patrick's headland. 

STROANS (P. Strowans). ' Kirkmabreck.' See under STROAN. 

STRONACH HILL. 'Kirkmabreck. Sronach, pointed, peaked. 
See under STRANOCH. 

STRONBAE (P. Stronbae). ' Minigaff.' Sr6n beith [bey], headland 
of the birches. Cf. Shronebeha in Cork county. 

STRONBEAVER. ' Carsphairn.' 

STRONES BAY. ' Kirkcolm.' See under STROAN. 

STR6NIE. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Srdnach, pointed. See under STRONACH. 

STROOL BAY. ' Kirkcolm.' Sruthair [sruhar], a stream. The 
change of final r to / is rule-right ; so is the insertion of t 
after initial s. The word is further disguised when, as some- 
times happens, the initial s is dropped (see TROOL). " Struell, 
near Downpatrick, is written Strohill in the Taxation of 
1306, showing that the change from r to I took place before 
that early period ; but the r is retained in a grant of about 
the year 1178, in which the stream is called Tirestruther, 
the land of the streamlet." Joyce, i. -457. Cf. also Shruel, 
Shruell, and Sroohill in various parts of Ireland. 

STROQUHAN'S POOL (on the Fleet water). * Girthon.' 

STRUMINOCH. ' New Luce.' Sr6n mmdhonqch [mennogh], mid 

hill. See under BALMINNOCH. 
STUBLIGGAT. ' Colvend.' 

STUDIE KNOWE. ' New Luce.' Hillock of the " stithy " or forge. 
" Crook studie. Supposed to be a stithy or anvil, with what 
is called a horn projecting from it, used for twisting, forming 
horse-shoes." Jamieson. E. stith, an anvil, stithy, properly a 
smithy, but also used with the sense of anvil, M.E. stith 
ICEL. steZi, allied to sta$r, a place, i.e. fixed stead, and so 
named from its firmness. From the same root as E. stead, 
steady -f SWED. stdd, an anvil. 

STURDIE Moss. ' Borgue.' " Sturdy, a vertigo ; a disease to 
which black cattle, when young, as well as sheep, are subject." 
Jamieson. "A plant which grows among corn, which, 
when eaten, causes giddiness and torpidity." Mactaggart. 

SUIE (P. Suachtoun hil). ' Minigaff,' ' Eerwick.' Samhcidh [saua, 
sawva, sow], sorrel. Cf. Sooey in Sligo (sorrel-bearing land) ; 
or perhaps subhach [sooagh], a place of berries. 

SUMMERHILL. ' Balmaghie,' ' Crossmichael,' ' Berwick.' The 
village of this name in Meath is also called Drumsawry 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWA Y. 299 

(druim samhraidh, hill of the summer), probably from its being 

a place of summer pasture. 

SUMMERTON. * New Luce.' 

SUNKHEAD Moss. ' Carsphairn.' 

SUNNYBRAES. ' Mochrum.' Cf. GRENNAN. 
SURNOCK. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

SWARE BRAE. ' Carsphairn.' " Sware, swire, swyre. 1. The neck. 
2. The declination of a mountain or hill near the summit." 
Jumieson. A.S. swum, sweora, swim, sicyra, the neck 
(+0. DU. stcaerde) swer, a column, pillar. The idea con- 
necting " neck " with " hill " occurs in LAT. colhs, a hill, collum, 
a neck ; jugum, a yoke, a hill. 

SNYAREHEAD. ' Urr.' See under SWARE BRAE. 

SWINEDRUM. ' Borgue.' Eidge or " drum " of the swine. KNOCK- 
MUCK is close by. See under DRUMMUCKLOCH. 

SWINEFELL. ' Old Luce.' The fell or hill of the swine. 
SYLLODIOCH (Charter 1610, Solodzeoche ; P. Saladyow). ' Girthon.' 

SYPLAND (Liq. ad Cap. 1548, Sypland ; P. Syipland). 'Kirk- 
cudbright.' Wet, sappy land. A.s. syp, a wetting, sipan, 
to soften by soaking, sap, sap. Cf. Sypeland, a large bog on 
Fountain's Earth moor in Yorkshire. " Sipe, to drip." 
Lucas. " Sipe, sype. 1. A slight spring of water. Perths. 
2. The moisture which comes from any wet substance." 
" Sipe, seipe, to ooze." Jamieson. 

rrUCHERBUBX. 'Eerwick.' Tachar, a combat. Perhaps from 
JL tochar, a causeway. The change from o to a is unusual, but 
see TANDOO and TANDRAGEE. 

TACHER HILL. ' Sorbie.' See under TACHER BURN. 

TAHALL. ' Kirkinner.' 

TAILABOUT LOCH. ' Stoneykirk.' 

TALLOWQUHAIRN [pron. -hwairn]. ' Kirkbean.' Talamh cJuiirn 
[talla hairn], land or ground of the cairn, o. ERSE talam, 
allied to LAT. tellus (as tir to terre) /^/TAL, to sustain, 
GK. TTJXla, a flat board. 

TALLSLID. ' Crossmichael.' 

TALN6TRY or DUNNOTTRIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1572, Tonnotrie; P. 

Tonnottry). 'Minigaff.' Dun Ochtraidh ['!], Uthred's fort. 

See under KIROUCHTRIE. Cf. IVILNOTRIE. 



300 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

TANDOO (P. Toudow). ' Port Patrick, s.c.' T6n dubh [doo], black 

rump. Cf. Tonduff and Toneduff in Ireland, w. tin. 
TANDRAGEE. ' Stoneykirk.' T6n re gaieth [geu, gwee], backside 
to the wind. A descriptive name occurring frequently in both 
Scotland and Ireland ; sometimes Tonlegee, with the prepo- 
sition le instead of re. Cf. TONDERGHIE. 

TANGART. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

TAN BILL. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' 

TANNIEFLUX. ' Kirkcowan.' Tamhnach [tawnagh] fliuch, wet 
meadow. " Tamhnach, a fine field in which daisies, sorrel 
and sweet grass grow. This word enters into names in moun- 
tainous districts in the north and north-west of Ireland, but 
rarely in the south. Also, a green arable spot in a mountain." 
O'Don. Suppl. It is not in use in Gaelic. 
TANNIELAGGIE (P. Tynalagach). ' Kirkcowan.' 

TANNIEMAWS. ' Borgue.' 

TANNIERAGGIE. 'New Luce.' 

TANNIER6ACH. ' Old Luce.' Tamhnach ruadh [tawnagh rooh], 

red meadow. See under TANNIEFLUX. 

TANNOCH (P. Tanoch, Tanach). ' Kells.' Tamhnach [tawnagh], a 
meadow. See under TANNIEFLUX. Tunuocks, in Kilbirnie 
parish, Ayrshire, is written Tannock by Pont. CuningJuime, 
p. 376. 

TANNOCH HILL. ' New Abbey.' See under TANNOCH. 

TANNOCK. ' Colveud.' See under TANNOCH. 

TARBET (a neck of land between two seas near the Mull of Gal- 
loway) (P. Terbart). ' Kirkmaiden.' Tarbert, a neck of laud 
(OReilly) tar (root of tarruingim, I draw, pull) and bad, boat- 
draught (cf. BOATDRAUGHT), a place where boats are drawn 
across an isthmus to avoid rough seas at the cape. 
TARBREOGH (P. Torbraoch). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Tir breach 
[?], ground of the wolves. Cf. DRUMBREACH ; also Caher- 
breagh in Ireland. 

TARD6\v [pron. Tardoo]. ' Kirkraaideu.' Tir diibh [doo, do\v], 

black, dark ground. Cf. BLACKGROUND. 
TARF (P. Tarf E.). A river in Wigtownshire and another in the 

Stewartry. There is also a river in Perthshire of this name. 
TARKIRRA. < Kirkgunzeon.' 

TARLILLYAN. ' Col vend.' 

TARWILKIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Tragilhey). ' Balmaclellan.' Tir 

guilcach, rushy land. See under AUCHENGILSHIE. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA K 301 

TAYLOR'S GAT. 'Whithorn, s.c.' Taylor's gap or opening. 
ICEL. gat, an opening. See under GATE. 

TENNIEWEE. ' Kirkmabreck.' Tamknach bhuidhe [tawnagh vwee], 
yellow meadow. See under TANNIEFLUX. 

TERALLY (P. Terally). ' Kirkmaiden.' Tir Amlialghaidh [owlhay], 
Aulay's land. Cf. Tirawley in Mayo. See under MACHERALLY. 

TEROY. ' Inch.' Tight ruadh [rooli], red house, or, possibly, tlr 
ruadh, red land ; cf. TARDOW and TER ROYE. 

TERRAUCHTIE (P. Terachty). 'Terregles.' Tir uachdar, upper 
land. 

TERREGAN. MinigafF.' Tir Eoghain [?], Egan's land. 

TERREGLES (Charter, Alexander II., (1214-49) in Melrose Cartulary, 
treueger; Charter, David II. 1359, Travereglis, Trauereglys; 
P. Toregills), a parish in the Stewartry. Treamhar eglais 
[traver], church farm. Not from fir eglais, terra ecdesice, nor 
terra regalis all of which derivations have been offered 
but, as the old spellings show, from treamhar, which is inter- 
preted in John O'Dugan's " Forus Focail " (quoted by O'Reilly}, 
taobhnocht, i.e. naked side. Treamhair [travaer], in Skye means 
" houses," and in Erse treamh is a plough, treabh, a farmed 
village (O'EeUly). Cf. trea.bhair, resident, treabhaire, a 
householder, crops, implements, requisites of a farm (O'Don. 
Sitppl). 

TER ROYE. ' Kirkcowan.' See under TEROY. 

THIRL STAXE. ' Kirkbean.' A perforated stone. A.S. \\jrel stun. 
" Thirl, to perforate, drill." Jamieson. "Thirlestane grass" 
is a rural name for saxifrage. A.s. yyrlian, to drill, pierce, 
]>yrel, pierced + DU. drilltn (E. thrill ; nostril, i.e. nose thrill) 
A/TAR, to pierce, whence also E. through, ERSE tar, through, 
etc. 

THORNY HILL. ' Kirkcowan,' ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Cf. DRUM- 
SKEOG, DRUMDALLY, etc. 

THORNGLASS. ' Rerwick.' Tordn glas, little green hill. Dim. of 

tor. See under TOR. 

THORN HOUSE. ' Stoneykirk.' 

THORNKIP. 'Colvend.' Thorn hill. See wider KIPP. 
THORNYGREXP:. ' Parton.' 



302 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

THORTER FELL. ' New Abbey.' Thwart hill. " Thmiour, cross, 
transverse." Jamieson. (Cf. CRAIGTARSON.) M.E. ]nvertouer 
(i.e. ]>wert ouer, transversely over; E. to thwart, to cross 
]>weri). " The word is of Scandinavian origin, as it is only 
thus that the final t can be explained." Skeat. ICEL. ]wcrt, 
across + ]rwer, the neut. of fverr, DAN. adj. tvcer, transverse; 
adv. tvcert, across + SWED. adj. tvtir, cross, unfriendly; adv. 
tvart, rudely + DU. dwars, cross, and (adv.) crossly + A.S. 
]nveorh, perverse, transverse + M.H.G. dicerch, twerch, G. zwerch 
(adv.) across, awry + GOTH, thicairhs, cross, angry. All from 
TEUT. type THWERHA base THARH with which Skeat con 
nects LAT. torquere, to twist. 

THREAVE (Inq. ad Cap. 1550, Treifgrange; P. Treef Cast, Treve, 
Treef). 'Balmaghie,' ' Penninghame.' ERSE treabh [trave], 
a farm, " a farmed village " (O'Reilly}. See under TERREGLES. 

THREEPNEt T K. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' The corner of the scold- 
ing, or perhaps of the quarrel. " Threpe, threap. 1. A 
pertinacious affirmation. 2. Expl. "contest;" Lord Hailes. 
3. Applied to traditionary superstition. Eoxb., Dumfr." 
Jamieson. A.S. ]>reapian, freagan, to threap, reprove, afflict 
(Bosicorth). See under CURATE'S NEUK. 

THROWPOOT. ' Minigaff.' 

THUNDERY KNOWES. ' Carsphairn.' 

TIBBERT (P. Taubyr roy). 'Port Patrick.' Tiobar, a well; 
formerly, as shown by Pont, tiobar ruadh [roohj, red well. 
There is a place called Welton close by. Cf. Toberroe in 
Ireland, Tipper in Kildare and Longford. 0. ERSE topur, 
tipra, ERSE tiobraid, tiobar, tiubruid, tobar (O'Reilly), a well 
+ w. goffrwd, a streamlet. This word often appears in 
composition as Chipper. See under CHIPPERDINGAN. 

TIEREHAN. 'New Abbey.' Tir Eoghain []], Egan's land. Cf. 
TERREGAN. 

TINLUSKIE. 'New Luce.' Tir or ton loisgthe [lusky], burnt 
land or burnt bottom. See under CRAIGLOSK and TANDOO. 

TINTOCK. ' Kirkinner.' The same name appears as that of a hill 
in Lanarkshire, of which it is said, 

" When Tintock tap pits on his cap, 

Criffel wots fu' wiel o' that." 
TINTUM. 'Parton.' 

TIPPET HILL. < Berwick.' 

TIREBANK. ' Twynholm.' 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 303 

TOB-BROUGH. ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' 

TOCHER KNOWES. 'Kirkcowan.' Probably tachar, a combat 
(cf. TACHER BURN), as in Carntogher in Deny, which Colgan 
writes Carn-tachair, and Cloontogher in Roscommon, which 
the natives call Clitain-tachair. But it may also be tdchar, a 
causeway, a word from which tachar is hardly to be distin- 
guished in composition. Thus Ballintogher in Sligo is given 
by the Four Masters (1566) Baile an Mchair, the townland of 
the causeway, but under the year 1266 they write it Bel an 
tachair, the ford mouth of the battle. Again, we may have 
here a purely BR. SC. name, the knowes of the dowry or mar- 
riage portion, tocher having that meaning in Scotch ERSE 
tdchar, a portion, dowry (O'Reilhj). 

T6DDEN HILL. ' Carsphairn.' Probably an adjectival form from 
tod, a fox. 

T6DDLY. ' Urr.' BR. so. tod lea, the fox field. Tod, lit. a bush, 
a measure of wool ICEL. toddi, a tod of wool. The fox is 
supposed to be so named from his bushy tail (Skeat). 

TOD RIG. ' Kirkinner.' The fox hill. 

TODSTONE. (P. Todstoun). ' Dairy.' The farm of a man named 
Tod. 

TONDERGHIE [pron. Tonnergee, g hard] (P. Tonreghe ; 7F. P. MSS. 
Tonerghe). ' Whithorn.' See TANDRAGEE. 

TONGUE (P. Tung). 'Inch,' 'Kirkcudbright.' 'New Luce.' 
Teanga, a tongue or strip of land. See under CHANG. 

TONNACHRAE. ' Inch.' TamJmach reidh [1] [tawnagh ray], smooth 
meadow. See under AUCHRAE and TANNIEFLUX. 

TOOMCLACK HILL. ' Mochrum.' 

TOPMULLOCH. ' Leswalt.' 

TOR (Inq. ad Cap. 1575, Tor). 'Rerwick.' GAEL and ERSE torr, 
a mound, a large heap + ERSE tor, lit. a tower, hence a tower- 
like rock + w. twr, a tower + Prov. E. (Devonshire) tor, a coni- 
cal hill + O.F. tur, F. tour LAT. turns, a tower + GK. Tvpa-is, 
rvppis, a tower, bastion. The A.S. torr, a rock, is from the 
Celtic. " If the GAEL, torr be not borrowed from the Latin, 
it is interesting as seeming to take us back to a more primi- 
tive use of the word, viz., a hill suitable for defence." Skeat. 
The ERSE tor has also the meaning of a thicket (Tor, id. q. 
du met urn Lluyd). 



304 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

TORBAE. ' Col vend.' Torr beith [bey], hill of the birches. 

TORBAIN. ' Parton.' Torr ban, white hill. 

TORD STANE. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' 

TORFLAGGAN CRAIG. ' Troqueer.' 

TORGLASS. ' Twynholm.' Torr glas, green hill. 

TORHEUGHIE. ' Balmaclellan.' 

TOR HILL. ' Anwoth.' See under TOR. 

T6RHOUSE MACKIE [pron. Mackee]. ' Wigtown.' 

ToRHOUSEMtJiR (P. Torhouse Moore, Torhouse Mackulloch). 
'Wigtown.' 

TORKATRINE (Charter 1677, Tarskatzerine, vulgo vocatus Ter- 
scrachane ; Charter 1743, Tarscrechun). 'Urr.' This was 
called Torscrachan till quite recently. 

TORLANE. ' Dairy.' Torr leathann [lahan], broad hill. See under 
AUCHLANE. 

ToRM6iD KNOWE. ' Carsphairn.' 

TORMOLLAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1611, Tormellen ; P. Tormoulling, 
Tormoulin). ' Balmaghie.' Torr muUea'm, hill of the mill. 
See under BALLYMELLAN. 

TORNAT. ' Buittle.' 

TORNIEFANE. ' Minigaff.' 

TORN6RROCH (P. Tornorroch). ' Tungland.' 
TORR. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under TOR. 

TORRECHAN. ' Buittle.' Torr Eogham [?], Egan's hill. Cf. 
TERREGAN and TIEREHAN. 

TORR HILL. ' Anwoth.' See under TOR. 

TORR KNOWE. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under TOR. 

TORR LANE. ' Minigaff.' The " lane " or stream of the toir or 
hill. 

TORRORIE (P. Torary). ' Kirkbean.' Torr a righ, the tower or 
hill of the king. Cf. Tornaroy in Antrim. 

TORRS (P. Torres; Inq. ad Cap. 1698, Hudder (i.e. hither) torris). 
' Kells,' ' Old Luce.' The sand hills at the head of Luce 
Bay are so named. GEXOCH (q.v.) is among them, and GAEL. 
torr gainich means a sand-heap. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 305 

TORRWHINNOCH (P. Torwhmmack). 'Minigaff.' Torr fheannog [?], 
hill of the carrion crows. See under BARWINNOCK. Cf, Tir- 
finnog in Monaghan. 

TOSKARTON. ' Stoneykirk.' This was formerly a parish. 

TOULL. ' Buittle.' TuatJial [tooall], northern (hill or land). See 
under DRUMTOWL. 

TOWER. ' Dairy.' See under TOR. 

TOWERS. ' Dairy.' See under TORRS. 

TRAMOND. ' Old Luce.' 

TRAMMOND FORD. ' Wigtown.' 

TRANASALPIXE. ' Buittle.' A modern name Transalpine. 

Formerly called the Court Hill. 
TREGALLON. ' Troqueer.' 

TRIP HILL. Balmaclellan.' HiU of the flock. " Trip, a flock." 
Jamieson. + E. troop F. troupe, O.F. trope + SPAN, tropa, 
IT. truppa LOW LAT. tropus. " Orig. uncertain, but most 
likely due to LAT. turba, a crowd." Slxat. 

TRIPOLARICK. * Inch.' 

TROOL BURN (P. Truyil E.). ' Minigaff.' Sruthair [sruhar], a 
stream. See under STROOL BAY. 

TRONACHAN. ' Glasserton.' Sronachan, a hilly place ; deriv. of 
sron, a nose, a hill. See under STROAN. 

TROQUEER (Charter, 3 Eob. IL, Treqvere; P. Troquyir; Sibbald 
MS. Traquire), a parish in the Stewartry. Treamhar. a farm. 
See under TERREGLES. 

TROQUHAIN (P. Trowhain ; Sibbald MS. Trouhain). ' Balmaclellan.' 

Treamhar, a farm. See under TERREGLES. 
TROSTAN (P. Trostan). ' Carsphairn,' 'Dairy,' ' Minigaff,' ' New 

Abbey.' See under BARTROSTAN. 
TROSTRIE MOAT (Eot. ScaccarU14:56, Trostaree; MS. 1527, Trostre > 

P. Trostari; Sibbald MS. Trostary). ' Twynholm.' 

TR6UDALE GLEN (P. Draudaill, Traudell). 'Berwick.' The 
trough dell. - A.S. troll dcel, or Scandinavian (Icel.) trog dalr. 
A.S. troh, trog (whence M.E. trogh, E. trough) + DU. and ICEL, 
trog + DAN. trug + SWED. trag, G. trog, M.H.G. troc. Root 
uncertain (Skeat). 

TROUGHIEHOUSE (Rot. Scaccarii Reg. Scot. A.D. 1264, Turfhous). 

' KeUs.' 

TRUFF CAVE. ' Glasserton.' 

u 



3o6 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

TRUFF HILL. ' Kirkmaiden.' " Truff, corruption of E. turf." 
Jamieson. E. turf, M.E. turf, torf A.S. turf + DU. turf, peat 
+ ICEL. torf + DAN. torv + SWED. torf + O.H.G. zurba + G. 
torf. All from Teut. base TORBA, turf; probably cognate 
with SKT. darbha, a kind of grass (Skeat). 

TRYNOCK. * New Luce.' 

TULIG. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' Close by is Catelig, the last syllable 
in each being apparently Hag, a stone. 

TIJLMERRICK HILL. ' Old Luce.' 

TUMMOCK FALL. * Mochrum.' Fauld or enclosure of the hillock. 
" Tummock, a tuft, or small spot of elevated ground. Ayrsh." 
Jamieson. ERSE " torn, a bush, thicket, grove, a shaw ; 
a small heap ; tomach, bushy, tufted." O'Reilly. 

TIJNGLAND (P. Tungland). A parish in the Stewartry. See 
under CHANG and TONGUE. 

TUNHILL. * Leswalt/ ' Eerwick.' 

TURINDOOS HILL. ' Leswalt.' Torrtn dubh [dooh], black hillock. 
TURKEY HILL. ' Kirkinner.' 

TURNIEMINNOCH. ' Kirkcowan.' Torrin rneadhonacli [mennogh], 

middle hillock. See under BALMINNOCH. 
TURNOFFYE. ' Colvend.' 

T\VYNHOLM (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Twyneme ; P. Tuynam; Sibbald 
MS. Twinam), a parish in the Stewartry. A.S. tweon ham or 
tweon holm, the dwelling or the holm land between (the 
streams). The exact equivalent of ADDERHALL, q.v. " Twin- 
ham-burn, eodem plane sensu quo Italorum interamna." 
Bosworth. Christchurch in Hampshire was called of old 
Tweonea, i.e. between the rivers. 

TYDEAVERYS (P. Tydauarries). ' Balmaclellan.' The prefix 
appears to be tigh, a house. 

TYPES, THE (a hill of 880 feet). ' Minigaff.' Cf. CRAIGTYPE. 

TTLLOCH CAIRN AND HILL (P. Vlioch). ' Balmaghie.' 
U Uallach, proud, i.e. high cairn anfl hill. See under KNOCK- 
WALLOCH. 

ULPHINTAIL. ' Whithorn.' 

UMFRA. * Mochrum.' Cf. DRUMHUMPHREY. 

URR (a parish in the Stewartry, named from the river) (Inq. 
ad Cap. 1607, Or; 1611, Ure, Ur). "The Basque word 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 307 

for water is Ur, and analogy would lead us to recognise it in 
the rivers called Oure, Urr, Ure, Urie, Orrin, and Ore." 
Skene, Celtic Scot. i. 216. Perhaps akin to ERSE dur, dobhar. 

URRAL (Inq. ad Cap. 1692, Urle; P. Urrull). 'Kirkcowan. 



ALLEYFIELD. < Leswalt.' 

VICAR'S ACRES. ' Wigtown.' Cf. CURATE'S NEUK and DRUM- 

MANOCHAN. 

VICE, LOCHAN or (P. L. Voyis). ' Tungland.' 



ALLTREES. ' Colvend,' ' Twynholm.' 

WALLY STANE. ' KeUs.' 

WATCH KNOWE. ' Kirkcolm.' Cf. LOOK KNOWE and SPY CRAIG. 
WELLEES RIG. 'Girthon.' See RIG or WELLEES. 
WELLTON. ' Port Patrick.' The well-house. See under TIBBERT. 

WHAUPHILL. ' Kirkinner.' Hill of the curlews. " Quhaip, 
quhaup, whaap, a curleAv." Jamieson. The bird is named 
from its wailing cry A.S. hwe6p, wop, a cry (Boswortli). 

WHEATCROFT. ' Crossmichael.' 

WHEEB. ' Minigaff.' 

WHEEBS. ' Mochrum.' 

WHERRY CROFT. ' Mochrum.' Foitlvre [fwirry], copse. 

WHILLAN HILL. ' Girthon.' Chulllean [hwillan], holly. See 
under ALWHILLAN. 

WHILLEY. ' Kirkinner.' Choillidh [hwilly], copse wood. 
WHILTON. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' 

WHIMPARK. ' Balmaghie.' 

WHINNY LIGGAT. ' Kirkcudbright.' Field-gate of the furze. E. 
whin, M.E. whynne, *guyn w. chwyn, weeds + B. chouenna 
(gutt.), to weed. See under LIGGATCHEEK. 

WHIRSTONE HILL. ' Twynholm.' 

WHISKEY BURN. 'Minigaff.' Uisge, water. See under BENNUSKIE. 

WHITECROOK (P. Whytcruk ; Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Quhytcruik). 
' Old Luce.' Probably white corner (Cf. WHITEN EUK). 



3o8 AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGA1DHEL. 

" Crukis, crooks. The windings of a river ; hence it came to 
signify the spaces of ground closed in on one side by these 
windings. " Jamieson. 

WHITE HILL, in many places. The meaning is not that of Sierra 
Nevada, but white, i.e. grass or arable land among surrounding 
moss. Cf. DRUMBAWN, KNOCKBANE, etc. 

WHITEHILLS (W. P. MSS., The Quhytehillis). ' Sorbie.' See under 
WHITEHILL. 

WHITELEYS. ' Inch.' White fields, i.e. cultivated fields. 
WHITENEUK. ' New Abbey.' White corner. Cf. WHITECROOK. 
WHITEWOOD CAIRN. ' Mochrum.' Cf. COLFIX. 

WHITEYARD. ' Loch Button.' White enclosure ; see under 
FRIAR'S YARD and WHITELEYS. 

WHITHORN, a burgh and parish in Wigtownshire (Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, Hwiterne ; GeofFery Gaimar's Estorie des Engles, c. 
1250, Witernen; afterwards variously Quhiterne, Whitheren, 
etc., locally pronounced Hwuttren). The place called by 
Ptolemy AovKOTrifiia [Loucopibia], situated in what is now 
known as Wigtownshire, has been repeatedly asserted with 
confidence to be the place afterwards known in Latin as 
Candida Casa, and in Anglo-Saxon speech as Hwiterne, or the 
white house. Now this involves a double assumption : 
first, that Ptolemy or his transcribers intended to write 
Leucoicidia instead of Loucopibia ; and second, that Candida 
Casa and Hwiterne were glosses upon a Greek name which 
had existed for at least three centuries previously in a remote 
Celtic country. The possible connection of the ancient name 
Loucopibia with the modern Luce, has already been pointed 
out (see p. 42 ; also see under LUCE). Candida Casa, in Anglo- 
Saxon Hwiterne, would be a descriptive name naturally sug- 
gested by the whiteness of a house of stone and lime compared 
with the mud and wattle prevalent in the district. St. 
Ninian's church was dedicated to St. Martin ; in the Legend 
of St. Cairnech it is spoken of as " the house of Martain," and 
"the monastery of Cairnech" (Celt. Scot., ii. 46). Cairnech 
was bishop and abbot of the monastery and house of Martin, 
and in the legend he is credited with the introduction of 
monachism into Ireland. Probably it is the fact that he first 
instituted the system of religious orders in Northern Ireland, 
while St. Finnian took it to Southern Ireland from St. 
David's in Wales. St. Medana (Monenna, Moduenua, 
Edana) died at Whithorn (see- under KIRKMAIDEN) in the 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 309 

days of St. Ninian ; and Chilnacase, a church said to have 
been founded by her in Galloway, was probably at Whithorn 
(all na casa, the church or cell of (Candida) Casa). Perhaps 
it was the chapel at the Isle of Whithorn, which is called by 
Irish writers Iniscais, or the Isle of Casa, although popular 
tradition assigns to this ruin the credit of being on the 
original site of Ninian's Candida Casa. " There can be little 
question," says Mr. Skene, " that the monastery of Rosnat, 
called also ' Alba ' and ' Candida ' and ' Futerna,' and known 
as the ' Magnum Monasterium,' could have been no other 
than the monastery of Candida Casa, known to the Angles as 
Whithern, of which Futerna is the Irish equivalent " (Celt. 
Scot., ii. 48). 

In a paper by the Rev. J. F. Shearman, P.P. (Irish Hist, 
and Arch., vol. vi. p. 258), the alleged connection of St. 
Patrick with Glastonbury is discussed and dismissed in 
favour of Whithorn. Father Shearman holds that the early 
history of Glastonbury is altogether 1 apocryphal that the story 
of St. Patrick having gone there, gathered twelve hermits 
living in the vicinity into a community, became their abbot 
and lived with them for thirty-nine years, " is adapted from 
a genuine but misappropriated record of facts and events 
appertaining to the Church of Candida Casa. ... At the 
time of the consecration of St. Patrick, there was no monas- 
tery or school in South Britain. The Saxons under Hengist 
were warring with the Britons, and all there was in disorder. 
The west and south coasts of Wales were then held by Irish 
intruders, established there from the reign of Niall of the 
Nine Hostages to the middle of the fifth century, when they 
were expelled by the sons of Cunedda, who had been himself 
driven away by the Picts and Scots from Manau Guotodin in 
the north. The excesses and turmoils of war were unfavour- 
able to religious life and literature, which at this time appear 
to have found a refuge, secluded from rapine and violence, in 
the monastery of St. Ninian at Candida Casa. . . . 'The 
Monasterium Magnum ' at Candida must have been the cradle 
in which were nurtured the British youths who became, in 
course of time, the missionary helpmates of the Apostle of 
Ireland. 

"The ancient chronicle or registry of the monastery of 
Candida Casa, miscalled the ' Registry of Glastonbury,' either 
through ignorance, or, more likely, dishonesty, was appro- 
priated to magnify the pretensions to the great antiquity 



3 io AN TIR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL. 

claimed by the church at Glastonbury, or Gleastingaberi, as 
it was called some time after the year 658, when the Saxons 
under Kenwalch drove the Britons beyond the river Parret. 
This venerable document records the decease there of the 
Abbot Nennius or Gildas, in the year 522. . . . In the 
year 498, a Bishop Patricianus, flying from the Saxon in- 
roads in North Britain, is stated to have died this year in 
the ' Isle of Man,' but more probably in the inland region 
of Manau or Manaan ; his relics are said to have been 
enshrined ' in Ecclesia G-lasconiensi,' intended probably for 
Glasgow, which gave an opportunity to the Glastonbury 
hagioclept of appropriating that fact to this church. As 
Patrick junior, son of Deacon Sannan, is said to have retired to 
Glastonbury after the death of his uncle Patricius Magonius, 
or Old Patrick, A.D. 463, we are perhaps warranted in regard- 
ing North Britain as the scene of his missionary labours and 
death, which is all transferred to Glastonbury from the acci- 
dental resemblance of a name. The Saxon appellation for 
Candida Casa, a translation of its Latin designation, is Whit- 
herne, or White House, now Whithorn, near which is the Isle 
of Whithorn, in Irish authorities Iniscais, a partial translation 
of Insula Casaz, the Isle of Candida Casa, or Inis Whitherne, 
which becomes Inis Vitryn, and Bangor Wydryn, another of 
the assumed or adopted names of Glastonbury. The latter 
part of this name is so suggestive of vitrum, and its English 
equivalent glass, that we have the Glassy Isle, an alias for 
Glastonbury or Glastonia, rendered Urbs Fitria, or Glastown ; 
and in consequence a good deal more of the history of the 
Galwegian church of St. Ninian is transferred to its southern 
rival. 1 . . . 

" The Arthurian legends, which have their original home in 
the Lowlands of Scotland, have been transferred between the 
ninth and twelfth centuries to Glastonbury." Irish Hist, 
and Arch., 4th Series, vol. vi. p. 257. 

The above extract is given rather as suggesting matter for 
farther inquiry than as settling the points in dispute. 

WIERSTON. Kirkcolm.' Wier's house. 

WiGG (Inq. ad Cap. 1695, Wigne Cairne alias Lady wig; P. Wijg ; 
W. P. MSS. Mekilwig, Midwik, Wygrigarne). ' Whithorn.' 
A.S. "wic, wye, a dwelling-place, village, camp, monastery, 
fortress." Bosworth. 

1 It is noteworthy that Glasserton, the parish adjacent to Whithorn on 
the west, is locally pronounced Glaiston. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 311 

WIGTOWN {Ad, Ed. in., A.D. 1296, Wyggeton, Wiggeton; P. 
Wiigtown). A.S. wic, wye (see under WIGG), here used in the 
sense of a bay ; wic tun, the town or fort on the bay. 

WILCOMBE BRAE. ' Kirkmaiden.' 

WILLIANNA (a hill of 1400 feet). ' Carsphairn.' 

WINDY BRAE OF GORDONSTOUN (P. Windy Hill). ' Dairy. ' 

WINDY SLAP. ' Old Luce.' Windy gap. " Slap, a narrow pass 
between two hills." Jamieson. This name is the exact 
equivalent of Barnageha and Barnanageeha (bearna na gaeithe, 
pass of the winds), which are of frequent occurrence in Irish 
hill districts. See under BARNAGEE. 

WINDY STANDARD (hills; that in Balmaclellan is 1250 feet high). 
' Balmaclellan,' ' Carsphairn.' Windy hill. Of. DRUMAGEE. 

WINETREES HILL. ' Kirkinner.' 

WITCH EOCK. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' 

WRAITH. ' Rerwick.' Rdth or rdith, " a circular earthen fort " 
(Cormac TransL). The sound of the final th, usually silent, is 
retained in this name, as in Rathmore, Rathdrum, etc., in 
Ireland. 

WREATHS (Inq. ad Cap. 1611, Wraithis ; P. Cast, of Wraiths). 
' Kirkbean.' See under WRAITH. 



YELLNOWTE ISLE. Kirkmaiden, s.c.' BR. so. yeld nowte, 
cattle that have not borne young. " Yeld, yeald, yell, eild. 
1. Barren. 2. A cow, although with calf, is said to gang 
yeld, when her milk dries up." Jamieson. Nowte, pi. of 
neat, an ox, a cow; M.E. neet A.s. nedt + WEL. naut + M.H.G. 
ntiz, ndss, cattle : " so named from their usefulness and 
employment A.S. nedtan, nidtan, to use, to employ." 

YELLOW BOGS. ' Minigaif.' Cf. MONEYBUIE. 

YELLOW CRAIG. 'Dairy,' 'Kells,' 'Kirkcolm.' Near Yellow 
Craig in Kells is DRUMBUIE. 

YELLOW HORSE. ' Terregles, s.c.' 

YELLOW ISLE. ' Port Patrick, s.c.' 

YELLOW TOP. ' Whithorn, s.c.' 

YETTOWN. ' Sorbie.' Yett tun, gate house or enclosure. 

Y6UCHTRIEHEUGH. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Upper cliff. 'ER.S'E.uachdarach, 
and A.S. howe. See under BARNEYWATER and STARRY HEUGH. 



ADDENDA ET EMENDENDA. 

ALLAN FALL. ' Mochruru.' BR. so. fauld, an enclosure. 
ALTRY (a hill of 1600 feet) (P. Altry). 'Dairy.' Aill, a cliff. 

ANNAT. " Annoit andoit . i. eclais do et in aile as cenn agas is tuiside ; 
that is, a church which precedes another is a head and is 
earlier a parent church." O'Don. Suppl. " The Annoit is 
the parent church or monastery which is presided over by 
the patron saint, or which contains his relics." Celt. Scot., ii. 70. 

ARBRACK. ' Glasserton.' Ard borg, high house or fort. Cf. 
BALLAIRD. This is, in its modern form, a most deceptive 
name, the last syllable looks so much like Me (see AUCHA- 
BRICK) ; but the stress on first syllable indicates that as the 
qualitative, and this is borne out by the ancient spellings 
Arborg (Rotuli Scaccarii Regum Scotorum, A.D. 1476) and 
Ardborg(1475). 

AUCHNABRACK. ' Mochrum.' See under AUCHABRICK. 

AUCHNESS. This is an exceedingly common name for a field. 
It occurs on many farms, although not recorded in the 
Ordnance maps. 

BACKROPE. ' Mochrum.' The name of a field. 

BAGBIE. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

BAINLOCH. ' Colvend.' Bdn loch, white loch. 

BALLOCHANOUR. ' Kirkmabreck.' Bealach an iobhair [*?] [yure], 
pass or road of the yew-tree or juniper. See under PALNURE. 

BALMAE. ' Kirkcudbright.' Baile magha [?], house or land of the 
plain. See under MAY. 

BALNAB. ' Whithorn.' This name seems to be of a high anti- 
quity, dating from the days when there were abbots of 
Whithorn, which was not later, at all events, than the close 
of the succession of Saxon prelates about the year 800 A.D. 
When the see was restored in the twelfth century Whithorn 
became a Priory. 

BARCHOCK. ' Kells.' 



314 THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 

BARFADZEAN. ' Balmagliie.' See under BARFADDEX. 
BARFRAGGAN. ' Kelton.' Cf. CRANBERRY KNOWE, in Addenda. 

BARLENNAN. ' Kirkcowan.' " The church of Stornoway, in the 
island of Lewis, is dedicated to St. Lennan. Dr. Reeves 
thinks this name to be a corruption of Adamnan." Kal. 
Scot. Saints, p. 378. 

BARNSHANGAN. ' Stoneykirk.' There are no fewer than twenty- 
two persons named or designated Seandn [shannan] in the 
Martyrology of Donegal. 

BARWIN. ' Balmaclellan.' A hill adjacent to BAREWING. 

BELTON HILL. 'Terregles.' The theory of the prevalence of 
Baal-worship is so firmly fixed in the minds of sciolists in 
history and archaeology that it will be long ere it is aban- 
doned. Nevertheless it is grounded on pure assumption. 
A notable instance of the length to which it will carry its 
supporters is given by Colonel Robertson in his work on Celtic 
topography, when he derives Balgreen from Baal grian, the 
sun of Baal. The name, which commonly occurs near towns 
and villages, of course signifies the green where games of ball 
were played, and is pure English. Dr. Todd disposes satis- 
factorily of the false etymology. " This word (Beltine) is 
supposed to signify ' lucky fire/ or ' the fire of the god Bel ' 
or Baal. The former signification is possible ; the Celtic 
word bil is good or lucky, tene or tine, fire. The other etymo- 
logy, although more generally received, is untenable (Pefrv 
on Tara, p. 84). The Irish pagans worshipped the heavenly 
bodies, hills, pillar-stones, wells, etc. There is no evidence of 
their having had any personal gods, or any knowledge of the 
Phoenician Baal. This very erroneous etymology of the 
word Beltine is, nevertheless, the source of all the theories 
about the Irish Baal- worship." Life of St. Patrick, p. 414. 

BENERA. 'Minigaff.' Beann iarach [?], west hill. See under 
BLAWWEARY. 

BILLIES. ' Kelton.' Bile [billy], a large tree. See under KNOCK- 
VILLE. 

BISHOP'S BURN. ' Peuninghame.' Wymond, bishop of Man, 
resumed his Celtic name Malcolm Mac Eth, and invaded 
Galloway about A.D. 1135. He demanded tribute from the 
bishop of that province, and " was encountered by him at the 
head of his people when attempting to ford the river Cree ; 
and the bishop ' having met him as he was furiously advancing 



ADDENDA ET EMENDENDA. 315 

and himself striking the first blow in the battle, by way of 
animating his party, he threw a small hatchet, and, by God's 
assistance, he felled his enemy to the earth as he was 
marching in the van. Gladdened at this event, the people 
rushed desperately against the marauders, and killing vast 
numbers of them compelled their ferocious leader shamefully 
to fly ' ( William of Newburgh's Histoi'y, B. I. c. xxiv.). The 
scene of this battle is fixed by local tradition in Galloway, 
and a stream which flows into Wigtown Bay called Bishop's 
burn is said to have become crimson with blood." Celt. Scot., 
i. p. 464. 

BOLT EIG. ' Balmaclellan.' 

B6RETREE HEUGH. ' Berwick.' Height of the elder trees. See 
under ELDER HOLM and STARRY HEUGH. 

B6RGAN. ' Minigaff.' Borgdn, a house, or a collection of houses, 
a hamlet. See under BORGUE. Borgdn accurately corre- 
sponds in origin and meaning with E. hamlet (M.E. hamelet) 
o.F. hamel (MOD. r. hameau). The suffix -et is diminutive, 
so is -el (added to o. FRIESIC ham, E. home), just as -dn is a 
diminutive suffix added to boi'g. 

BRACKENFALLS. ' Mochrum.' Faulds or enclosures of the 
brackens. See under BRECONSIDE. 

BRIDGEMARK. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Merkland of the bridge ; 
written by Pont Markdrochat, from drocMid, a bridge. See 
under MARK and KNOCKDROCHWOOD (in Addenda). 

BROADLICHENS [pron. leeghens]. ' Glasserton.' 

BROUGHNA. ' Mochrum.' Probably bruigheandn, a house. See 
under BRENNAN. 

BUITTLE. A.S. botl, an abode, a house. 

BURROW HEAD. ' Whithorn.' Name from the borg or fortifica- 
tion which is still distinctly traceable. Cf. Burghead, between 
the Findhorn and the Spey, whereon a borg was built by 
Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, when he invaded Scotland about 
895 A.D. (Celt. Scot., i. p. 336). 

BUSHABIELD. * Crossmichael.' 

BUTTERBURN. ' Minigaff.' The bittern's stream. See under 
BUTTER HOLE. 

CAIRNBASTIE. ' Mochrum.' Cam biasta, the beast's or serpent's 

cairn. See under ALTIBEASTIE. 
CAIRN MOLLY. ' Balmaclellan.' 



316 THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 

CAIRNTARRY. ' Mochrum.' Cam tairWi [tarriv], the bull's cairn. 
Cf. KNOCKENTARRY. 

CARHALLOCH. ' Mochrum.' Evidently the same name as CORN- 
HULLOCH (q. v.) which is a different place in the same parish. 

CARLINGWARK. ' Old Luce.' See under the same name in Bal- 
maghie parish. 

CARRICKFIJNDLE. ' Kirkcolm, s.c.' Carraic Finngall, crag of the 
Norsemen. Cf. NORWAY CRAIG on the same coast. " The 
two races of the Danes and Norwegians were distinguished 
by the terms Dubhgeinte or Dubhgall, that is, black pagans or 
black strangers, and Finngeinte or Finngall, white pagans or 
white strangers. The names Dubhgall and Finngall must 
not be confounded, as is usually done, with the Christian 
names Dubhgal and Fingal, which belong to a large class of 
names ending with the syllable gal, signifying valour." Celt. 
Scot., iii. 28. 

CASSENCARIE. ' Kirkmabreck.' There can be little doubt that 
the derivation from casan caithre [caarie], the footpath of the 
castle, camp, or fort, is the correct one. Castle Carey in 
Stirlingshire and also in Somersetshire, are named from ancient 
earthworks near each. 

CLACHANDdw. ' Miuigaff.' ClacJian dubh [doo, dow], black stones 
or black hamlet. See under CLACHAN. 

CLAWCRAP. ' Glasserton.' See under CLAYCROP. 

CLAWYETTS. ' Minigaff.' 

CLAYWHIPPART. This name occurs in Mochrum, on the farm of 
Barsalloch, as well as in Whithorn. 

CLINCHMAHAFFIE. ' Old Luce.' M'Haffie's claunch. See under 
CLAUNCH. 

CLtlTAG. ' Kirkinner.' It is possible that this is from the old 
valuation in pennylands. " A peighinn, or pennyland, might 
be divided into leth pJieighinn, or half-penny, feoirlinn, or 
farthing, leth fheoirlinn, or half- farthing, cianog, or quarter- 
farthing, and clitag, equal to one-eighth farthing. ... In 
Harris, in 1792, the ancient and still common computation 
of land was a penny, half-penny, farthing, half-farthing, 
clitag, etc. . . . The stock or souming for a farthing land 
was four milk cows, three or four horses, and as many sheep 
on the common as the tenant had the luck to rear." Capt. 



ADDENDA ET EMENDENDA. 317 

Thomas, E.N., Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xx. p. 211. The 
change in pronunciation from clitag to Clutag would be 
according to a well-known rule. 

COLD CRAIG. ' Balmaclellan.' 

CORANBAE (a hill of 1600 feet). 'Dairy.' Goran beith [bey], hill 
of the birches. See under CORAN and ALLANBAY. 

CORSELANDS. ' Kells.' The ordinary vowel change from carse. 
See under CARSE. 

C6UNTEM (a hill). 'Dairy.' Probably a corruption of ceann 
[can], a head or hill. 

COUPLAND. ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Land that has been couped, 
bartered or exchanged. See under CHAPMAN and COPIN 
KNOWE. 

CRAIGALCARIE. ' Balmaclellan.' Creag an caithre [caarie], crag of 
the fortress. Cf. CASSENCARY. 

CRAIGFAD. ' Carsphairn.' Close to this place occurs the name 

LANG CRAIG. 
CRAIGENFINNIE. ' Kirkgunzeon.' See under CRAIGFINNIE. 

CRAIGENTYE. ' G-lasserton.' Creag an tighe, crag of the house. 
See under DRUMATYE. 

CRAIGGARNEL. 'Minigaff.' 

CRAIGMUIE (P. Kraigmuy). ' Balmaclellan.' Creag m-buie [?] 
[muie], yellow craig. Cf. CRAIGBUIE. The eclipse of b by 
m is very frequent. 

CRAIGRANGE. ' Berwick.' 

CRAIGSTEWART. ' Dairy.' 

CRAIGTYPE. 'Balmaghie.' 

CRAIGWHANNEL. ' Kells.' 

CRANBERRY KNOWE. ' Minigaff.' See under BARFRAGGAN. 

CREE. " The early Latin editions (of Ptolemy) have, instead of 
lence aestuarium, Fines aestus. It is possible that this may 
be the correct reading, and that Wigtown Bay may have 
marked the utmost limit to which the Roman troops pene- 
trated in Agricola's second campaign." Celt. Scot.,i. 66, note. 
Finis, an end, a limit, may be translated by ERSE crick. 
At all events the Cree seems to have been reckoned im- 
memorially the boundary between East and West Galloway, 
hence, probably, the name crlch, a boundary. 



3 i8 THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 

CRUGGLETON. ' Sorbie.' A place called Crogington and Crogel- 
ton in Shropshire is mentioned in a roll of Henry VIIL, 
quoted by Dugdale (Monasticon, iii. 527). 

CRUFFOCK. ' Balmaghie.' 

CULRAVEN. ' Borgue.' 

CUTTYSHALLOW. Another form of KITTYSHALLOCH, q.v. 

DALAVAN. ' Anwoth.' Dal abhuinn [avun], land-portion of the 
river. It is on the Fleet. 

DALARRAN. * Balmaclellan.' Dal iairn, land-portion of the iron. 
See under GLENIRON. 

DERGALL. ' Kirkmabreck.' This is now called the Englishman's 
Burn, so it is a fair assumption that the meaning of the Celtic 
is dobhar [dour] gall, the stranger's or foreigner's stream. 
There is a reputed site of a battle here, on which is CAIRNEY- 
WANIE, and there are many sepulchral remains on the hills 
near. 

DERNSCL6Y. ' Kells.' 

DRUMATAGGART. ' Minigaff.' Druim a' t-sagairt [taggart], the 
priest's hill ; or druim mic t-sagairt, M'Taggart's or the priest's 
son's hill. See under ALTAGGART. 

DRUMBEG. This name occurs also in Kirkcudbright, alongside of 
DRUMMORE. 

DRUMBLAIN. ' Parton.' Druim btiana [blaney], ridge of the creek 
or bay. See under BLANYVAIRD. Cf. LINBLANE. 

DRUMKEESIE. ' Balmaclellan.' 

DRUMMIESUE. ' Old Luce.' The suggested explanation is prob- 
ably incorrect. It is more likely druim a samhadh [soo], 
ridge of the sorrel. 

DRUMM6RE. This name occurs also in Kirkcudbright alongside 
of DRUMBEG. 

DRUMSLEW. ' Kells.' Druim sliallie [slewe], ridge of the moor 
See under SLACARNACHAN. 

DRUMSUIR. ' Minigaff.' 

DRYCOG. ' Kells.' Empty or dry bowl, metaph. of a dry hollow 
in the land. " Cog, a hollow wooden vessel of a circular form 
for holding milk, etc." Jamieson. Cf. ERSE cog, a draught. 



ADDENDA ET EMENDENDA . 319 

DUNKIRK. ' Kells.' Dun ceorce [kurkie], hill of the oats, or dun 
cearc [kark], hill or fort of the grouse. See under BARNKIRK 
and MILLQUHIRK. 

ELDRICK or ELDRIG. Places of this name occur in ' Kells ' and 
' Minigaff.' BR. sc. yeld or did rig, barren or fallow ridge. 
See under YELLNOWTE. 

ERVIE CRAIG. ' Carsphairn.' Cf. ERVIE. 

FANG OF THE MERRICK. ' MinigaflF.' This may not improbably 
be fdn, a steep ascent. See under FANS. 

FANS OF ALTRY. ' Dairy.' ERSE "fdn, a declivity, steep, in- 
clination, descent." O'Reilly. 

GALL KNOWE. 'Berwick.' Gall, a standing stone. The next 
farm to it is called STANDING STONE. See under DERGALL. 

GALLRINNIES. ' Balmaclellan.' Geal [gal] rinn, white point, hill, 
or division of land. It is also called WHITE HILL. See under 
CARRICKGILL and EHINNS. 

GARMEL. 'Mini gaff.' See under GARMILL. 

GLEDE HILL. ' Crossmichael.' Cf. BAROLAS and GLEDE BOG. 

G6LDTHORPE KNOWE. ' Kells.' A.s. and M.E. ]>orp, a village or 
hamlet +DU. dorp + iCEL. ]>orp + DAN. torp, a hamlet + SWED. 
torp, a little farm, cottage + G. </0r/+ GOTH. ]>aurp, a field. 
Allied, says Skeat, to LITH. troba, a building, a house, and per- 
haps to the Erse treamh, a farm, a village round a farm, a 
tribe, family, clan, GAEL treabhair, houses +\v. tref, a home- 
stead or hamlet, from the verb treabliaim, I plough, suggesting 
the conclusion that tlwrp signifies the houses on the farmed 
lands. See under TERREGLES. 

HAGGIS HAUSE (a glen). ' Kells.' See under HAUSE BURN. 
" Haggis, a dish commonly made in a sheep's maw, of the 
lungs, heart, and liver of the same animal, minced with suet, 
onions, salt and pepper, and mixed up with highly-toasted 
oatmeal." Jamieson. The use of the word here must be 
metaphorical. 

HESTAN ISLE. 'Berwick.' A.S. east holm, eastern island. This 
has been identified, with every probability, by Mr. M'Kerlie 
(vol. ii. p. 464) with Eastholm, on which, in 1342, stood the 
castle of Duncan MacDouall, son of Dungall or Dougall, chief 
of the family in Galloway. Mackenzie refers to Estholm on 
the coast of Wigtownshire, but he is probably in error. There 
are traces of buildings on the island ; and it seems to be the 



320 THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 

island referred to in the Eotuli ScoticK as insuhi de Estholw in 
Scotia and Estholm in Gateway. 

HEUGH. ' Colvend.' A height. See under STARRY HEUGH. 
HIGHLANDMAN'S RIG. ' Minigaff.' 

HINTON. ' Anwoth.' M.E. hine's toun, the dwelling of the hind or 
peasant. Cf. CARLETON. A.s. hina, a domestic A.s. km, 
a house (the origin of E. hive), from Teutonic base HI= V Kr > 
to lie, whence SKT. <^i, to lie, GK. /eetyuat, L. civis, etc. 

KENTIE. ' MinigafF.' Ceann tighe, hill of the house, or principal 
house. See under DRUMATYE. 

KILNAIR (P. Calnair). ' Dairy.' Cuil n-air, corner of the slaughter 
or of the ploughing. See under BARNAER. 

KILNOTRIE. ' Crossmichael.' Cf. DUNNOTTRIE. 

KlRCALLA. 'Penninghame.' The church of Gress in the island 
of Lewis is dedicated to St. Aula, who, says Bishop Forbes, 
is probably St. Olave, though he may have been the St. 
Angulus or Aule, who occurs in the Martyrologies at the 7th 
of February." Kal Scot. Saints, p. 272. 

KNOCKDRINAN. ' Parton.' See under KNOCKDRONNAN. 

KNOCKDROCHWOOD. 'Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Cnoc drochaid, 
bridge hill. The next farm is BRIDGEMARK, q.r. See under 
BARDROCHWOOD. 

KNOCKENTARRY. ' Mochrum.' Cnoc an tairbh [tarriv], the bull's 
hill. Cf. CAIRNTARRY. 

KNOCKIERAY. 'Minigaff.' Cnoc a' ratha [raaj, hill of the fort. 

See under WRAITH. 
KNOCKIMMING. ' Kelton.' 

KNOCKLAE. ' Balmaclellan.' Cnoc laeyh, hill of the calves. See 
under BARLAE and CAWVIS HILL. 

KNOCKM6WDIE. ' Kells.' Cnoc madadh [maddy], hill of the dogs 
or wolves. See under BLAIRMODDIE. 

KNOCKNAM60N. 'Minigaff.' Cf. LOCH MOAN. At p. 227 this 
name is erroneously printed KNOCKNAMOOR. 

KNOCKNAN. 'Balmaclellan.' Cnoc n-en, birds' hill. See umlrr 
BARNEAN. 

KNOCKNAW. ' Minigaff.' The first meaning suggested is the cor- 
rect one ; it is close to a ford on PULLOW BURN. 

KNOCKR6CHER. 'Berwick.' Cnoc crochadhair [crogher], hang- 
man's hill. See under AUCHENROCHER. 



ADDENDA E T EMENDENDA. ' 321 

LESWALT (Barnbarroch, 1580, .Loch Swaid ; Synod of Galloway 
1664, Lochswalt). Sympson says this name was pronounced 
Lasswade. The first syllable is probably Us, a fort. See 
under DRUMLASS. 

LOOK KNOW. ' Balmaclellan.' Cf. SPY CRAIG. 

MAIDENHEAD BAY. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Is it possible that this 
is, as Maidenhead on the Thames is said to be, from A.s. 
meddan hy%, middle port or landing-place 1 

MELDENS. 'Minigaff.' 

MURDOCH CAVE. ' Minigaff.' If not named from Murdoch, the 
second son of the widow of Craigencallie (see under CRAIGEN- 
CALLIE) to whom King Robert the Bruce granted the lands 
of CUMLODEN (often referred to as Cumlodden-Murdoch), 
the cave bears, at all events, the name of some of his suc- 
cessors in the property (M'Kerlie, iv. 405). 

NICK OF TRESTRAX. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under BARTROSTRAN. 

N6GGIN. ' Kirkmabreck.' Cnocin, a hill, dim. of cnoc. See under 
KNOCKEAN. 

OLD STRAND. ' Carsphairn.' The strand or stream (see under 
STRAND OF THE ABYSS) of the allt, glen. Allt has become 
Old by the process described under OLD WATER, q.v. 

ORNOCKENOCH. 'Anwoth.' This is written by Pont Ardkrock- 
anoc, showing the alternative form croc for cnoc. See under 
CROCKENCALLY. The first syllable may have been ard 
instead of aridh. 

PAPY HA'. 'Minigaff.' Perhaps the Norse papa, a preacher. 
" The Norsemen called these missionaries Papce ; and many 
of the islands, on which they found some preacher from lona, 
still bear the names of Papey and Papeyar." Innes's Scotland 
in the Middle Ages (1860), p. 101. "The pre-Columban 
Christianity of Scotland was that of Galloway and Pictland, 
and if we may credit certain legendary statements, which 
however have been generally discredited, an earlier infusion 
direct from the East into Northern Pictland. . . . Pictland, 
certainly, would be the highway to the northern Islands and 
to Iceland, and it may be worth consideration whether the 
Christian monks called Papse, whom the discoverers of Ice- 
land found there in the ninth century, were not the repre- 
sentatives of some such pre-Columban influence from the 
Scottish mainland ; for Papa, although it has lingered in the 

x 



322 THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 

Breton Church, is certainly not Columban nor Irish, but 
characteristically Eastern." Sir S. Ferguson's OgJuim Inscrip- 
tions (1887), p. 137. 

PULWHANNER BURN. ' Kirkmabreck.' 

BARBERRY. ' Kirkcudbright.' A.S. rdh bearh, the roe's hill. Rdh 
becomes M.E. ro, but Chaucer (C. T. 4084) gives NORTH E. ra 
+ ICEL. rd + DAN. raa + SWED. ra + D\J. ree + G. reh. 

RAMSEY. ' Whithorn.' A.S. rammes ige, ram's island. Probably 
an ancient name for the whole island, though now limited to 
one point. Cf. Ramsey in Huntingdonshire, Romsey and 
Sheppey (sce'ap ige, sheep island) in Kent, Ramsay in Man, etc. 

RATTRA. ' Borgue.' There is an old fort here. 

RHINNS, THE. ERSE rinn is probably akin to GK. pis, gen. pivos, 
a nose, of which the later form is piv. 

RINGAN. This name occurs also on the farm of CRELLOCH, in 
Mochrum. 

RISK. This name occurs also on the farm of BARWINNOCK in 
Glasserton. 

SANDFORD. ' New Abbey,' Places of this name are found in 
Hants, Berks, Oxfordshire, etc. 

SLEWSPIRN. ' Kirkcolm.' The first syllable is slidbh [slew], a 
moor. 

SKEENGALLIE. ' Kirkinner.' Sceithin [skehin] gallach, bush of the 
standing stones. See under KILGALLIOCH, and cf. Skehinagan 
in Ireland, written, in the Annals of Loch C6, sceitliin na cend, 
or bush of the heads. 

SotlTHWiCK. ' Colvend.' Cf. Southwick in Sussex, Southwyke 
in Hants and Huntingdonshire, etc. 

STENNOCK. ' Whithorn.' This is probably not a Celtic name, 
but A.S. stan wic, stone house, like Stanwick in Yorkshire. 

WlGG. ' Whithorn.' Cf. Uig, a parish now united to Snizort, in 
Skye, variously written Wig and Vig. The name Uig comes 
immediately from the Scandinavian (ICEL. vie, a bay), but 
the word is the same as the A.S. wic, meaning either a village 
or a bay. 



APPENDIX A. 

TRANSLATION of the Article which, in addition to an EXTRACT 
from CAMDEN, descriptive of the Province, accompanies 
FONT'S MAPS of GALLOWAY in BLAEU'S ATLAS. It was 
published in 1662. 



DESCRIPTION OF GALLOWAY, BY JOHN MACLELLAN. 

Gallovidia takes its name from Gallovid, which in the language of 
the ancient /Scots means Gaulish ; for from the beginning the Scottish 
Brittons used to call the earliest inhabitants of Britain Gauls, implying 
that they came from Gallia. This ancient dominion of the Brittons is 
bounded on the south by the Irish sea, on the west by the Firth of 
Clyde, on the north by Carrick, & Kyle, on the north-east by the river 
Nith ; in length it extends from the north-east 70 miles to the south- 
west, between the bridge of Dumfries & the extreme promontory of 
Mull. In breadth from north to south it reaches in some places 24, in 
some 20, in some 16 miles. Six rivers intersect it, Ur, Dee, Ken, Cree, 
Bladna, Luss, running into the Irish sea. The Ken, running through 
Glenkens, flows into the lake of the same name, and on leaving it loses 
its name at its confluence with the Dee twelve miles from the sea. There 
is also a certain stream, the Fleet (about half way between the Dee and 
the Cree), and the Palnure (Palinurus) ; but these are not reckoned 
among the greater rivers. All are celebrated for salmon-fisheries ; but 
the Dee excels the others. The whole region is most healthy both in 
climate and soil ; it rarely ascends into mountains, but rises in many 
hills. Three mountains of notable height are to be observed therein ; one 
at the mouth of the Cree, commonly called Carnesmoor, that is (if you 
would interpret it) Camesii desertum; & another, not far from it, 
Marocus ; : & a third, at the mouth of the Nith, Crefeldius. 2 

The land lying beyond the Luce is called Rinum, z that is to say the 
Beak of Galloway, inasmuch as it projects like the beak of a bird ; and 
its furthest end is called Novantum Promontorium by the natives the 
Mule, that is to say, bald & shaven : for the ancient Scots used to call 
promontories Mules (mulls), a metaphor taken from a shaven head. The 
estuary of the Luss,* Ptolemy's Eerigonius, on the east, & Loch Rian, 
Ptolemy's Vidogara on the west, contract the laud and make an Isthmus, 

i The Merrick. 2 Criffel. The Rhiims. * Luce. 



3 2 4 THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 

& a Chersonese or peninsula, not unlike Peloponesus. The whole of 
Galloway recals the figure of an elephant ; the Rhinns form the head, 
the Mule the proboscis ; the headlands jutting into the sea, the feet ; the 
mountains above named represent the shoulders ; rocks & moors (ericeta) 
the spine ; the rest of the body consisting of the remainder of the 
district. 

It has the following more important harbours, Fanum Cudberti l in 
the estuary of the Dee, capable of holding many ships, and a safe shelter, 
inasmuch as by the protection of the hills and the Isle of Ross, it is 
protected on all sides from the winds ; & Cariovilla? a safe roadstead 
for ships, & three in the Chersonese or Rhinns, Nessocus? Loch Rian 
and Port Patrick. 

The entire Province is divided into upper and lower Galloway ; the 
upper lies between the river Cree and the Mule promontory, and has as 
judge of capital affairs the head of the family of Agnew* which honour 
passed to them after the destruction of the family of Maddlan. The 
lower (division) commonly (called) the Stewartry (prcefectura] of Kirk- 
cudbright, has as judge the chief of the family of Maxwell. 

There are there three Presbyteries, that of Kirkcudbright, that ol 
Victonf and that of Stranraver. In the Presbytery of Kirkcudbright 
are reckoned 17 parish Churches, in that of Victon nine, in that of 
Stranraver 8 : Out of these the Synod is convened twice a year. 
Whatever Churches there are beyond the Ur belong to the Presbytery 
of Dumfris. 

It has these towns, Fanum Cudberti (commonly KircTccubrie} at the 
mouth of the Dee, celebrated for the harbour of that name ; & Victon, 
once a well-known emporium, built (as is believed) by the Brittons at 
the mouth of the Cree ; Candida Casa (commonly Whithorn) dis- 
tinguished by its monastery. Capdla, or (as some prefer) Stranraver, 
on Loch Eian in the Chersonese. Not so long ago New Galloway, on 
the river Ken, was admitted into the list of burghs, but it has almost 
nothing urban except the name, as there are very few houses built there : 
forasmuch as Viscount Kenmure, who began the construction of the 
town, being overtaken by death, left the work at its commencement. 
Weekly markets however are held there, at which the natives assemble 
in tolerable numbers, some to buy, others to sell produce which is carried 
thither by merchants from the neighbouring country. 

Monasteries in Galloway (are), Candida Casa sacred to Ninian, 
who used to be considered a tutelary god in the furthest corner of 
Galloway, whither of old men from distant parts undertook pilgrimages, 
for the sake of religion, to see the relics & church of Ninian, and to 
carry away a portion of sacred dust, which was in these days considered 
a signal evidence of sanctity ; the Monastery of Luss, on the bay of the 
river Luss ; Dimdranan, at the fourth (mile) stone to the east of Kirk- 

1 Kirkcudbright. - Carsethorn (?). 3 Port Nessock. 

4 Agnew of Lochnaw, Hereditary Sheriff of Galloway. 5 Wigtown. 



DESCRIPTION OF GALLOIVA Y. 325 

cudbright ; Glycicardium (commonly New Abbey) on the estuary of the 
Niih : Tungland, on the banks of the Dee ; Marianum, 1 at the mouth 
of the Dee, about eight hundred paces below Kirkcudbright ; Salsidense,- 
in the Chersonese, but by whom some of these were founded does not 
appear, owing to the absence of Records. 

The natives are strong and warlike : assuredly in the late battle of 
Neoburn, on the Tine in England, a handful of Galloway knights under 
the leadership of Patrick Mackie, whose son was killed in that action, 
gave a splendid example of their gallantry, for with their long spears 
they threw the dense body of the enemy into such confusion as to secure 
an easy victory for their comrades. Formerly this race was prone to 
maintaining feuds, but it has gradually learnt by more humane culture 
and civilised religion to lay aside its ferocity : the gentry, ready alike 
with hand and head, are quite equal to any in refinement of person and 
of manners. The country-folk are of powerful build, & not deficient in 
understanding. 

Those who live in the Mores, that is to say, in the wastes, make a 
living by rearing cattle, and have large flocks of sheep ; the sheep there 
are of the best kind both in respect of flavour of mutton & excellence of 
fleece. Large quantities of wool are carried hence to foreign parts by 
merchants, who derive no small profit thereby. 

Those who live in the Machers, that is to say the arable ground & 
plains, sustain life by agriculture ; nor do they lack fertile pasture, & 
flocks, oats of small but well-filled grain is grown there, from which 
they make the best of meal. 

Galloway produces horses of but small size, but game & strong, 
which bring everywhere the highest price. 

The most distinguished families here are the Gordons, the Maxwells, 
the Maclellans, Macdoicalls, Mackies, Maccidlochs, Stuarts, Agnews, 
Adares. But the Macdoivalls, Maclellans, Mackies & Maccullochs excel 
the rest in antiquity, & pristine honour. The others are more recent. 
Formerly the clan Maclellan flourished there, unquestionably premier 
(as Buchanan testifies) in descent and wealth, but when Patrick, chief of 
that family, was destroyed by Duglass, his kinsmen inspired by vengeance 
collected their forces and carried fire and sword among the adherents of 
Duglass in Clydesdale ; in consequence of which reprehensible deed a 
fine was laid upon their possessions, they themselves were outlawed, & 
compelled to till the soil, which reduced this wealthy family to such 
poverty, that it has never completely recovered from it. But after a 
few years the son of Patrick, having been long in hiding, slew the pirate 
Moor (pirata Afro} 3 who rendered the coasts of Galtoway dangerous, was 
restored to the King's favour, and to part of his ancient patrimony of 
Bombie. 

Stinceel* in Teviot was the ancient seat of the Gordons, whence two 

1 St. Mary's Isle. " Saulseat. 

See under Black Morrow Well in the Glossary. 4 Stinchell. 



326 THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 

brothers set out, one for Galloway, the other for Bogie, and founded in 
either place a prosperous race of Gordons. He who came to Galloway, 
having killed a huge boar that was devastating the fields, obtained a 
grant of Gordonstoun & Lochinvar (Lacus varrii) from the King, and 
left a numerous posterity. The Adares are believed to have sprung from 
the race of princes of Kildare, in Ireland. 

Among the Gallovidians (are these) nobles, Stuart earl of Galloway, 
Gordon Viscount Kenmure, Maclellan Baron Kirkcudbright, each the 
chief of his own people. There are also there many cavaliers natives 
of the soil. 

There are numerous strongholds there, but till lately the strongest of 
all was Treve, in an Island of the river Dee, eight miles from Kirkcud- 
bright. It was built by Duglass, who, in the reign of James the Second 
caused great disturbance to his country. This place was defended during 
the late conflicts in our district by the adherents of Maxwell, earl of 
JVi^(sdale) ; but, being surrendered at last its vaults were broken down, 
its roof and floors removed, and it was rendered indefensible. Two 
towers stronger than the rest appear in the Rhinns, (Castle) Kennedy, 
built by the earl of Casilliss in loch Inch (lacu Insulano) ; Scceodunum 
(commonly called Dunskey, that is, the winged tower) by the ancestors 
of Robert Adare on a steep cliff by the sea. There are others also, 
Crugulton, for instance, a well-fortified stronghold on the estuary of the 
Cree, Glaston, 1 Garlice, Clarey, Cudbertana,* Cardanes & Rusco, 
besides many notable mansions. 

In lower Galloivay (there are the following) lakes, Caloverca, 3 Mul- 
tonius,* Ritonius, b Kenmis. 6 In upper (Galloway) Martonius, 1 Mac- 
rumius, 8 Longocastrius, 9 Insulanas, 10 Nmvius. 11 The woods which 
render this region pleasant are those of Kenmure, Cree, & Garlice. 

Whoever wishes to know about the battles fought in this district 
should consult the histories of Scottish affairs written by Buchanan & 
Boethius. To put it in few words (notwithstanding that one may hear 
it evil spoken of by those unacquainted with the country) Galloway is 

A land with native goods content, 

Not craving foreign trade, 
To comforts earned by industry 

Nature here lends her aid. 

In no part of Scotland are the fleeces more excellent, nowhere in Scot- 
land are there stouter nags, though (they are) small ; they call them 
Gallou'ay-nages. So that Englishmen call all good horses Gallowas. 

1 Glasserton. - Kirkcudbright. 3 Carlingwark. 

* Milton. 3 Loch Button. 6 Loch Ken. 

7 Myrton Loch. 8 Mochrum Loch. 9 Longcastle, now Dowalton Loch. 

10 Loch Inch. u Lochnaw. 



APPENDIX B. 

ERSE AND GAELIC WORDS ENTERING INTO NAMES OF 
PLACES IN GALLOWAY; WITH A REFERENCE TO THE 
NAMES UNDER WHICH THE WORDS ARE ANALYSED. 



Abb, an abbot, . . . . . . . Balnab. 

Abhainn [a van, aw en, own], a stream, . . . Slochanawn. 

Achadh [aha], a field, Achie. 

AdJtamhiuin [ounan, eunan], a man's name, . . Kirkennan. 

Aedhaire [airie], a shepherd, ..... Craigary. 

Aenach [ennagh], a fair, Enoch. 

Afreca, a woman's name, Knockefferick. 

Aileach [ellagh], a stone fort, Craiganallie. 

Aill, a cliff, Alhang. 

Airgiod [arggid], silver, Craignarget. 

Airidh [airie], a shieling, a hill pasture, . . . Airie. 

Aith [ae], a kiln, Auchenhay. 

Allt, a height, a glen, a stream, .... Aldergowan. 

Alltdn, a little glen, ...... Altain. 

Alltog, a little glen, Altogue. 

Alluin, a hind, Craigellan. 

Aluin, beautiful, Craigellan. 

Amhalghaidh [owlhay], a man's name, Aulay, . Macherally. 

Ammor, a trough, Ballochanarmour. 

Amreidh [amrey], rough, Carrickcamrie. 

Anoid [annud], a church Annat Hill. 

Aoradh [arra], worship, Clachanarrie. 

Ar, ploughing, Barnaer. 

Ar, slaughter, Barnaer. 

Arbha [arva, arroo], corn, ..... Arrow. 

Ard, high ; a height, Aird. 

Ath [ah], a ford, Carsnaw. 

Aula, a man's name, ...... Kircalla. 

Bachall, a stick, Bachla. 

BacMach, a herdsman, ...... Bachla. 

B&d, a boat, Portavaddie. 

Badhun [bawn], a cattle-pen, Biawn. 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



Baile [bally], a farm, a homestead, a town, 
Bainne [banny], milk, .... 
Bairghin [bareen], a bannock, 
Bdn, white ; s. lea-land, 
Banbh [bonniv], a young pig, . 
Baoghal [baughal], danger, 

Bard, a rhymer, 

Barr, a hill-top, ..... 
Bathach [ba-ach], a cowhouse, 

Beag [beg], small, 

Bealach [ballagh], a road, a pass, 
Bean [ban], a woman, . . . . 
Bean [ban], a man's name, 
Beann [ben], a hill, .... 
Beannach [bennagh], hilly ground, 
Beanndn [bennan], a hill, 
Bearna [barna], a gap, a pass, 
Bearnach, split, ..... 
Bearradh [barra], a hill-brow, a precipice, 
Beist, or beast, a beast, a serpent, . 
Beith [bey], a birch, .... 
Beitliach [beyach], a birch wood, 
Beul [bel], a mouth, . . 

Bil, lucky, ...... 

Bile [billy], a large tree, 
Bldr, a plain ; a battle, .... 
Bldrach, a level place, .... 
Blean, the groin ; a creek, a bend, . 

Bo, a cow, 

Boc, a he-goat, 

Bodach, a clown, 

Bog, soft, miry, ..... 
Bogluasgach, boggy, floating, . 
Bogreach, bogurach, boggy, 
Bolcan, a man's name, .... 

Borgdn, a hamlet, .... 

Both [bo], a hut, a booth, 
Bothach [bohach], a marsh, 
Bothdn [bohan], a hut, a booth, 
Bothar [bohar], a causeway, . 
Brd, bri, a brae or hillside, 

Braddn, a salmon, 

Braendn, Brennan, a man's name, . 
Braghaddg [braadog], a throat, a gulley, 



Bailie Hill. 

Barwhanny. 

Barean. 

Auchtrievane. 

Auchnabony. 

Barnbauchle. 

Barnboard. 

Bar. 

Buyoch. 

Drumbeg. 

Balloch. 

Barnamon. 

Kirkbean. 

Benailsa. 

Craigbennoch. 

Bennan. 

Barnagee. 

Craigbernoch. 

Barrack Slouch. 

Ballochabeastie. 

Allanbay. 

Barbeth. 

Ballochadee. 

Beltonhill (in 

Addenda). 
Knockville. 
Blair. 
Blairoch. 
Blaneyvaird. 
Biawn. 
Auchniebut. 
Drummuddiocli. 
Bogue. 
Anabaglish. 
Boggrie. 
Barvalgans. 
Borgan (in 

denda). 
Bow. 
Buyach. 
Barbuchanny. 
Stoneybatter. 
Brae. 

Lanebreddan. 
Drumabrennan. 
Bradock. 



Ad- 



LIST OF ERSE AND GAELIC WORDS. 



3 2 9 



Branchu [branhy], a man's name, .... Craigmabrancliie. 

Brathair [braar], a brother, a friar, . . . Altibrair. 

Breac [brack], spotted, Auchabrick. 

Breac [brack], a trout, . . Altibrick. 

Breacach [brackagh], broken, spotted ground, . . Breackoch. 

Breach [bragh], a wolf, ....... Drumbreach. 

Breaclach [bracklagh], broken, spotted ground, . Brecklach. 

Breacnach [bracknagh], broken, spotted ground, . Brackenicallie. 

Brian [brain], stinking, foul, Branyea. 

Breansheach [branyae], stinking, .... Branyea. 

Bretan, a man's name ; a Welshman, ... . Culbratten. 

Brigid, Brighde [breedie], a woman's name, Bridget, Hillmabreedia. 

Brioc [Brie], a man's name, Kirkmabreck. 

Broc, a badger, Brockloch. 

Brodach, a badger-warren, Brockloch. 

Bruach, a brink or border, . . . .'..-. Brough. 

Bruighedn, a dwelling, Borgue. 

Bruigheandn, a dwelling, ..... Borgue. 

Buachaill [baughil], a herd-boy, .... Bowhill. 

Buidhe [buie, bwee], yellow, Benbuy. 

Builg, bellows, Bullet. 

Buirg, or borg, a fort, a dwelling, a hamlet, . . Borgue. 

Bun, bottom, end, Barbunny. 

Cabhdn [cavven], a hollow, Cavan. 

Caedh [kay], a bog, quagmire, .... Culkae. 

Caein [keen], beautiful, Knockeen. 

Caer, a berry, ........ Drumkare. 

Caera, a sheep, Culgarie. 

Caerthainn [keerin], a rowan-tree, .... Barwhirran. 

Cailleach, a nun, a hag, . . . . . Barncalzie. 

Cainneach, a man's name, Kenny, .... Cairn Kennagh. 

Caipeal, a chapel, Chapelrossan. 

Cairbre, a man's name, Dunharbery. 

Caiseal, a castle, ....... Auchengashell. 

Caithre [carey], a pillar-stone, .... Drumacarie. 

Gala, caladh, a harbour, Gallic. 

Calltuin, hazel, ....... Caldons. 

Cam, crooked, Camelon. 

Camrach, crooked, winding, Camrie. 

Gaol [keel], narrow, Carskeel. 

Capall, a horse, Barhapple. 

Cam, a heap, a cairn, Auchencairn. 

Carnachdn, a man's name, ..... Fauldcarnahan. 

Carr, a stone, Cardoon. 

Carrach, rough, Burharrow. 



33 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



Carraic, a sea-cliff, Carghidoun. 

Carraigdn, a cliff, Cargen. 

Casdn, a footpath, Airiehassan. 

Cat, a cat, Alwhat. 

Cathag [caag], a jackdaw, Caggrie. 

Cathair [caher], ....... Kirklauchline. 

Ceann [ken], a head, Cambret Hill. 

Ceannach, a bargaining, Drumcannoch. 

Ceannaiche [kennaghie], a pedlar, a merchant, . Barneconahie. 

Geannfhionn [canninn], white-headed, or speckled, . Knockcannon. 

Cefipanach, full of stumps Capenoch. 

Cearc [cark], a hen, Millquhirk. 

Cearda [carda], a workshop, a forge, . . . Cairdie Wiel. 

Ceathramhaidh [carrou], a land-quarter, . . . Carhowe. 

Ceide, ceidach [keady], hill, Kittyshalloch. 

Cennera [kennera], a woman's name, . . . Kirkinner. 

Ceorce, or coirce [curky], oats, .... Barnkirk. 

Ciardn [keeran], a man's name, .... Chipperheron. 

Gill [kill], a cell, a chapel, Kildonan. 

Cinaedh [kinna], a man's name, Kenneth, . . Benniguinea. 

dp [kip], a stump, a tree-trunk, .... Ballochakip. 

Circ [kirk], a church, Kirkanders. 

Clach, or clock, a stone, Clachan. 

Clacharach, or cloichreach, a stony place, . . Clauchrie. 

Clacherin, a stony place, Clacherum. 

Claddach, a shingly beach, ..... Claddiochdow. 

Cladh [claw, cly], a mound, a bank ; a grave, . Cly. 

Claen, a slope, Clamdally. 

Claenach, a sloping place, Clannoch. 

Claenrach, a sloping place, Clanerie. 

Claigean [claggan], a skull ; a round, dry hill, . Barnyclagy. 

Clais [clash], a ditch, a pit ; a grave, . . . Clash. 

Cldr, a board ; flat land, Clare Hill. 

Clerech, a cleric, a priest, Barneycleary. 

Cliabh [cleeve], a basket, ..... Drumcleigh. 

Clitag, one-eighth of a farthing ; a kind-measure, . Clutag. 

Cluain [cloon, clone], a meadow, .... Clone. 

Cnoc, a hill, Knock. 

Cnocdn, a hillock, Knockan. 

Cnocin, a hillock, Knockean. 

Cnoclach, a hilly place, Knockloch. 

Cnocnach, hilly, Ornockenoch. 

Cnuicin [nicken], a hillock, Knockanickiu. 

Coigeriche [coggrie], a stranger, .... Drumcagerie. 

Coill [kill], a wood, ...... Barnhillie. 

Coilleach [killagh], a cock, a grouse, . . . Drumagilloch. 



LIST OF ERSE AND GAELIC WORDS. 



Coillidh [killy], woodland, Killibrakes. 

Cointin [kintin], a dispute, ..... Quintinspie. 
Coire [kirry], a caldron ; a deep pool ; a narrow 

glen, Currafin. 

Coll, the hazel, Barwhil. 

Colldean, a hazel wood, Caldons. 

Comgan, a man's name, Kirkcowan. 

Conadh [kunna], firewood, ..... Knockcunnoch. 

Conaire [conary], a man's name, .... Slickconerie. 

Connal, a man's name, Loch Connel. 

Copdn, the dock, docken, Capenoch. 

Cor, a hill, Coran. 

Coradh [corra], a weir, ...... Corra Pool. 

Cor an, a hill, Coran. 

Corcra, red, ...... . . Barncorkrie. 

Corcur, red, Barncorkrie. 

Corrnac, a man's name, . . . . . . Kirkcormack. 

Corr, a beak, Coran. 

Corrach, a boat, Glencurroch. 

Cos, a fissure, Cash Bag. 

Cos, a foot, Cushieinay. 

Craebh [crave, crew], a tree, Castle Creavie. 

Craebhach [creavagh], wooded, .... Castle Creavie. 

Crann, a tree, a pole, ...... Crancree. 

Crannog, a boat, Crannoch Isle. 

Creag [craig], a crag, Craig. 

Creagdn, a crag, Craigenbay. 

Creamh [crav], wild garlic, Culgruff. 

Criathrach [crearagh], waste land, .... Creary Hill. 

Crindaill, a man's name, Crindle, .... Loch Inch-Crindle. 

Crioch [creegh], a boundary, Cree. 

Orion [creen], withered, Slewcreen. 

Criosd [crist], Christ, ...... Kirkchrist. 

Crithlach [crillagh], a shaking bog, . . . Crailloch. 

Croc = cnoc, a hill, Crockencally. 

Crocdn = cnocdn, a little hill, Crockencally. 

Crochadhair [craugher], a hangman, . . . Auchenrocher. 

Croich, a gallows, ....... Culcreuchie. 

Crom, crooked, sloping, ...... Crumquhil. 

Cromadh [crumma], a hill-side, .... Crunimie. 

Cromog, a sloping place, Crammag. 

Cron, copper, . . . Craigcroon. 

Cr6n, brown, ........ Craigcroon. 

Cros, a cross, a gallows, ...... Balnacross. 

Crosra, croissare, cross-roads, ..... Croshery. 

Cruach [croagh], a hill, Croach. 



332 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



Cruachach, hilly, uneven, Craichie. 

Cruachdn, a hill, ....... Crochan. 

Cruadh [croo], hard, . . . . . . Crows. 

Cruadhas [crouse], hard, dry land, . . . Crowes. 

Cruiteach [cruttagh], lumpy, uneven, . . . Crotteagh. 

Crumog, a slope, Crammag. 

Cu, a dog, Drumwhin. 

Cudachdn, a man's name, Cuthbert, . . . Killimacuddican. 

Cuil, a corner, Cuil. 

Cuileann [cullen], a holly, Alwhillan. 

Cuileannach, or cuileanog, a place of hollies, . . Cullenoch. 

Cuinneog, a corner, Cunnoch. 

Cul, the back, Cuil. 

Oullach, a boar, Cornhulloch. 

Cultran, a man's name, . . . . . . Holm. Coltran. 

Currach, a marsh, Corra. 

Daingean [dangan], a stronghold, .... Dian. 

Dair, gen. dara, an oak, Arndarroch. 

Dal, a portion of land, Dalmannoch. 

Darach, an oak wood, an oak-tree, .... Arndarroch. 

Dealg [dallig], a thorn, Clamdally. 

Dearg [dyarg], red, Baryerrock. 

Deargail, a red place, Dalreagle. 

Dearg an [dyargan], red ; a man's name, . . Ballochj argon. 

Deisceart [descart], southern, Barcheskie. 

Dess, on the right, south, Cairntosh. 

Dobhar [dour], dur, water, Dargalgal. 

Doire [dirry], a wood ; later, an oak wood, . . Derry. 

Domhnull [donnell], a man's name, Donald, . . Cairndonald. 

Donachadh [Donaghie], ) & ^^ ^^ Bardonachie. 

Donnchadh [Donngha], ) 

Donn, brown, ....... Benjohn. 

Donndn, a man's name, Donnan, .... Cairndonnan. 

Doran, an otter, Aldouran. 

Doub [dub], a gutter, Blackdubs. 

Draighean [drane], blackthorns, .... Drangan. 

Dreoldn [dreelan], a wren, Drumadryland. 

Droichead [droghed], a bridge, .... Bardrochwood. 

Dromainn, a ridge, ...... Drummond Hill. 

Dronndn, a ridge, Dronnan. 

Druidhe [dreehy], a druid, Droughandruie. 

Druim, the back, a ridge, Drum. 

Drust, a Pictish name of a man, .... Bardrestan. 

Dubh [dooh], black, Allandoo. 

Dubhaghan [dougan], a man's name, Dougan, . Cairndubbin. 



LIST OF ERSE AND GAELIC WORDS. 



333 



Duine [dinnie], a man, ..... 

Dun, \ 

Dunadh [doonah], > a fort, .... 

Dundn, 

Dtinagan, hilly, . . . 

Each, ech, a horse, ...... 

Eadar, between, ...... 

Ealtaidhe [eltey], white, ..... 

Eanach [annagh], a bog, 

Earbull [arblel, a tail, 

Eas [ass], a torrent, a cascade, 

Easbog, a bishop, ...... 

Easga, easgdn, an eel, ..... 

Eilean, oilean, an island, .... 

Eilit, clidh, a hind, ..... 

En [ane], a bird, ...... 

Eoghagan, a man's name, .... 

Ernan, a man's name, .... 

Fada, long, far, 

Faddn, a man's name, Fadzean, 

Faithche [fahy], green field, .... 

Faill, a cliflf, " 

Faioleann [feelan], a sea-gull, .... 

Fan, a slope, ....... 

Farrach, a trysting-place, .... 

Farsaing, wide, 

Feadan [fadden], a streamlet, 
Feanndg [fannog], a carrion-crow, . 
Fearghus, a man's name, Fergus, . 

Fearn, an alder, 

Fearnach an, a place of alders, 

Fear, a man, ........ 

Feusgdn, a mussel, 

Fhainre [hanrie], a sloping place, . 
Fiach, fitheach [feeagh], a raven, . 

Fiadh [feeh], a deer, 

Fidh [fee], a wood, 

Fillan, a man's name, ..... 
Finnan, a man's name, 

Finngall, a Norseman, 

Fintan, a man's name. ..... 

Fionn [fin], white, ...... 

Fionnagan, a man's name, Finnigan or Hinnigan, 



Dindinnie. 
( Boon. 
< Donaldbuie. 
( Dinnans. 

Dungeon. 

Auchness. 

Adderhall. 

Carneltoch. 

Anabaglish. 

Darnarbel. 

Ass of the GUI. 

Ernespie. 

Puhiaskie. 

Allandoo. 

Carneltoch. 

Barnean. 

Barmagachan. 

Knockernan. 

Auchenfad. 

Barfadden. 

Fannygapple. 

Tallin cherrie. 

Lochenaling. 

Fans of Altrj'. 

Clafaras. 

Ringferson. 

Barfadden. 

Barwinnock. 

Loch Fergus. 

Balfern. 

Drumfarnachan. 

Knocknavar. 

Craignesket. 

Knockhenries. 

Bennaveoch. 

Craiginnee. 

Palnee. 

KilfiUan. 

Kirkgunzeon. 
( Carrickfundle (in 
( Addenda). 

Knockiefountain. 

Blairfin. 
Barhinnigans. 



334 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



i, wet, 

Foithre [firrie], copse, . . . . 

Frdech, heather, 

Francach, a Frenchman 

Fraochdn, whortle-berry, 

Fuinnse, fuinnsmn, fuinnsedg [finshie, finshan, fin- 
shug], ash-tree, 

Gab, gob, a mouth, 

Gabhail [gowl], a fork, 

Gabhailin [gowlin], a fork, 

Gaeth, gaoth [geu, gwee], the wind, .... 

Gaidhel [gael], a Gael, 

Gaineach, \ , 

Gainmhach [gainhach], / * ' 
Gall, a foreigner ; a standing stone, 

Gallach, a standing stone, 

Gallnach, a foreigner's or stranger's place, 

Gamhdn [gowan], a calf, 

Gar, near, 

Gdradh [gaira], 
Garrdha [gairha], 

Gardn, a wood, 

Garbh, rough, 

Garrdn, a thicket, 

Geal [gal], white, 

Gearr [gar], short, 

Gearrdn, a hack, 

Gile [gilly], whiteness, 

Giok [guilk], a rush, 

Giolcach, rushy, ....... 

Giusach, a fir wood, 

Glac, the palm of the hand, a narrow glen, 

Glaiseachd, verdure, 

Glas, green, 

Glasdn, a fish, pollack-whiting, or lythe ; also, an 
edible seaweed, ...... 

Glasin, a streamlet, 

Glasuaine [glassany], green, 

GUoir [glore], clearness, / 
Gleoirdha [glora], clear, ) 
Gluing, the shoulder, 
Glun, the knee, 

Gobha fgow], ) ., , 

n J.J, r -i I a smlth - 

Goohan [gown], ) 

Gonn, blue, . 



Carrickafliou. 
Wherry Croft. 
Freuch. 
Auchenfranco. 
Barfraggan. 

Inshanks. 

Gabarruning. 
AdderhalL 
Goulan Glen. 
Curghie. 
Galloway. 

Gannoch. 

Dergall. 

Kilgallioch. 

Galdenoch. 

Druuigowan. 

Barwhar. 

Garriefad. 

Glengarren. 

Kinharvie. 

Glengarren. 

Carrickgill. 

Barwhar. 

Glengarren. 

Lagageely. 

Atichengilshie. 

Auchengilshie. 

Loch Goosie. 

Glaik. 

Glassoch. 

Barglass. 

Carrickglassen. 

Airieglassen. 

Airieglassen. 

Loch Glar. 
Gloon. 

Aldergowan. 
Gortnal. 



LIST OF ERSE AND GAELIC WORDS. 335 

Gort, an enclosure, Drumgorth. 

Graigdn, a village, Greggans. 

Grcach, a hill-flat, ....... Irongray. 

Greadadh [graddah], a scorching, .... Graddock. 

Grcallach, dirty, s. clay, ...... Drumgrillie. 

Grean [gran], gravel, ) ~ . -,-, , 

' > Grainy Ford. 

Grean ach, gravelly, ) 

Greusach, a shoemaker, Balgracie. 

Grian [green], the sun, Cairnagreen. 

Grianan [greenan], a castle, ..... Grannan. 

Gruag, long grass, Bargrug. 

Guillin, a man's name, Gillon, .... Craigengillan. 

Iain [eean], a man's name, John, .... Barewing. 

lar [eer], west, Balshere. 

Jarac^eeragh],) egterl .... Blaw Weary. 
larthach, ) 

larn, iron, Gleniron. 

Inbher [inver], the mouth of a stream, . . . Innermessan. 

Inis, an island, Inch. 

lolaire [illery], an eagle, Benyellarie. 

losa [eesa], Jesus, Allaneasy. 

Iseal [eeshal], low, Corvisel. 

Isle [issly], lower, Drummihislie. 

lubhar [yure], yew or juniper, .... Palnure. 

Labhair [lour], to speak, Craiglour. 

^0 1 a hollow, Lag, Laggan. 

Lagan, ) 

Lagh, a hill, Lawglass. 

Lair, a mare, ........ Auchenlarie. 

Laoch [lee], a calf, Ballochalee. 

Lathrach [laaragh], a place, a house-site, . . Larroch. 

Leacdn [lakan], a stony hill-side, .... Lakens. 

Leacht, a grave, Laicht. 

Leamh, hamhdn [lav, louan], an elm, . . . Ringielawn. 

Leamhach [lavagh], an elm wood, . . . Lavich. 

Leamhchoill [lavhwill, luell], an elm wood, . . Barluell. 

Leamhraidhean [lavran, lowran], an elm wood, . Lowran. 

Lcarg [larg, lurg], an eminence, .... Larg. 

Leargaidh [largie, lurgie], a hill-side, . . . Larghie. 

Leathann [lane], broad, Auchlane. 

Lee leac, Hag, a flagstone, a tomb, .... Airielick. 

Lias, a hut, ........ Drumlass. 

Liath [lee], grey, Barlae. 

Lin [leen], flax, Port Leen. 



336 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



Linachan, a flax field, 

Linn, a pool, ..... 

Lis, lios, a fort, 

Lobhar [lour], a leper, an infirm person, 

Loch, a lake, ..... 

Lochdn, a lakelet, .... 

Lochlainn, a man's name, Lachlan, 

Lod, a pool, ..... 

Loddn, a pool, .... 

Lois [losh], fire, .... 

Loisgthe [lusky], burnt, . 

Long, a ship, .... 

Longphort, a harbour, 

Losaid, a kneading-trough, 

Loscain, or losgann, a frog, 

Luachair, a rush, .... 

Luan [loon], a lamb, 

Lub, a loop, a bend, 

Liibach, looped, sinuous, 

Lubhghort [louart], a garden, 

Lughaidh [Lughey], a man's name, 

Lus, a herb, a plant, 



Ma, mo, my, .... 

Machair, ) , . /, ,, 

w JL r i. -i ( a P lam > a field > 
Machaire [maghery], ) 

Machairin [maghereen], a little plain, 

Madadh [maddy], a dog, 

Mad [moil], bald, .... 

Maelan, ) . 

hrj. 7 ( a nian's name, 

Maeleoin, ) 

Maethail [meehill], soft land, . 
Mag, niagh, a plain, 
Manach, a monk, .... 
Manister, a monastery, . 
Mantach, a man's name, . 
Maolan, a beacon, .... 
Mart, an ox, ..... 
Martainn, a man's name, Martin, . 
Meadhon [meunl, middle, 
Meadhonach [meuna.ch], middle, . 
Meadhran [Merran], a man's name, 
Meall, a lump ; a hill, . 
Medran, a man's name, . 
Michel, a man's name, Michael, 
Min [meen], smooth, 



Ochtralinachan . 

Linblane. 

Druirilass. 

Barlure. 

Lochaber. 

Lochanhour. 

Barlauchlinc. 

Lodnagapple. 

Loddanniore. 

Ironlosh. 

Craiglosk. 

Port Long. 

Longfort. 

Losset. 

Darloskin. 

Drumlockhart. 

Drumalone. 

Loopmabinnie. 

Lobbacks. 

Laird mannoch. 

Knockniilauk. 

Auchenlosh. 

Hillmabreedia. 

Machar. 

Macherein. 

Meaul. 
Clint Maelun. 

Mahool. 

May. 

Almanack Hill. 

Auchinmanister. 

Druraawanty. 

Clint Maelun. 

Ardniinort. 

Drummartin. 

Barmain. 

Balminnoch. 

"Kirkmirran. 

Garmeal. 

Kirkmadrine. 

Blairmichael. 

Mean Hill. 



LIST OF ERSE AND GAELIC WORDS. 



337 



Mdin, a mountain, moor, or bog, ... 
M6r, great, ....... 

Muc, a pig, . . . . . . . 

Muclach, a swine pasture, .... 

Muilean [mullan], a mill, .... 

Muine [minnie], a thicket, .... 

Muir, the sea, ...... 

Muirchadh [murghie], a man's name, Murphy, 
Muirchertach, a man's name, Murdoch, . . 
Muire, a woman's name, Mary, ... 
Muireadhach [murragh], a man's name, Murray, 
Mullock, a hill, . . . . . . 

Multim, a hill, . . . . . . 

Murlan, a rough top, 

Niall [Neel], a man's name, Niel, ... 
Nine, a corner, 
Nocht, naked, 

Ochtarach, uachdarach, upper, ... 

Ochtradh [oughtrie], a man's name, Uchtred, . 

Odhar [owr], grey, 

Odhartha [owra], grey, ..... 

Oilean [illan], an island, ..... 

Ore, a pig, 

Ornacht, barley, . ... . . . 

Pddraic, a man's name, Patrick, ... 
Paid in, a form of Patrick, . . . . 

Pairc, a field, ....... 

Peall, a horse, . . . . . 

Petair, a man's name, Peter, 

Phort, a stronghold, 

Poll, a hole, a pool ; water of any kind, . . 

Port, , 

Portdn, } a harbour or landing-place, . . 

Raghnall, Raonull, a man's name, Ronald, . 
Raithne [rannie], fern, "I 

Eaithneach [rannagh], a place of ferns, J 
Rdl, an oak, . . . . . . .* 

Ras, a shrub, . 

Rath [raa], a fort, . . . . ... 

Raihad, rod, a road, ... . . . 

Rathain [rahan], a ferny place, ... 
Reamhar [raver, raer], fat, thick, ... 

Y 



Dalmoney. 

Barmore. 

Clachanamuck. 

Drummuckloch. 

Ballymellan. 

Dalmoney. 

Slochnamorrow. 

Craigmurchie. 

Knockinurdoch. 

Kilmorie. 

Balmurrie. 

Mulloch. 

Mollance. 

Carrickamurlan. 

Auchneel. 
Curate's Neuk. 
Castle Naught. 

Auchnotteroch. 

Kirouchtrie. 

Craigower. 

Barnhourie. 

Allandoo. 

Craiggork. 

Knockharnot. 

Kirkpatrick. 

Kilmacfadzean. 

Park. 

Drumpail. 

Castle Feather. 

Campford. 

Polbae. 

( Portaclearys. 
j partoQ 

Craigronald. 
Rl 

Eingreel. 

Drumrash. 

Wraith. 

Drummieraud. 

Pulran. 

Ringreer. 



338 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



Rtidh [ray], smooth, 

Reidh [ray], a level field, 

Ri, righ [ree], a king, 

Riabhach [reeagh], grey, . . . . 

Riasc [risk], a morass, bog, 

Riascach [riskagh], boggy, . . . 

Riderch, a man's name, Koderick, 

n ' > a point : a division of land, . 
R^nndn, ) 

Rdd, a road, . . . . . 
Ros, a wood ; a promontory, 
R6s, a rose, 

Rosdn, a wood ; a promontory, . 
Ruadh [rooh, roy], red, 
Ruadhdn [roohan], red land, 
Rudha [roo], a point of land, 

Saer [seer], a carpenter, 
Sagart, a priest, 
Sail, a willow, 
Sairach, eastern, 

Salach, dirty, 

Samhadh [savva, sooa], sorrel, . 

Samhan [shavun], the first of November, 

Set, ^ 

Sceach, >a hawthorn, 

Sceath, j 

Sceilig [skellig], a rock, '. 

Sceir, a rock, a scaur, 

Sceirach, rocky, 

Sceirlach, rocky, . . . ... 

Sceithedg [skyoge], a hawthorn bush, 

Sceithin [skeyin, skeen], a bush, . 

Sciath [skey], a shield, a wing, 
Sciathach [skeyach], winged, 

Scoloc, a small farmer, 

Scrath [scraw], a sod, 

Seabhac [shoke], a hawk, 

Sealg [shallug], the chase, 

Seamar, seamrdg [shammer, shamrog], clover, sham- 
rock, 

Sean [shan], old, 

Seangdn [shangan], an ant ; a little fellow, 

Scant [shant], holy, sainted, . . . . . 

Searrach, [sharragh], a foal, 



Auchrae. 

Kephad. 

Auchenree. 

Auchenreocb. 

Kisk. 

Rusco. 

Mossroddock. 

Rhinns. 

Ringan. 

Drummieraud. 



Knockcrosh. 
Rossen Hill. 
Benroach. 
Rouchan. 
Row. 

Drumatier. 

Altaggart. 

Barnsallie. 

Balsarroch. 

Barsalloch. 

Suie. 

Drumawan. 

Scaith. 

Knockskellie. 

Scar. 

Loch Skerrow. 

Dunskirloch. 

Auchenskeog. 
( Skeengally (in 
/ Addenda). 

Dunskey. 

Craigenskulk. 
Barscraith. 
Garnshog. 
Drumshalloch. 

Glenchamber. 

Shambelly. 

Barnshangan. 

Clayshant. 

Barsherrie. 



LIST OF ERSE AND GAELIC WORDS. 



339 



, f , , , 
a place of brambles, 



Seiscinn [sheskin], a marsh, 

Sgaddn, a herring, ... 

Sgexllan [sgallan], wild mustard, 

Sian [sheen], a foxglove, 

Siar [shere], eastern, . 

Sidheain [sheehan], a fairy palace, 

Sindach, ~\ 

Sinnach, > a fox, 

Sionnach [shinnagh], J 

Siosg [shisk], a sedge, . 

Slaod [slade], slaughter, . 

Sleamhdn [slavan, slouan], an elm, 

Sliabh [slew], a hill, . 

Slocdn, \ 

Slochd, > a gulley, . 

Slochin, } 

Smeurack, 

omnunack, 

Solas, light, fire, . 

Sporaidhe [spurrey], spurs, 

Srath [sraw], a plain, . 

Sron, a nose, a headland, 

Sronach, hilly, ..... 

Srdnachan, a hilly place, 

Sruthair [sroor], a stream, 

Staonag [stannag], a sloping place, . 

Stuaic [stook], a stack, a hill, . 

Subh [soo], a berry, .... 

Subhach [sooagh], a place of berries, 

Sudaire [soodery], a tanner, 

Suidhe [see], a seat, . . . . 

Suidhcachin [seehin], a little seat, . 

Tachar, a combat, . . . . 
Talamh [tallow], land, . 
Tamhnach [tawnach], a meadow, 
Tarsuinn, thwart, across, 
Teach, tic/lie, a house, .... 
Tealach, a forge, ..... 
Teanga [tanga], a tongue, a strip of land, 
Teine [tinny], fire, ..... 

T endal > } a bonfire, . . . . 
Tenneal, ) 

Tedrann [torran], a boundary', 

Tess, south, . . . 

Tiar [tear], westward, .... 



Barcheskie. 

Culscadden. 

Drurnscallan. 

Auchensheeu. 

Balshere. 

Auchensheen. 

Auchenshinnoch. 

Dernacissock. 

Barnsladie. 

Craigslouan. 

Slacarnachan. 

Slochanawn. 

Slock. 

Sloucheen Slunk. 

Slewsmirroch. 

Smirle. 

Barnolas. 

Spirry. 

Strammoddie. 

Stroan. 

Stronach. 

Tronachan. 

Strool Bay. 

Stannock. 

Knockstocks. 

Polsuie. 

Polsuie. 

Bentudor. 

Knockensee. 

Sheuchan. 



Tacher Burn. 

Knocktallow. 

Tannieflux. 

Baltersan. 

Drumatye. 

ChaUoch. 

Chang. 

Knockietinnie. 
( Knocktentol. 
( Knockteinan. 

Baltorrens. 

Cairntosh. 

Baltier. 



340 



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 



Tigh, a house, . . . 

Tineol [tinnel], an assembly, . 
Tiobar [tibber], a well, .... 

Tiompdn [timpan], a hillock, . 

Tir, land, ...... 

Tdchar, a causeway, a dowry, . 

Tom, 

Tomach, bushy, 

Tdn, a rump, a backside, 

Tor, a hill, a tower, .... 

Tordn, a hillock, 

Tore, a boar, 

Toruidhe [toree], a hunter ; an outlaw, . 
Traona, tradhnach [trana], a corncrake, . 
Treabh [trave], a farm, . . 
Treamhar [traver], a farm, 
Tiiaimm [toom], a village, a grave, . 
Tuas [toosh], upper, .... 
Tuath [too], north, .... 

Tuathal [tooal], a man's name, Toole, 
Tuatheal [tooal], northern, 

Uabhar [ower], pride, .... 
Uachdar [oughter], upper, 
Uachdarafh [ouohteragh], upper land, 

Uallach, proud, 

Uinnse, uinnseann [inshie, insheon], an ash, 
Uisce [isky], water, ..... 
Ultach, an Ulsterman, .... 

Umha [oo], a cave, 

Urldr, a floor, a flat piece of land, . 



Drumatye. 

Knocktinnel. 

Tibbert. 

Dinchimpon. 

Glaisters. 

Tocher Knowe. 

Tummock Hill. 

Knocktomachie. 

Tandoo. 

Tor. 

Thornglass. 

Mindork. 

Daltorae. 

Drumatrane. 

Threave. 

Terregles. 

Knockiedim. 

Cairntosh. 

Slewentoo. 

Drumtowl. 

Drumtowl. 

Dunower. 

Barneywater. 

Auchtrelure. 

Knockwalloch. 

Inshanks. 

Bennuskie. 

Barnulto. 

Bellew. 

Airlour. 



PRINTED BY T. AND A. CONSTABLE, PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTV, 
AT THE EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY PRESS.